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606 Here begins the power of the popes, by the concessions of Phocas, emperor of the

east. 622 Mahomet, the false prophet, flies from Mecca to Medina, in Arabia, in the 44th

year of his age, and ioth of his ministry, when he laid the foundation of the Saracen empire, and from whom the Mahometan princes to this day claim their descent. His followers compute their time from this æra, which in Arabic is

called Hegira, i. e. the Flight. 637 Jerusalem is taken by the Saracens, or followers of Mahomet. 640 Alexandria in Egypt is taken by ditto, and the grand library there burnt by order

of Omar their caliph or prince. 653 The Saracens now extend their conquests on every side, and retaliate the barba

rities of the Goths and Vandals upon their posterity. 664 Glass invented in England by Benalt, a monk. 685 The Britons, after a brave itruggle of near 150 years, are totally expelled by the

Saxons, and driven into Wales and Cornwall. 713 The Saracens conquer Spain. 726 The controversy about images begins, and occafions many infurre&tions in the

eastern empire. 748 The computing of years from the birth of Christ began to be used in history. 349 The race of Abbas became caliphs of the Saracens, and encourage learning, 762 The city of Bagdad upon the Tigris is made the capital for the caliphs of the

house of Abbas. 800 Charlemagne, king of France, begins the empire of Germany, afterwards called

the western empire; gives the present names to the winds and months ; endeavours to restore learning in Europe; but mankind are not yet disposed for it,

being solely engrofied in military enterprizes. 826 Harold, king of Denmark, dethroned by his fubjects, for being a Christian. 828 Egbert, king of Wessex, unites the Heptarchy, by the name of England. 836 The Flemings trade to Scotland for fish. 838 The Scots and Picts have a decisive battle, in which the former prevail, and both

kingdoms are united by Kenneth, which begins the second period of the Scot

tish history. 867 The Danes begin their ravages in England. 896 Alfred the Great, after subduing the Danish invaders (against whom he fought

56 battles by sea and land), composes his body of laws; divides England into counties, hundreds, and tythings; eredis county courts, and founds the univer

sity of Oxford about this time. 915 The university of Cambridge founded. 936 'The Saracen empire is divided by usurpation into seven kingdoms. 975 Pope Boniface VII. is deposed and banished for his crimes. 979 Coronation oaths said to be first used in England. 991 The figures in arithmetic are brought into Europe by the Saracens from Arabia.

Letters of the alphabet were hitherto used. 996 Otho III. makes the empire of Germany elective. 999 Boleslaus, the first king of Poland. 1000 Paper made of cotton rags was in use; that of linen rags in 1170: the manufac

tory introduced into England at Dartford, 1588. 1005 All the old churches are rebuilt about this time in a new manner of architecture. 1015 Children forbidden by law to be sold by their parents in England. 1017 Canute, king of Denmark, gets possession of England. 1040 The Danes, after several engagements with various success, are about this time

driven out of Scotland, and never again return in a hostile manner. 1041 The Saxon line restored under Edward the Confessor. 1043 The Turks (a nation of adventurers from Tartary, serving hitherto in the armies

of contending princes) become formidable, and take poffeffion of Perfia. 1054 Leo IX. the first pope that kept up an army. 1057 Malcolm III. king of Scotland, kills the tyrant Macbeth at Dunsinane, and ma•

ries the princess Margaret, fister to Edgar Atheling. 1065 The Turks take Jerusalem from the Saracens.

1066 The


1066 The battle of Hastings fought between Harold and William (surnamed the bas

tard) duke of Normandy, in which Harold is conquered and Nain, after which

William becomes king of England. 1070 William introduces the feudal law.

Musical notes invented. 1075 Henry IV. emperor of Germany and the pope quarrel about the nomination of

the German bishops. Henry in penance walks barefooted to the pope, to

wards the end of January. 1076 Justices of peace firit appcinted in England. 1080 Doomslay-book began to be compiled by order of William, from a survey of all

the efites in England, and finished in 1086. The Tower of London built by ditto, to curb his English subjects, numbers of

whom fly to Scotland, where they introduce the Saxon or English language,

are protected by Malcolm, and nave lands given them. 1091 The Saracens in Spain, being hard prefied by the Spaniards, call to their assistance

Jofeph, king of Morocco; by which the doors get poffeffion of all the Saracen

dominions in Spain, 1096 The first crusade to the Holy Land is begun under several Chriftian princes, to

drive the infidels from Jerusalem. 110 Edgar Atheling, the last of the Saxon princes, dies in England, where he had been

permitted to reside as a subject. 1118 The order of the Knights Tempiars infituted, to defend the Sepulchre at Jerusa

lem, and to protect Chriftian itrangers. 1151 The canon law collected by Gratian, a monk of Bologna. 1163 Lonlon bridge, contitting of 19 small arches, first built of stone. 1164 The Teutonic order of religious knights begins in Germany. 1172 Henry 11. king of England (and firit of the Plantagenets) takes possession of Ire

land; which, from that period, has been governed by an English viceroy,

lord-lieutenant. 1176 England is divided by Henry into fix circuits, and justice is dispensed by itine

rant judges. 1180 Glass windows began to be used in private houses in England. 1181 The laws of England are dige!ted about this ime by Glanville. 1182 Pope Alexander 111. compelled the kirgs of England and France to hold the stir

rups of his faddle when he mounted lis horie. 1186 The great conjurgion of the sun and moon, and all the planets in Libra, hap

pened in September. 1192. The battle of Ascalon, in Judæa, in which Richard, king of England, defeats Sa

ladine's army, confisting of 300,000 combatanits. 1194 Dieu et mon D firft ufed as a motto by Richard, on a victory over the French. 1200 Chimnies were not known in England.

Surnames now began to be used; firi, among the nobility. 1208 London incorporated, and obtained their first cater, for electing their Lord

Mayor and other magiftrates, from king John. 1215 Magna Charta is figned by King John and the barons of England.

Court of Common Pleas establiihed. 1227 The Tartars, a new race of heroes, under Gingis-kan, emerge from the northern

parts of Asia, over-sun all the Saracen empire, and, in imitation of former con

querors, carry death and defolation wherever they march. 1233 The Inquisition, begun in 1204, is now truled to the Dominicaas.

The houses of London, and other cities in Lngland, France, and Germany, till

thatched with straw. 1253 The famous astronomical tables are composed by Alonzo, king of Castile. 1258 The Tartars take Bagdad, which finishes the empire of the Saracens. 1263 Acho, king of Norway, invades Scotland with 160 fail, and lands 20,000 men at

the mouth of the Clyde, who are cut to pieces by Alexander III. who recovers

the western isles. 1264 According to some writers, the commons of England were no: summoned to parliament till this period,

1269 The

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1269 The Hamburgh company incorporated in England, 1273 The empire of the present Austrian family begins in Germany. 1282 Llewellyn, prince of Wales, defeated and killed by Edward I. who unites that

principality to England. 1284 Edward II. born at Caernarvon, is the first prince of Wales. 1285 Alexander III. king of Scotland, dies, and that kingdom is disputed by twelve

candidates, who submit their claims to the arbitration of Edward, king of Eng. land; which lays the foundation of a long and defolating war between both

nations. 1293 There is a regular succession of English parliaments from this year, being the

22d of Edward I.
1298 The present Turkish empire begins in Bythynia under Ottoman.

Silver-hafted knives, spoons, and cups, a great luxury.
Tallow candles so great a luxury, that splinters of wood were used for lights,

Wine fold by apothecaries as a cordial. 1302 The mariner's compass invented, or improved, by Givia, of Naples. 1307 The beginning of the Swiss cantons. 1308 The popes remove to Avignon, in France, for 70 years. 1310 Lincoln's Inn society established. 1314 The battle of Bannockburn, between Edward II. and Robert Bruce, which efta

blishes the latter on the throne of Scotland. The cardinals set fire to the conclave, and separate. A vacancy in the papal chair

for two years. 1320 Gold first coined in Christendom ; 1344, ditto in England. 1336 Two Brabant weavers settle at York, which, says Edward III. may prove of great

benefit to us and our subjects. 1337 The first comet whose course is described with an astronomical exa&tness. 1340 Gunpowder and guns frit invented by Swartz, a monk of Cologn; 1346, Ed

ward III. had four pieces of cannon, which contributed to gain him the battle

of Creffy; 1346, bombs and mortars were invented, Oil-painting firit made use of by John Vaneck.

Heralds college instituted in England. 1344 The first creation to titles by patents used by Edward III. 1346 The battle of Durham, in which David, king of Scots, is taken prisoner: 1349 The order of the Garter instituted in England by Edward III. altered in 15570

and confifts of 26 knights. 1352 The Turks first enter Europe. 1354 The money in Scotland till n iw the same as in England. 1356 The battle of Poitiers, in which king John of France, and his son, are taken

prisoners by Edward the Black Prince. 1357 Coals first brought to London. 1358 Arms of England and France first quartered by Edward III. 1362 The law pleadings in England changed from French to English, as a favour of

Edward Ill. to his people.
John Wickliffe, an Englishman, begins about this time to oppose the errors of the

church of Rome with great acuteness and spirit. His followers are called

Lollards. 1386 A company of linen-weavers, from the Netherlands, established in London.

Windsor Castle built by Edward III. 1389 The battle of Otterburn, between Hotspar and the earl of Douglas. 1391 Cards invented in France for the king's amusement. 1399 Westminter abbey built and enlarged-Westminster hall ditto.

Order of the Bath inftituted at the coronation of Henry IV; renewed in 1725,

confifting of 38 knights. 1410 Guildhall, London, built. 1411 The university of St. Andrew's in Scotland founded. 1415 The battle of Agincourt gained over the French by Henry V. of England. 1428 The siege of Orleans, the first blow to the English power in France. 3430 About this time Laurentius of Harleim invented the art of printing, which he


practised with separate wooden types. Guttemburgh afterwards invented cut metal types : but the art was carried to perfection by Peter Schoeffer, who invented the inode of casting the types in inatrices. Frederick Corsellis began to print at Oxford, in 1468, with wooden types; but it was William Caxton

who introduced into England the art of printing with fufile types, in 1474. 1446 The Vatican library founded at Rome.

The sea breaks in at Dort, in Holland, and drowns 100.000 people. 1453 Constantinople taken by the Turks, which ends ihe eaitern empire, 1123 years

from its dedication by Constantine the Great, and 2206 years from the foun

dation of Rome. 1454 The university of Glasgow, in Scotland, founded. 1460 Engraving and etching in copper invented. 1477 The university of Aberdeen in Scotland, founded. 1483 Richard III. king of England, and laft of the Plantagenets, is defeated and killed

at the battle of Bosworth, by Henry (Tudor) vil, which puts an end to the civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, after a contest of 30 years,

and the loss of 100,000 men. 1486 Henry ellablishes fifty yeoman of the guards, the first standing army. 1489 Maps and sea-charts first brought to England by Barth. Columbus. 1491 William Grocyn publicly teaches the Greek language at Oxford.

The Moors, hitherto a formidable enemy to the native Spaniards, are entirely

subdued by Ferdinand, and become subjects to that prince on certain conditions, which are ill observed by the Spaniards, whose clergy employ the powers of the Inquisition, with all its tortures; and in 1609, near one million of the Moors are driven from Spain to the opposite coast of Africa, from whence they

originally came. $492 America first discovered by Columbus, a Genoese, in the service of Spain. 1494 Algebra first known in Europe. 1497 The Portuguese first fail to the East Indies, by the C

of Good H pe. South America discovered by Americus Vespusius, from whom it has its name. 1499 North America ditto, for Henry VII. by Cabot. 1500 Maximilian divides the empire of Germany into fix circles, and adds four more

in 1512. 1505 Shillings first coined in England. 1509 Gardening introduced into England from the Netherlands, from whence

tables were imported hitherto. 1513 The battle of Flowden, in which James IV. of Scotland is killed, with the flower

of his nobility. 1517 Martin Luther began the Reformation.

Egypt is conquered by the Turks. 1518 Magellan, in the service of Spain, first discovers the fraits of that name in South

America. 1520 Henry VIII. for his writings in favour of popery, receives the title of Defender

of the Faith from his Holiness. 1529 The name of Protestant takes its rise from the Reformed protesting against the

church of Rome, at the diet of Spires in Germany. 1534 The Reformation takes place in England under Henry VIII. 1537 Religious houses diffolved by ditto. 1536 The first English edition of the Bible authorized; the present trandation finished


About this time cannon began to be used in ships. 1543 Silk stockings first worn by the French king; first wom in England by queen

Elizabeth, 1561; the steel frame for weaving invented by the Rev. Mr. Lee,

of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1589.

Pins first used in England, before which time the ladies used skewers. 1544 Good lands let in England at one Milling per acre. 1545 The famous council of Trent begins, and continues 18 years. 1546 First law in Eng'and, establishing the interest of money at ten per cent. 1549 Lord Lieutenants of counties instituted in England.

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1550 Horts counted 15

1550 Horse guards instituted in England. 1555 The Ruffian company established in England. 1558 Queen Elizabeth begins her reign. 1560 The Reformation in Scotland completed by John Knox. 1563 Knives firft made in England. 1569 Royal Exchange first built. 1572 The great mailacre of Proteltants at Paris. 1579 The Dutch itake off the Spanish yoke, and the republic of Holland begins. English East India company incorporated-established 1600

Turkey company incorporated. 1580 Sir Francis Drake returns from his voyage round the world, being the firft Eng.

lih circumnavigator.

Parochial register first appointed in England. 1582 Pope Gregory introduces the New Style in Italy; the 5th of October being 1583 Tobacco firit brought from Virginia into England. 1587 Mary queen of Scuts is beheaded by order of Elizabeth, after 18 years imprison

ment. 1;88 The Spanish armada deitroyed by Drake and other English admirals.

Henry IV. paflies the ediet of Nantes, tolerating the Protestants. 1589 Coches & A introüberd into England; hackney act 1693; increased to 100e, ia

1770. 1590 Band of penfioners indituted in England. 1591 Trinity Coilege, Dublin, founded. 1597 Watches fi: It brought into lingland from Germany. 1602 Decimal arithmetic invented at Bruges. 1603 Quee.: Elizabeth (the last of the Tudors) dies, and nominates James VI. of Scot

land (and first of the Stuarts) as her successor; which unites both kingdoms

under ce naine of Great Britain. 1605 The gunpowder plot discovered at WeAtminster; being a project of the Roman

catholics to blow up the king and both houses of parliament. 1606 Oaths of alcoi...ce fisit administered in England. 1608 Galileo, of Forence, fiift discovers the fatellites about the planet Saturn, by the

telescope, then juil invented in Holland. 1610 Henry IV. is murdered at Paris, by Ravaillac, a priest. 1611 Baronets first created in Erpland by James 1. 1614 Napier, of Marcheton, in Scotland, invents the logarithms.

Sir Ilugh Miuterio hings the New River to London from Ware. 1616 1 he firit permanezt senilement in Virginia. 1619 Dr. W. Ilarvey, an Englishman, discovers the doctrine of the circulation of the

blood. 1620 The broad fik manuf &ey from raw filk introduced into England. 1621 New Eogland planted by the Puritans. 1625 King James dies, and is fucccded by his son, Charles I.

The illand of Barbadoes, the first English settlement in the West Indies, is

planted. 1632 The battle of Lutzen, in which Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, and head ef

the Proteitants in Germany, is killed. 1635 Province of Maryland planted by lord Baltimore.

Regular pofts established from London to Scotland, Ireland, &c. 1640 King Charles disobliges his Scottish fuljcéls, on which their army, under general

Lesley, enters England, as id takes Newcatie, being encouraged by the malecon

tents in England.

The maslacre in Ireland, when 40,000 English Protestants were killed. 1642 King Charles impeaches five members, who had opposed his arbitrary measures,

which begins the civil war in England. 1643 Excise on beer, ale, &c. filit impoled by parliament. 1649 Charles I. Lehea.ied at Whitehall, January 30, aged 49. 1654 Cromwell aflumes the protectorship. 103) The English, under admiral i'can, take Jamaica from the Spaniards.

1658 Cromwell

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