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rious mystery of the counsel of God, concerning the redemption and salvation of the church by Jesus Christ. But where as this in general is the substance of the gospel, and the subject of all his other epistles, he doth not here consider and declare it absolutely, but as it was prefigured and typified by those institutions of worship, whereby God both instructed the church, and exercised the faith and obedience of his people, under the Old Testament.

Three things there were, which were the glory of those adu ministrations, and which the Hebrews so rested in, as that they refused the gospel out of an adherence unto them. ]. The priestly office. 2. The tabernacle, with all its furniture, wherein that office was exercised. 3. The duties and worship of the priests in that tabernacle by sacrifices; especially those where. in there was a solemn expiation of the sins of the whole congregation

In reference unto these, the apostle proves three things.

1. That neither any, nor all of them, could consummate or make perfect the state of the church ; nor yet really effect assured peace and confidence between God and the worshippers.

2. l'hat they were all typical and figurative, ordained to represent things that were far more sublime, glorious and excellent than themselves.

3. That indeed the Lord Christ, in his person and mediation, was really and substantially all that they did but obumbrate and prefigure; that he was and did what they could only direct unto an expectation of.

1. These things he declareth and evinceth fully, with respect unto the priestly office, in the seventh chapter; in our exposition whereof, we have endeavoured to declare the sense and force of his arguings unto that purpose.

2. He doth the same as unto the tabernacle in general, in the eighth chapter, confirming his discourse with that great collateral argument, taken froni the nature and excellency of that covenant, whereof the Lord Christ was the surety and mediator. Wherefore,

3. There remains only the consideration of the services and sacrifices, which belonged unto the priestly office in that tabernacle. Herein the Hebrews placed their greatest confidence for reconciliation with God, and with respect unto them, boasted of the excellency of their church-state and worship. This the apostle knew to be the great point in difference between him and them, and that whereon the whole doctrine of the jus. lification of sinners before God did depend. This, therefore, was exactly to be discussed, from the nature of the things themselves, and from the testimonies of the Holy Ghost in the Scripture; on which principles alone, he deals with these Hebrews. This is that which he now in particular engageth into, handling it at large in this and the next chapter, unto ver. 23. where he returns unto his first exhortation, in an use of the truth which he had evinced.

Two things unto this purpose he designs in general. 1. To declare the nature, use and efficacy of the rites, services and sacrifices of the law. 2. To manifest the nature, glory and efficacy of the sacrifice of Christ, whereby those other had an end put unto them, and so were to be taken away. And in comparing these things together, he wonderfully sets out the wisdom and grace of God in dealing with the church, so as to manifest that all his counsels, from the beginning, did aim at, and centre in the person and mediation of Christ. And those things are duly to be considered by ail who desire to understand the mind of the Holy Ghost in this epistle.

This chapter hath two general parts.

1. A proposition and declaration of the fabric of the tabernacle, its furniture, and the services performed therein, ver. 1 -10.

2. A declaration of the nature of the tabernacle and sacrifice of the Lord Christ, with the end and efficacy thereof, ver. 11-28.

Of the first general, there are four parts.

1. A proposition of the constitution of the tabernacle of old, with all its utensils and furniture, as it was prepared for the service of the priests, ver. 1-5.

2. The use of that tabernacle and the things in it, in and unto the sacred duties and services of the priests, ver. 6,7.

3. The judgment of the apostle upon the whole, both of the fabric and its use, ver. 8.

4. The reasons of that judgment, ver. 9, 10. In the first part there is, 1. A general proposition of the whole, ver. 1. 2. A particular explanation of it, ver. 2—5. VER. 1.–Ειχε μεν εν και η πρωτη σκηνη δικαιωματα λατρειας, το

αγίον κοσμικού. . Some things must be premised to the reading of these words. 'H @win, “the first,' doth in the original, answer in gender to all things' which the apostle treats of'; namely, the priesthood, the tabernacle and the covenant. But many Greek copies do expressly read cxnun, the tabernacle.' So is the text expressed in Steplien's edition, wherein he followed sixteen ancient manuscripts, adhering generally to the concurrent agreement of the greatest number; and the word is retained in the most common edition. But there are ancient copies also where it is omitted. And they are attested to by all ancien translations, as the Syriac and Vulgar Latin, the Arabic supplying covenant,' in the room of it. Wherefore Beza left it out, and is Vou. VI,


followed by the generality of expositors, as he is by our translators. Camero contends for retaining of it. But the reasons for its rejection, are cogent and undeniable. As,

1. In the last verse of the preceding chapter, whereunto this immediately succeeds, the apostle, mentioning the old covenant, calleth it absolutely any to gotny, “the first,' without the addition of d.conxa, and immediately repeating again, that is, 'that first, it is irrational to think that he refers it to another subject.

2. His design requires that the first covenant be intended. For he is not engaged in a comparison between the tabernacle and the new testament; but between the old covenant and the new. And the words of the text, with those that follow, contain a concession of what belonged to the old covenant, particularly in the administration of divine worship, as it is observed by Photius and Oecumenius.

3. The expression in the close of the verse, a worldly sanca tuary,' is no more nor less, but the tabernacle: for it is that wbi the apostle immediately describes in its parts and furniture, which are the parts of the tabernacle, and no other. And is the word cunn, the tabernacle,' be here retained, the sense must be, and verily the first tabernacle had ordinances of worship and the tabernacle.'

4. In the next verse, adding an account of what he had affirmed, he saith, “For there was a tabernacle prepared; the first,' which would render the sense of this verse, in connexion with the context, . For the first tabernacle had a tabernacle, for there was a tabernacle prepared.' Wherefore I shall adhere to the supplement made by our translators, the first covenant.'

Δικαιωματα λαρειας. Some read these words by an ασυνδείον, and not in construction, from the ambiguity of the case and number of nalguies, which may be either of the genitive singular or accusative plural, ' ordinances, services. This it is supposed that the following phrase doth intimate, to Ts daylor xospeixes, and also a worldly sanctuary;' which requires that the preceding words should be construed by apposition. And a diiference there is between dozcoopea and ; but whereas it is evident, that the apostle intends no nuteira, or service, here but what was performed ev dirawwyuci, by virtue of ordinances or institutions,' the word ought to be read in construction, 'ordinances of worship.'

E1%€ NEY 8v xas. Syr. ' But in the first there were in it. As the Arab. In the first covenant there was contained. Vul. Lat. Habuii quidem et prius, the comparative for the positive, to the sense of the apostle ; · And the first truly had also.' Beza, Habuit igitur prius fadus et ; transferring rai, to the words tol. lowing, - Wlierefore the first covenant had also ;' as we after him. Others, Habuil igitur ctiam prius. Most, in rendering the particles pey 6v zzo, hare principal respect to the note of inference

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tv, and include the assertory particle purv in it. I think the principal respect is to be had thereunto, as it is in the Vulgar Latin, And verily that first also had, dixawmaTa nutquias, Syr. “ commands of ministry or precepts;' which gives us the plain sense and true meaning of the apostle, as we shall see afterwards. • Ordinances concerning the administration of divine worship.' Vul. Lat. Justificationes cultura. Rhem. “justifications of service,'most obscurely, and in words leading from the sense of the Holy Ghost. Others, Ritus cultûs : constitutos rilus cultuum, appointed rites of worship or service. All agree what it is that the apostle intends, namely, the ordinances of Levitical worship, which are expressed in the Vulgate by justificationes cultura, both barbarously and beside the mind of the apostle.

'Ayloy xocuixov. Syr. ' A worldly holy house. The tabernacle was frequently called the house of God, and the house of the sanctuary. Vul. Sanctum seculare. Rhem.A secular sanctuary,' which the interlinear changeth into mundanum : seculare, denotes

duration, but it is not the design of the apostle to speak of the duration of that, whieh he is proving to have ceased. Beza, Sanctuarium mundanum ; some respect the particles to Ti, and render them illudque. Ver. 1.- Then verily even that first covenant had ordinances of

worship, and also a worldly sanctuary. Proceeding to the comparison designed between the old covenant and the new, as to the services and sacrifices wherewith the one and the other was established and confirmed, he introduceth the agotasis of the first by way of concession, as to what really belonged thereunto. And this is the constant method of the apostle in all the comparisons be makes. He still allows full weight and measure, io that comparate which he prefers the other above. And as this, on the one hand, taketh away all cause of complaint, as though the worth and value of what he determineth against were concealed, so it tends to the real exaltation of that which he gives the preference to. It is an honour to the priesthood and sacrifice of Christ, that they are so much more glorious and excellent than those of the old covenant, which yet were excellent and glorious also.

There is in this verse,

1. An introduction of the concession intended, Miy xv xub. The contexture of these particles is somewhat unusual. Hence some would have see, to be redundant; some join it in construction with direiwpata that follows. This was the judgment of Beza, whom our translators follow, for the word also,' (had also ordinances,) is the translation of xas, in the original; and thereon they omit it in the first place, not saying and then verily,' but then verily,' that is, miv 8». If this be so the assertion of the apostle seems to be built on a tacit supposition that the latter covenant bath ordinances of worship. Hence he grants the first had such also. Even that had also ordinances of worship, as the new bath. But I see not at all, that any such supposition is here made by the apostle; yea, he doth rather oppose those ordinances of divine worship, to the privileges of the new covenant, than allow the same things to be under both. And this is evident in the worldly sanctuary, which he ascribes to the first covenant, for he had expressly denied that there was any such under the new, Heb. viii. 2. Wherefore, although xai, and,' seems to be redundant, yet it is emphatical and increaseth the signification of the other particles, as it is often used in the Scripture. And the introduction of the concession, intimated by this contexture of the notes of it, • then verily even that,' shews both the reality of it, and the weight that he lays on it. Ouv, we renders then ;' most do it by igilur, 'therefore.' But the connexion to the foregoing discourse, is rather real than verbal. It is not an inference made from what was before declared, but a continuation of the same design. “And yet moreover it is granted,' or “therefore it is granted,' verily so it was. And so usv, serves to the protasis of the comparison, whereunto di answereth, ver. 11. • But, Christ being come.'

2. The subject spoken of is si aqwon, the first,' that is, ooz.dn. xn, that first covenant whereof we treat. The covenant made with the fathers at Sinai, to which, as to the administrations of it, the Hebrews as yet adhered. The nature of this covenant, we have spoken to at large on the foregoing chapter, and thither refer the reader. Of this covenant it is aflirmed in general, that it had two things, 1. Ordinances of worship. 2. A worldJy sanctuary; and the relation of them to it, is, that it had them.

1st, It had them, wys. It refers to the time past. The apostle saith not it · bath them,' but it had them. That is, say some, it had so while that tabernacle was standing, and while these things were in force; but now the covenant is aboJished, and it hath none of them. But this answers not the apostle's intention. For he acknowledgeth that covenant, and all its ordinances, de facto, to have been yet in being, in the patience and forbearance of God. Only he affirms that it was sy[us æqurious, Heb. viii. 13. ' ready to disappear.' Nor was he to take for granted, what was the principal resveucever between him and the Hebrews, but to prove it, which he doth accordingly. Hence he grants that there were 'priests that offered gifts according to the law,' Heb. viii. 4. and some who served at the tabernacle, Heb. iii. 10. But the apostle hath respect to the time wherein that covenant was first made. Then it had these things annexed to it, which were the privileges and glory of it. For the apostle hath in the whole discourse, continual respect to the first making of the covenant, and the first institution of


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