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experiments, which were chiefly intended They who live in the country, on the to determine, whether birds had any innate other hand, do not hear birds fing in their ideas of the notes or song, which is sup- woods for above two months in the year, posed to be peculiar to each species, I fall when the confusion of notes prevents their now make some general observations on attending to the song of any particular their singing : though perhaps the subject bird; nor does he continue long enough in may appear to many a very minute one. a place, for the hearer to recollect his notes

Every poet, indeed, speaks with raptures with accuracy. of the harmony of the groves; yet those

Besides this, birds in the spring sing very even, who have good musical ears, seem loud indeed ; but they only give short to pay little attention to it, but as a pleaf- jerks, and scarcely ever the whole compass ing noise.

of their song. I am also convinced (though it may For these reasons, I have never happenseem rather paradoxica!) that the inhabi. ed to meet with any person, who had not tants of London distinguish more accurate. resided in London, whose judgment or opi. ly, and know more on this head, than of nion on this subject I could the least rely all the other parts of the island taken to- upon; and a stronger proof of this cannot gether.

be given, than that most people, who keep This seems to arise from two causes. Canary birds, do not know that they fing

The first is, that we have not more mu- chiefly either the titlark, or nightingale sical ideas which are innate, than we have notes *. of language; and therefore those even, Nothing, however, can be more marked who have the happiness to have organs than the note of a nightingale called its which are capable of receiving a gratifica- jug, which most of the Canary birds tion from this fixth sense (as it hath been brought from the Tyrol commonly have, called by some) require, however, the best as well as several nightingale itrokes, instruction.

or particular passages in the song of that The orchestra of the opera, which is bird. confined to the metropolis, hath diffused a I mention this fuperior knowledge in the good style of playing over the other bands inhabitants of the capital, because I am of the capital, which is, by degrees, com- convinced, that, if others are consulted in municated to the fidler and ballad-finger relation to the singing of birds, they will in the streets; the organs in every church, only mislead, instead of giving any mateas well as those of the Savoyards, contri- rial or useful information t. bute likewise to this improvement of mu

Birds in a wild state do not commonly fical faculties in the Londoners.

If the singing of the ploughman in the . I once saw two of these birds which came country is therefore compared with that of from the Canary IIands

, neither of which had the London blackguard, the superiority is

any song at all; and I have been informed, that infinitely on the side of the latter; and the

a thip brought a great many of them not long

fince, which tung as little same may be observed in comparing the Most of those Canary birds, which are imported voice of a country girl and London house- from the Tyrol, have been educated by parents, the maid, as it is very uncommon to hear the progenitor of which was inftructed by a nightingale ; former fing tolerably in tune.

our English Canary birds have commonly more of

the titark note. I do not mean by this, to assert that the

The traffic in these birds makes a small article inhabitants of the country are not born of commerce, as four Tyroleze generally bring with as good musical organs; but only, over to England fixteen hundred every year ; and that they have not the same opportunities though they carry them on their backs one thousand of learning from others, who play in tune

miles, as well as pay 201. duty for fuch a number, themselves.

yet, upon the whole, it answers to sell these birds at

5 s. a piece. The other reason for the inhabitants of The chief place for breeding Canary birds is London judging better in relation to the lofpruck and its environs, from whence they are song of birds, arises from their hearing fent to Conftantinople, as well as every part of

Europe. each bird fing diftin&tly, either in their own or their neighbours shops; as also

+ As it will not answer to catch birds with from a bird continuing much longer in clap-nets any where but in the neighbourhood of song whilft in a cage, than when at li. London, most of the birds which may be heard in

a country town are nellings, and consequently berty; the cause of which I shall endea- cannot ling the supposed natural long in any pera vour hereafter to explain.



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fing above ten weeks in the year; which is I know well that the finging of the then also contined to the cocks of a few cock-bird in the spring, is attributed by species; I conceive that this last circum- many to the motive only of pleasing its ftance arifes from the superior strength of mate during incubation. the muscles of the larynx.

They, however, who suppose this, should I procured a cock 'nightingale, a cock recollect, that much the greater part of and hen blackbird, a cock and hen rook, a birds do not fing at all, why should their cock linnet, as aifo a cock and hen chaf- mate therefore be deprived of this folace finch, which that very eminent anatomist, and amusement ? Mr. Hunter, F. R. S, was to obliging as The bird in a cage, which, perhaps, to diffect for me, and bigged, that he fings nine or ten months in a year, canno: would particularly attend to the state of do fo from this inducement; and, on the the organs in the different birds, which contrary, it arises chiefly from contending might be suppoled to contribute to fing- with another bird, or indeed againft almc. ing

any sort of continued noise. Mr. Hunter found the muscles of the Superiority in fong gives to birds a mos larynx to be stronger in the nightingale amazing ascendancy over each other; as is than in any other bird of the same fize; well known to the bird.catchers by the and in all those instances (where he dil fascinating power of their call-birds, whicà sected both cock and hen) that the same they contrive should moult prematurely for muscles were stronger in the cock. this purpose.

I sent the cock and hen rook, in order But, to thew decisively that the fingirg to see whether there would be the same dif- of a bird in the spring does not arise from ference in the cock and hen of a species any attention to its mate, a very expewhich did not fing at all. Mr. Hunter, rienced catcher of nightingales hath ishowever, told me, that he had not attend- formed me, that some of these birds hare ed so much to their comparative organs of jerked the instant they were caught. He voice, as in the other kinds; but that, to hath also brought to me a nightingale

, the best of his recollcetion, there was no which had been but a few hours in a cage, difference at all.

and which burst forth in a roar of song. Strength, however, in these muscles, At the same time this bird is so sulky on seems not to be the only requisite; the its first confinement, that he must be crambirds must have also great plenty of food, med for seven or eight days, as he will which seems to be proved fufficiently by otherwise not feed himself; it is also nebirds in a cage singing the greatest part of cessary to tye his wings, to prevent his the year *, when the wild ones do not (as killing himself againft the top or fides of I observed before) continue in song above the cage. ten weeks.

I believe there is no instance of any The food of singing birds consists of bird's singing which exceeds our blackplants, insects, or feeds, and of the two first bird in size: and possibly this may arise of these there is infinitely the greatest pro- from the difficulty of its concealing itself

, fusion in the spring:

if it called the attention of its enemies, As for feeds, which are to be met with not only by bulk, but by the proportionable only in the autumn, I think they cannot loudness of its notes well find any great quantities of them in a I should rather conceive, it is for the country fo cultivated as England is; for fame reason that no hen-bird fings, because the feeds in meadows are destroyed by this talent would be still more dangerous mowing ; in pastures, by the bite of the during incubation ; which may poffibly cattle; and in arable, by the plough, when also account for the inferiority in point of most of them are buried too deep for the plumage.

Barringtos. bird to reach them t. Fich also which are supplied with a constant

FISH E S, fucceffion of palatable food, continue in season

§ 22. The EEL. throughout the greatest part of the year; trouts, therefore, when confined in a stew and fed with

The ecl is a very fingular fish in several minnows, are almost at all seasons of a good flavour, things that relate to its natural history, and are red when drefled.

+ The plough indeed may turn up some few seeds, * For the fame reason, most large birds are wilder which may ftill be in an eatable ftatc.

than the smaller ones.

and in some respects borders on the nature No filh lives so long out of water as the of the reptile tribe.

eel: it is extremely tenacious of life, as its It is known to quit its element, and parts will move a considerable time after during night to wander along the mea. Ehev are flayed and cut into pieces. dows, not only for change of habitation, The eel is placed by Linnæus in the but also for the sake of prey, feeding on genus of mur ena, his firit of the apodal the snails it finds in its passage.

hth, or such which want the ventral fins. During winter it beds itself deep in the The eyes are placed not remote from mud, and continues in a state of reit like the end of the nole: the irides are tinged the serpent kind. It is very impatient of with red: the under jaw is longer than the cold, and will eagerly take melter in a upper: the teeth are small, sharp, and nuwhisp of straw Aung into a pond in severe merous: beneath each eye is a minute weather, which has sometimes been prac- orifice: at the end of the nose two others, tised as a method of taking them. Al. small and tubular. bertus goes so far as to say, that he has The fith is furnished with a pair of pece known eels to shelter in a hay-rick, yet toral fins, rounded at their ends. Another all perished through excess of cold. narrow fin on the back, uniting with that

It has been oblerved, that in the river of the tail: and the anal fin joins it in Nyne there is a variety of small eel, with the same manner beneath. a leiler head and narrower mouth than the Behind the pectoral fins is the orifice to common kind; that it is found in cluiters the gills, which are concealed in the skin. in the bottom of the river, and is called Eels vary much in their colours, from a the bed-eel; these are sometimes roused sooty hue to a light olive green; and those up by violent floods, and are never found which are called filver eels, have their at that time with meat in their stomacbs. bellies white, and a remarkable clearnels This bears such an analogy with the cluf- throughout. tering of blindworms in their quiescent Besides these, there is another variety ftate, that we cannot but consider it as a of this filh, known in the Thames by the further proof of a partial agreement in the name of grigs, and about Oxford by that nature of the two genera.

of grigs or gluts. These are scarce ever The ancients adopted a most wild opi- feen near Oxford in the winter, but appear nion about the generation of these fiih, in spring, and bite readily at the hook, which believing them to be either created from common eels in that neighbourhood will the mud, or that the scrapings of their not. They have a larger head, a blunter bodies which they left on the itones were nose, thicker skin, and less fat than the animated and became young eels. Some common sort; neither are they so much moderns gave into these opinions, and into etteemed, nor do they often exceed three others that were equally extravagant. They or four pounds in weight. could not account for the appearance of Common eels grow to a large size, these fiin in ponds that never were stocked sometimes so great as to weigh fifteen or with them, and that were even so remote twenty pounds, but that is extremely rare. as to make their being met with in such Asto initances brought by Dale and others, places a phænomenon that they could not of these fith increasing to a superior mag, folve. But there is much reason to be- nitude, we have much reason to suspect lieve, that many waters are supplied with them to have been congers, since the enorthese fish by the aquatic fowl of prey, in mous fish they descsibe have all been taken the same manner as vegetation is spread at the mouths of the Thames or Medby many of the land.birds, either by be. way. ing dropped as they carry them to feed The eel is the most universal of fish, yet their young, or by pafling quick through is scarce ever found in the Danube, though their bodies, as is the case with herons; it is very common in the lakes and rivers and such may be the occasion of the ap- of Upper Austria. pearance of these fish in places where they The Romans held this fish very cheap, were never seen before. As to their im- probably from its likeness to a snake. mediate generation, it has been sufficiently proved to be effected in the ordinary courle Vos anguilla manet longæ cogata colubræ, of nature, and that they are viviparous.

Vernula riparum pinguis torrente cloaca.

Juvenal, Sat. Vi They are extremely voracious, and very defructive to the fry of hfh.

For you is kept a link-fed snake-like cela


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On the contrary, the luxurious Sybarites ing downwards: the belly is white, tinged were so fond of theie fith, as to exempt with red: the ventral fins of a rich scare from

every kind of tribute the persons who let; the anal fins and tail of the same cofold them.

lour, but rather paler.

In a lake called Llyn Raithlyn, in Me. § 23. The Perch.

rionethshire, is a very singular variety of The perch of Aristotle and Ausonius is perch: the back is quite hunched, and the the same with that of the moderns. That lower part of the back-bone, next the tail, mentioned by Oppian, Pliny, and Athe- strangely distorted : in colour, and in other næus, is a fea-fish, probably of the Labrus respects, it resembles the common kind, or Sparus kind, being enumerated by them which are as numerous in the lake as these among some congenerous species. Our deformed fish. They are not peculiar to perch was much eleemed by the Romans: this water; for Linnæus takes notice of a Nec te delicias mensarum Perca, Glebo

similar variety found at Fahlun, in his own Amnigenos inter pisces dignande marinis. country. I have also heard that it is to be

AUSONIUS. met with in the Thames near Marlow. It is not less admired at present as a

§ 24. The Trout. firm and delicate fish ; and the Dutch are

It is a matter of surprise that this common particularly fond of it when made into a

fish has escaped the notice of all the andith called water fouchy. It is a gregarious fish, and loves deep that so delicate a species should be nego

cients, except Ausonius : it is also fingular, holes and gentle itreams. It is a most vo

lected at a time when the folly of the taracious fith, and eager biter : if the angler ble was at its height; and that the epimeets with a shoal of them, he is sure of cures should overlook a fish that is found making every one. It is a common notion that the pike will neighbourhood, when they ransacked the

in such quantities in the lakes of their not attack this filh, being fearful of the universe for dainties. The milts of mu spiny fins which the perch erects on the

rana were brought from one place; the approach of the former. This may be livers of jcari from another *; and oy fters true in respect to large fish; but it is well

even from so remote a ipot as our Sandknown the small ones are the most tempt wicht: but there was, and is a fashion in ing bait that can be laid for the pike.

the article of good living. The Romans The perch is a fish very tenacious of

seem to have despised the trout,

the piper, life: we have known them carried near

and the doree; and we believe Mr. Quin fixty miles in dry ftraw, and yet survive himself wou'd have resigned the rich paps the journey.

of a pregnant low 1, the heels of camels s, These ülh seldom grow to a large size:

and ine tongues of flamingos ll, though we once heard of one that was taken in

drefied by Ileliogabalus's cooks, for a good the Serpentine river, Hyde Park, that jowl of salmon with lobfter-sauce. weighed ninc pounds; but that is very

When Ausonius speaks of this filh, he uncommon. The body is deep: the scales very rough: Icbrates it only for its beauty.

makes no eulogy on its goodness, but cethe back much arched : fide-line near the back.

Purpureifque SALAR stellatus tergore gutiis. The irides golden: the teeth small, difpored on the jaws and on the roof of the With p. pie spets the SALAR's back is ftain'd. mouth: the edges of the covers of the gills ferrated : on the lower end of the intended : vhat he meant by his fario is

These marks point out the species he largest is a sharp spine. The first dorsal fin consists of fourteen

not so easy to determine: whether any strong spiny rays; the second of fixteen species of trout, of a fize between the faler Toft ones: the pectoral fins are transparent, self

, at a certain age, is not very evident.

and the salmon; or whether the salmon it. and consist of fourteen rays; the ventral of fix; the anal of eleven. The tail is a little forked.

Suetonius, vita Vitellii. The colours are beautiful : the back and † Juvenal. Sat IV. 141.

i Martial. Lib. XIII. Epig. 44. part of the sides being of a deep green,

Lampriere, Vit. Heliogab. marked with five broad black bars point; | Martial, Lib. XI. Epig. 71.

Teque ter.

Teque inter geminos species, neutrumque et These stomachs are fometimes served up utrumque,

to table, under the former appellation. It Qui nec dun Salmo, nec Salar ambiguufque does not appear to me, that the extraordi- . Amborum medio Fario intercepte sub ævo.

nary strength of stomach in the Irilh fish, Salmon or SALAR, I'll pronounce thee nci- should give any suspicion that it is a diso ther ;

tinct species : the nature of the waters A doubtful kind, that may be none, or either.

might increase the thickness; or the supeFAR10, when itopt in middle growth.

rior quantity of shell-fith, which may more In fact, the colours of the trout, and its frequently call for the use of its comminutspots, vary greatly in different waters, and ing powers than those of our trouts, might in different leasons : yet each may be re

occafion this difference. I had opportuduced to one species. In Llyndivi, a lake nity of comparing the stomach of a great in South Wales, are trouts called coch y Gillarco trout, with a large one from the dail, marked with red and black spots as Uxbridge river. The lait, if I recollect, big as fixpences; others unspotted, and of was smaller, and out of season; and its stoa reddith hue, that sometimes weigh near mach (notwithstanding it was very thick) ten pounds, but are bad tasted.

was much inferior in strength to that of In Lough Neagh, in Ireland, are trouts the former : but on the whole, there was called there bud aghs, which I was told not the least specific difference between the fometimes weighed thirty pounds; but it two subjects was not my fortune to see any during my Trouts are most voracious fish, and kay in the neighbourhood of that valt wa- afford excellent diversion to the angler :

the paffion for the sport of angling is Trouts (probably of the same species) so great in the neighbourhood of Lonare also taken in Hulse-water, a lake in don, that the liberty of fishing in some of Cumberland, of a much fuperior size to the streams in the adjacent counties, is pure those of Lough Neagh. These are sup- chased at the rate of ten pounds per anposed to be the same with the trout of the num, lake of Geneva, a filh I have eaten more These fish shift their quarters to spawn, than once, and think but a very indifferent and, like salmon, make up towards the

heads of rivers to deposit their roes. The In the river Eynion, not far from Ma- under jaw of the trout is subject, at certain chyntle:h, in Merionethshire, and in one times, to the same curvature as that of the of the Snowdon lakes, are found a variety salmon. of trout, which are naturally deformed, A trout taken in Llynallet, in Denbighhaving a strange crookedness near the tail, fire, which is famous for an excellent kind, resembling that of the perch before de- measured seventeen inches, its depth three scribed. We dwell the less on these mon- and three quarters, its weight one pound Atrous productions, as our friend, the Hon. ten ounces: the head thick; the nose rather Daines Barrington, has already given an sharp; the upper jaw a little longer than account of them in an ingenious disserta- the lower; both jaws, as well as the head, tion on some of the Cambrian fith, pub- were of a pale brown, blotched with black: lithed in the Philosophical Transactions of the teeth tharp and strong: disposed in the the year 1767

jaws, roof of the mouth and congue, as is The stomachs of the common trouts are the case with the whole genus, except the uncommonly thick and muscular. They gwyniad, which is toothless, and the grayfeed on the shell-fifth of lakes and rivers, ling, which has none on its tongue. as well as on small fish. They likewise take

The back was dulky; the sides tinged into their ftomachs gravel, or (mall stones, with a purplish bloom, marked with deep to afiiit in comminuting the testaceous purple ipots, mixed with black, above and parts of their food. The trouts of certain below the side line which was strait: the lakes in Ireland, such as those of the pro- belly white. vince of Galway, and some others, are re- The dorsal fin was spotted; the fpumarkable for the great thickness of their rious fin brown, tipped with red; the pecttomachs, which, from some slight resem- toral, ventral, and anal fins, of a pale blance to the organs of digestion in birds, brown; the edges of the anal fin white : the have been called gizzards: the Irish name tail very little forked when extended. the species that has them, Gillaroo trouts.

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