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The lateral line is of a golden colour: reason of the cruel policy of that country, the back flat, and of a deep olive : the are extremely limited. sides and belly vary greatly in different In form of the body they bear a great fih; in a few are of a rich crimson, in resemblance to a carp. They have been others bluish, in others white. The tail is known in this island to arrive at the length forked, and marked near the base with a of eight inches; in their native place they dusky spot.

are said * to grow to the size of our largelt

herring § 38. The Gold Fish.

The nostrils are tubular, and form a sort These filh are now quite naturalized in of appendage above the nose: the dorsal this country, and breed as freely in the fin and the tail vary greatly in shape: the open waters as the common carp. tail is naturally bifid, but in many is cri

They were first introduced into England fid, and in some even quadrifid: the anal about the year 1691, but were not gene- fins are the strongest characters of this sperally known till 1728, when a great num- cies, being placed not behind one another ber were broaght over, and presented for it like those of other filh, but opposite each to Sir Mathew Dekker, and by him circu. Other like the ventral fins. lated round the neighbourhood of London, The colours vary greatly; some are from whence they have been distributed to marked with a fine blue, with brown, with most parts of the country.

bright silver; but the general predominant In China the most beautiful kinds are colour is gold, of a most amazing splentaken in a small lake in the province of dor; but their colour and form need not Che-Kyang. Every person of fashion keeps be dwelt on, since those who want opporthem for amusement, either in porcelaine tunity of seeing the living fish, may survey vessels, or in the small basons that decorate them expressed in the moit animated manthe courts of the Chinese houses. The ner, in the works of our ingenious and beauty of their colours and their lively honest friend Mr. George Edwards. motions give great entertainment, espe

Pennant. çially to the ladies, whose pleasures, by

• Du Halde, 316.

A New CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE of Remarkable Events,

Discoveries, and Inventions :

Also, the Æra, the Country, and Writings of Learned Men.

The whole comprehending, in one View, the Analysis or Outlines of General History from the

Creative to the present Time.


Before Chrift. 4004

THE creation of the world, and Adam and Eve. 4003 The birth of Cain, the first who was born of a woman. 3017 Enoch, for his piety, is translated into Heaven. 2348 The old world is destroyed by a deluge which continued 377 days. 2247 The tower of Babel is built about this time by Noah's posterity, upon which God

miraculously confounds their language, and thus disperses them into different

nations. About the same time Noah is, with great probability, supposed to have parted

from his rebellious offspring, and to have led a colony of some of the more tractable into the East, and there either he or one of his successors to have founded the ancient Chinese monarchy,

2234 The

2234 The celestial observations are begun at Babylon, the city which furft gave birth to

learning and the sciences. 2188 Misraim, the son of Ham, founds the kingdom of Egypt, which lasted 1663 years,

down to the conqueft of Cambyses, in 525 before Chrift. 2059 Ninus, the son of Belus, founds the kingdom of Affyria, which lasted above 1000

years, and out of its ruins were formed the Assyrians of Babylon, those of Ni

neveh, and the kingdom of the Medes. 1921 The covenant of God made with Abram, when he leaves Haran to go into Canaan,

which begins the 430 years of sojourning. 1897 The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed for their wickedness, by fire

from Heaven. 1856 The kingdom of Argos, in Greece, begins under Inachus, 1822 Memnon, the Egyptian, invents the letters. 1715 Prometheus first ftruck fire from flints. 1035 Joseph dies in Egypt, which concludes the book of Genesis, containing a period

of 2369 years. 1574 Aaron born in Egypt: 1490, appointed by God first high-priest of the Israelites, 1571 Mofes, brother to Aaron, born in Egypt, and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, who

educates him in all the learning of the Egyptians. 1556 Cecrops brings a colony of Saites from Egypt into Attica, and begins the king

dom of Athens, in Greece. 1546 Scamander comes from Crete into Phrygia, and begins the kingdom of Troy. 1493 Cadmus carried the Phænician letters into Greece, and built the citadel of Thebes. 1491 Moses performs a number of miracles in Egypt, and departs from that kingdom,

together with 600,000 Ifraelites, besides children; which completed the 430 years of sojourning. They miraculously pass through the Red Sea, and come to the desert of Sinai, where Mofes receives from God, and delivers to the people, the Ten Commandments, and the other laws, and sets up the tabernacle,

and in it the Ark of the covenant. 1485 The firit ship that appeared in Greece was brought from Egypt by Danaus, who

arrived at Rhodes, and brought with him his fifty daughters. 1453 The first Olympic games celebrated at Olympia, in Greece. 1452 The Pentateuch, or five first books of Moses, are written in the land of Moab,

where he died the year following, aged 110. 1451 The lsraelites, after sojourning in the wilderness forty years, are led under Jofhua

into the land of Canaan, where they fix themselves, after having subdued the

natives; and the period of the fabbatical year commences. 1406 Iron is found in Greece from the accidental burning of the woods. 1198 Ti.e rape of Helen by Paris, which. in 1193, gave rise to the Trojan war, and

fiege of Troy by the Greeks, which continued ten years, when that city was

taken and burnt. 1048 David is fole king of Ifrael. 1004 The Temple is folemnly dedicated by Solomon. 896 Elijah, the prophet, is translated to Heaven. 894 Money first made of gold and silver at Argos. 869 The city of Carthage, in Africa, founded by queen Dido. 824 The kingdom of Macedon begins. 753 Æra of the building of Rome in Italy by Romulus, first king of the Romans, 720 Samaria taken, after three years siege, and the kingdom of Israel finished, by Sal.

manafar, king of Affyria, who carries the ten tribes into captivity.

The first eclipse of the moon on record. 658 Byzantium (now Conftantinople) built by a colony of Athenians, 604 By order of Necho, kirg of Egypt, fome Phænicians failed from the Red Sea

round Africa, and returned by the Mediterranean. 600 Thales, of Miletus, travels into Egypt, consults the priests of Memphis, acquires

the knowledge of geometry, astronomy, and philosophy; returns to Greece, calculates eclipses, gives general notions of the universe, and maintains that one Supreme Intelligence regulates all its motions,

600 Maps,

600 Maps, globes, and the signs of the Zodiac, invented by Anaximander, the scholar

of Thales. 597 Jehoiakin, king of Judah, is carried away captive, by Nebuchadnezzar, to Ba

bylon. 587 The city of Jerusalem taken, after a siege of 18 months. 562 The first comedy at Athens acted upon a moveable scaffold. 559 Cyrus the first king of Persia. 538 The kingdom of Babylon finished; that city being taken by Cyrus, who, in 536,

issues an ediet for the return of the Jews. 534 The first tragedy was acted at Athens, on a waggon, by Thespis. 526 Learning is greatly encouraged at Athens, and a public library first founded. 515 The second Temple at Jerusalem is finished under Darius. 509 Tarquin the seventh and last king of the Romans, is expelled, and Rome is

verned by two consuls, and other republican magistrates, till the battle of Phar

salia, being a space of 461 years. 504 Sardis taken and burnt by the Athenians, which gave occasion to the Persian inva

fion of Greece. 486 Æschylus, the Greek poet, first gains the prize of tragedy. 481 Xerxes the Great, king of Persia, begins his expedition against Greece. 458 Ezra is sent from Babylon to Jerusalem, with the captive Jews, and the vessels of

gold and silver, &c. being leventy weeks of years, or 490 years before the cru

cifixion of our Saviour. 454 The Romans send to Athens for Solon's laws. 451 The Decemvirs created at Rome, and the laws of the twelve cables compiled and

ratified. 430 The history of the Old Testament finishes about this time.

Malachi the last of the prophets. 400 Socrates, the founder of moral philosophy among the Greeks, believes the immor

tality of the soul, and a state of rewards and punishments, for which, and other sublime doctrines, he is put to death by the Athenians, who soon after repent,

and erect to his memory a statue of brass. 331 Alexander the Great, king of Macedon, conquers Darius king of Persia, and other

nations of Asia. 323, Dies at Babylon, and his empire is divided by his gene

rals into four kingdoms. 285 Dionysius, of Alexandria, began his astronomical æra on Monday, June 26, being

the first who found the exact solar year to consist of 365 Days, 5 hours, and 49

minutes. 284 Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. employs seventy-two interpreters to tranf

late the Old Testament into the Greek language, which is called the Sep

tuagint. 269 The first coining of silver at Rome. 264 The first Punic war begins, and continues 23 years. The chronology of the Arun.

delian marbles composed. 260 The Romans first concern themselves in naval affairs, and defeat the Carthaginians 237 Hamilcar, the Carthaginian, causes his son Hannibal, at nine years old, to swear

eternal enmity to the Romans. 218 The second Punic war begins, and continues 17 years. Hannibal paffers the Alps,

and defeats the Romans in several battles; but, being amused by his women, does

not improve his victories by the storming of Rome. 190 The first Roman army enters Asia, and from the spoils of Antiochus brings the

Asiatic luxury first to Rome. 168 Perseus defeated by the Romans, which ends the Macedonian kingdom. 167 The first library erected at Rome, of books brought from Macedonia. 163 The government of Judea under the Maccabees begins, and continues 126 years. 146 Carthage, the rival to Rome, is razed to the ground by the Romans. 135 The history of the Apocrypha ends. 52 Julius Cæfar makes his first expedition into Britain.

at sea.


47 The battle of Pharsalia between Cæsar and Pompey, in which the latter is de

feated. The Alexandrian library, consisting of 400,000 valuable books, burnt by accidents 45 The war of Africa, in which Cato kills himself.

The solar year introduced by Cæsar. 44 Cæsar, the greateft of the Roman conquerors, after having fought fifty pitched

battles, and liain 1,192,000 men, and overturned the liberties of his country,

is killed in the senate-house, 35 The battle of Actium fought, in which Mark Antony and Cleopatra are totally

defeated by Octavius, nephew to Julius Cæsar. 30 Alexandria, in Egypt, is taken by O&tavius, upon which Antony and Cleopatra

put themselves to death, and Egypt is reduced to a Roman province. 27 OEtavius, by a decree of the senate, obtains the title of Augustus Cæsar, and an ab

solute exemption from the laws, and is properly the firft Roman emperor. 8 Rome at this time is fifty miles in circumference, and contains 463,000 men fit to

bear arms. The temple of Janus is shut by Augustus as an emblem of universal peace, and

JESUS CHRIST is born on Monday, December 25. A. C.

disputes with the doctors in the Temple; 27

is baptized in the Wilderness by John; 33

is crucified on Friday, April 3, at 3 o'clock P. M. His Resurrection on Sunday, April 5 : his Afcenfion, Thursday, May 1436 St. Paul converted. 39 St. Matthew writes his Gospel.

Pontius Pilate kills himself. 40 The name of Christians first given at Antioch to the followers of Chrift. 43 Claudius Cæsar's expedition into Britain. 44 St. Mark writes his Gospel. 49 London is founded by the Romans ; 368, surrounded by ditto with a wall, some

parts of which are till observable. 51 Caractacus, the British king, is carried in chains to Rome. 52 The council of the Apostles at Jerusalem. 55 St. Luke writes his Gospel. 59 The emperor Nero puts his mother and brothers to death.

-- persecutes the Druids in Britain. 61 Boadicea, the British queen, defeats the Romans; but is conquered foon after

by Suetonius, governor of Britain. 62. St. Paul iş fent in bonds to Rome-writes his Epifles between 51 and 66. 63 The Aft's of the Apostles written. Christianity, is fupposed to be introduced into Britain by St. Paul, or some of his

disciples, about this time. 64 Rome fet on fire, and burned for fix days; upon which began (under Nero) the

firit perseution against the Christians. 67 St. Peter and St. Paul put to death. 70 Whilst the factious Jews are destroying one another with mutual fury, Titus, the

Roman general, takes Jerusalem, which is razed to the ground, and the plough

made to pass over it. 83 The philosophers expelled Rome by Domitian. 85 Julius Agricola, governor of South Britain, to protect the civilized Britons from

the incursions of the Caledonians, builds a line of forts between the rivers Forth and Clyde; defeats the Caledonians under Galgacus on the Grampian hills; and

firft fails round Britain, which he discovers to be an island. 96 St. John the Evangelift wrote his Revelation-his Gospel in 97. 121 The Caledonians reconquer from the Romans all the southern parts of Scotland;

upon which the emperor Adrian builds a wall between Newcastle and Carlisle; but this also proving ineffetual, Pollius Urbicus, the Roman general, about the

year 144, repairs Agricola's forts, which he joins by a wall four yards thick. 135 The fecond Jewish war ends, when they were all banished Jadæa.

139 Julia

139 Justin writes his first Apology for the Christians. 141 A number of heresies appear about this tine. 152 The emperor Antoninus Pius stops the persecution against the Christians. 217 The Septuagint said to be found in a cak. 222 About this cime the Roman empire begins to fiak under its own weight. The

Barbarians begin their irruptions, and the Goths have annual tribute not to mo

lelt the empire. 250 Valerius is taken prisoner by Sapor, king of Perfia, and Aayed alive, 274 Silk first brought from India: the manufactory of it introduced into Europe by some

monks, 551: first worn by the clergy in England, 1534, 29! Two emperors, and two Cælars, march to defend the four quarters of the empire. 306 Conftantine the Great bugins his reigr.. 308 Cardinals first began. 313 The tenth persecution ends by an edi&t of Constantine, who favours the Christians,

and gives full liberty to their religion 314 Three bishops, or fathers, are sent from Britain to alift at the council of Arles. 325 The first general council at Nice, when 318 fathers attended, againit Arius, where

was composed the famous Nicens Creed, which we attribute to them. 328 Consantine reinoves the lat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, which is thence

forwards called Conftantinople. 331

orders all the heathen temples to be destroyed. 363 The Roman emperor Julian, surnamed the Apottate, endeavours in vain to rebuild

the temple of Jerufalem. 36+ The Roman empire is divided into the eastern (Conftantinople the capital) and

weltern (of which Rome continued to be the capital) each being now under the

government of different emperors. 400 Bells invenied by bithop Paulinus, of Campagnia. 404 The kingdom of Caledonia, or Scotland, revives under Fergus. 405 The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi, spread into France and Spain, by a concellion of

Honorius, emperor of the Welt. 410 Rome taken and plundered by Mlaric, king of the Visi-Goths. 412 The Vandals begin their kingdom in Spain. 420 The kingdom of France begins apon the Lower Rhine, under Pharamond. 426 The Romans, reduced to extremities at home, withdraw their troops from Britain,

and never return; adviling the Britons to arm in their own defence, and trust to

their own valour. *46 The Britons, now left to themselves, are greatly harassed by the Scots and Piets,

upon which they once more make their complaint to the Romans, but receive no

aitillance from that quarter. 447 Attila (iurnamed the Scourge of God) with his Huns, ravages the Roman empire. 449 Vortigern, king of the Britons, invites the Saxons into Britain, againit the Scots

and Pifts. 455 The Saxons having repulsed the Scots and Piets, invite over more of their coun

trymen, and begin to establish themselves in Kent, under Hengitt. 476 The westen empire is finished, 523 years after the battle of Pharsalia ; upon the

ruins of which several new itates arise in Italy and other parts, consisting of Goths, Vandals, Huns, and other Barbarians, under whom literature is exting

guilhed, and the works of the learned are destroyed. 496 Clovis, king of France, baptized, and Christianity begins in that kingdom. 508 Prince Arthur begins his reign over the Britons. 513 Constantinople besieged by Vitalianus, whose feet is burned by a speculum of

brass. 516 The computing of time by the Christian æra is introduced by Dionyfius the monk. 529 The code of Juftinian, the eastern emperor, is published. 557 A terrible plague all over Europe, Asia, and Africa, which continues near 50

years. 581 Latin ceased to be spoken about this time in Italy. 596 Augustine the monk comes into England with forty monks.

606 Here

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