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such outward court; nor indeed was there any such belonging to the temple, whatever some pretend. 2. The whole sanctuary, whereof he speaks, he immediately distributes into two parts, as they were divided by the vail ; namely, the holy and the most holy place, which were the two parts of the tabernacle itself. 3. He treats of the sanctuary only with respect unto the divine service to be performed in it by the priests, which they did not in any outward court whereunto the Gentiles might be admitted.

Wherefore the apostle terms this sanctuary worldly, because it was every way in and of this world. For, 1. The place of it was on the earth in this world, in opposition whereunto the sanctuary of the new covenant is in heaven, ch. viii. 2. 2. Although the materials of it were as durable as any thing in that kind could be procured, as gold and Shittim wood, because they were to be of a long continuance, yet were they worldly; that is, caduca, fading and perishing things, as are all things of the world, God intimating thereby that they were not to have an everlasting continuance. Gold, and wood, and silk, and hair, however curiously wrought and carefully preserved, are but for a time. 3. All the services of it, all its sacrifices in themselves, separated from their typical representative use, were all worldly; and their efficacy extended only unto worldly things, as the apostle proves in this chapter. 4. On these accounts the apostle calls it worldly;' yet not absolutely so, but in opposition unto that which is heavenly. All things in the ministration of the new covenant are heavenly. So is the priest, his sacrifice, tabernacle, and altar, as we shall see in the process of the apostle's discourse. And we may observe from the whole,

Obs. IV. That divine institution alone, is that which renders any thing acceptable unto God.--Although the things that be. * longed unto the sanctuary, and the sanctuary itself, were in themselves but worldly; vet being divine ordinances, they had a glory in them, and were in their season accepted with God.

Obs. V. God can animate outward carnal things with a hidden invisible spring of glory and efficacy.-So he did their sanctuary with its relation unto Christ; which was an object of faith, which no eye of flesh could behold.

Obs. VI. All divine service or worship must be resolved into divine ordination or institution.-A worship not ordained of God is not accepted of God. It had ordinances of worship.

Obs. VII. A worldly sanctuary is enough for them whose service is worldly; and these things the men of the world are satisfied with.

VER. 2.-Two things were ascribed unto the first covenant in the verse foregoing. 1. Ordinances of worship. 2. A world. ly sanctuary. In this verse the apostle enters upon a descripand it was * ,ומתקרא הוא בית קודשא .Syr

tion of them both, inverting the order of their proposal, beginning with the latter, or the sanctuary itself. VER. 2.-Σκηνη γαρ κατασκευασθη, η πρωτη, εν ή η τε λυχνια, και η τρα

πεζα, και η προθεσις των αυτων, ήτις λεγεται άγια. Vul. Lat. Tabernaculum enim factum est primum, . The first tabernacle was made,' ambiguously, as we shall see. Syr. zaynx 7 x 272 xDuna, In tabernaculo primo quod factum erat, . In the first tabernacle that was made.' Auxois; Vul. Lat. Candelabra, candlesticks.' Syr. 2079 772 *177, . In it was the candlestick.' Nge:9:15 TW upray. Vul. Propositio panum, 'the proposition of loaves. Others, Propositi panes; Syr. xox anh,

and the bread of faces.' 'Iltis 2.5173Tai darce; Vul. Quæ dicitur sancta ; quæ dicitur sanctum ; quod sancta vocant. For some read αγία, some αγια. . , called, The holy house.' Ver. 2.-For there was a tabernacle made, (prepared); the first

wherein was the candlestick and the table, and the shew-bread;

which is called the sanctuary. Our translation thus rendering the words, avoids the ambigui. ty mentioned in the Vulgar Latin. First of all there was a tabernacle made. But whereas our rendering is also obscure, the first being mentioned, where only one thing went before, which yet includes a distribution supposed, I would supply it with two parts. There was a tabernacle made consisting of two parts : tabernaculum bipartitè extructum. For the following words are a distinct description of these two parts.

1. The subject spoken of is the tabernacle. 2. That which in general is affirmed of it is, that it was made. 3. There is a distribution of it into two parts in this and the following verse. 4. These parts are described and distinguished by, First, Their names. Secondly, Their situation with respect unto one ano. ther. Thirdly, Their contents or sacred utensils

. The one is so described in this verse, 1. By its situation : it was the first, that which was first entered into. 2. By its utensils, which were three. 1st, The candlesticks. 2dly, The table. 3dly, The shew-bread. 3. By its name: it was called the sanctuary.

1. The subject treated of is exnn, that is, w7p>, ' the tabernacle;' the common name for the whole fabric, as the temple was afterwards of the house built by Solomon. An eminent type this was of the incarnation of Christ, whereby the fulness of the Godhead dwelt in him bodily, Col. ii. 9. substantially in the human nature, as it dwelt typically and by representation in this tabernacle. Hence is it so expressed, He was made flesh,' 2004 EFXXWWO5v ev spess, John i. 14. and pitched his tabernacle amongst, or with us.' The consideration hereof, the apostle on set purpose fixed on, as the great concomitant, privilege, of

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glory of the first covenant whereof he treats; and whose consideration was excellently suited unto his design. Immediately on the giving of the law, and making that covenant in Horeb, which was accepted of by the people, and solemnly ratified, Exod. xxiv. 410. the whole of their remaining station in that place, for some months, was taken up in Moses' receiving revelations, and the people's making provision about and for this tabernacle, with what belonged thereunto. Forty days was Moses in the mount with God, whilst he instructed him in all things that belonged unto it; so great and glorious was the design of divine wisdom in this tabernacle and its appurtenances. For it was the house wherein his glory was to dwell; and not only so, but a type and representation of the depth of his counsel in the incarnation of his Son, whereby the divine nature would personally dwell in the human for ever.

2. It is affirmed of this tabernacle, that it was made, TETREVo.In, tabernaculum extructum, constructum, præparatum, ornatum, adornatum, built, prepared, adorned.' There is more included in the word than the mere building of the fabric. For the apostle, in this one word, reflects on and compriseth, 1. The provision of materials made by the people. 2. The workings of those materials by Bezaliel. 3. The erection of the whole by the direction of Moses. 4. The adorning of it unto its use ; that is, the substance of the book of Exodus from ch. xxv. to the end. First, Preparation was made for it; then the materials were wrought, and that with such curious workmanship, accompanied with such rich devoted ornaments, that it was adorned in its making. It was prepared in its materials, it was wrought into its form, it was beautified in its ornaments, unto all which respect is had in this word. That which principally gave unto it, its order, beauty, glory and use, was, that it was entirely, and in all the parts and appurtenances of it, made according to the pattern which God shewed Moses in the mount. And therefore, when it was finished and erected, all the parts belonging unto it, and all that was in it, was distinctly recounted, and it is added concerning them all, separately and in conjunction, they were all made as the Lord commanded Moses, Exod. xl. and xix. 21. 23. 25. 27. 29. For it is the authority and wisdom of God alone, that gives beauty, use and order, unto all that belongs unto his worship.

3. The first part of this tabernacle being so prepared, it had its furniture, that was to abide and be used in it.

1st, There was in it ý nuquis, the candlestick.' The Vulgar Latin reads candelabra, in the plural number. Hence many disputes arise among the expositors who adhere unto that translation. Some of them contend, that the apostle hath respect unto the temple of Solomon, wherein were ten candlesticks, live on the one side, and five on the other, 1 Kings vii. 49.

which is directly contrary to his scope, and to the words of the text. Some suppose that the one candlestick, which was in the tabernacle, was intended, but is spoken of in the plural number, because of the six branches that came out of it, three on each side, and that which went directly upwards made seven, having lamps in them all, Exod. xxv. 31, 32. But whereas it is constantly called the candlestick,' and spoken of as one utensil only, the apostle could not call it the candlesticks,' for that was but one. Wherefore the most sober of them depart from their common translation, and adhere unto the original ; and make use of the expression to prove that it was the tabernacle of Moses, and not the temple of Solomon wherein were ten candlesticks, that the apostle refers unto. The making of this candlestick is particularly described, Exod. xxv. 31. to the end of the chapter. Its frame, measures and use, are not of our present consideration ; they may be found in expositors on that place. It was placed on the south side of the tabernacle, near the vails that covered the most holy place, and over against it on the north side was the table with the shew-bread. And in the midst, at the very entrance of the most holy place, was the altar of incense ; see Exod. xl. 20-27. And this candlestick was made all of beaten gold, of one piece, with its lamps and appurtenances, without either joints or screws, which is not without its mystery. To fit it for its service, pure oil olive was to be provided by the way of offering from the people, Exod. xxvii

. 20. And it was the office of the high priest to order it, that is, to dress its lamps, every evening and every morning, supplying them with fresh oil, and removing whatsoever might be offensive, Exod. xxvii. 21. And this is called a statute tor ever unto the generations of the priests, on the behalf of the children of Israel, which manifests the great concern of the church in this holy utensil.

2dly, On the other side of the sanctuary, over against the candlestick, was a teenala, 'the table and the shew-bread,' which the apostle reckons as the second part of the furniture of this first part of the tabernacle, distinguishing them from each other, the table and the shew-bread. The making of this table, with its measures and use, its form and fashion, are recorded, Exod. xxv. 23–29. ch. xxxvii. 10. &c. inhw, table. The manner of its covering when it was to be carried whilst the tabernacle was moveable, is described, Num. iv. 7,8. And it was an utensil fashioned for beauty and glory.

3dly, Upon this table, which the apostle adds, was the shew. bread. It is here rendered by the apostle, apoftous twv cegtwy, the proposition of the bread or loaves ;' by an hypallage for agros ons noterews, “ the bread of proposition,' as it is rendered, Matt. xii. 4. the bread that was proposed or set forth. In the Hebrew, it is cons, bread,' 'in the singular number, which the apostle renders by agtos, in the plural, as also doth the evangelist. For that bread consisted of many loaves, as agtos properly signifies a loaf.' So the LXX. render it by agres, Exod. xxv. 30. The number of these loaves, or cakes, as we call them, was twelve; and they were set on the table in two rows, six in a row, being laid one upon the other. The Jews say, that every loaf was ten hand-breadths long, and five hand-breadths broad, and seven fingers thick. But this cannot well be reconciled unto the proportion of the table. For the table itself was but two cubits long, and one cubit broad. And whereas it had a border of an hand-breadth round about, nothing could lie on the table but what was placed within that border. And seeing a cubit was but five hand-breadths, it cannot be conceived how two rows of loaves, that were ten hand.breadths long, and five hand-breadths broad, could be placed within that border. Wherefore they suppose that there were props of gold coming up from the ground, that bore the ends of the cakes. But if so, it could not be said that they were placed on the table, which is expressly affirmed. Wherefore, it is certain that they were of such shape, proportion and measures, as might filly be placed on the table within the border; and more we know not of them.

These cakes were renewed every Sabbath, in the morning; the renovation of them being part of the peculiar worship of the day. The manner of it, as also of the making of them, is described, Lev. xxiv. 5. 9. And because the new bread was to be brought in, and immediately placed in the room of that which was taken away, it is called absolutely Tonn ons, the continual bread,' Num. iv. '7. For God says it was to be before him, qon, jugiter, Exod. xxv. 30. “always,' or continually.? Why it is called S, the bread of faces,' there is great inquiry. One of the Targums renders it inward bread,' for the word is used sometimes for that which looks inward. The LXX. ég785 5W7185, “present bread, or • bread presented.' Many think they were so called, because they were set forth before the faces of the priests, and stood in their view when they first entered the tabernacle. But the reason of it is plain in the text: Dy Dn, The shew-bread before my face, saith God.' They were presented before the Lord as a memorial, twelve of them, in answer to the twelve tribes of Israel. The Jews think they were called • bread of faces,' because, being made in an oblong square, they appeared with many faces, that is, as many as they had sides. But they cannot evince this to have been the fashion of them, and it is absurd to imagine that they had such a name given unto them for their outward form.

This is all that the apostle observes to have been in the first part of the tabernacle. There was in it moreover the altar of incense. But this was not placed in the midst of it at any equal

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