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true tabernacle, and the minister thereof, that we are to look in all our spiritual distresses.
Obs. IX. If any one else can offer the body of Christ, be also is the minister of the true tabernacle.-For the Lord Christ did no more. He did but offer himself; and they that can of fer him, do put themselves in his place.
VER. 3.--Πας γας Αρχιερευς εις το προσφεριν δώρα τε και θυσίας και θισταῖαι· όθεν ανα[καιον έχειν τι και τετον ὁ προσενέκη.
The summary description of our high priest designed, is carried on in this verse. And the apostle manifests, that as he wanted nothing which any other high priest had, that was necessary unto the discharge of his office, so he had it all in a more eminent manner than any other had.
KadiSTaTAL HIS TO #gorge. Syr. app, Qui stat ut of ferat, Who standeth (that is, at the altar) that he may offer;' rendering xatara neutrally, the whole sense is imperfect, For every high priest who standeth (at the altar) that he may offer gifts and sacrifices; therefore,
Auga. Syr. 27p, oblationem, Vul. munera. Some rather use dona, and some donaria, sacred gifts.'
Kas Juries. Syr. 17, that is, n, sacrifices.' Vulg. hostias; and the Rhemists, hosts,' it may be to countenance their name of the host in the mass.
Avafxatov. Syr. n xp, justum erat, æquum erat; it was just and equal. Vul. Necesse est, in the present tense, it is necessary. Beza, Necesse fuit, it was necessary,' properly; and so the Syriac renders the yerb substantive understood in the original, or included in the infinitive mood following, in the preter-imperfect tense.
Exar, habere, hunc habere; Syr. ban, huic ut esset ei; to this man that there should be to him,' or with him.
*O #goovesen. Vul. Aliquid quod offerat, something that he may offer." Syr. 27p777, something that he should offer. The Arabic adds for himself,' corruptly.
VER. 3-For every high priest is ordained (appointed) to of fer gifts and sacrifices; wherefore it is of necessity (it was necessary) that this man (should) have somewhat also to offer. The connexion of these words unto what was before asserted, which giveth us the design of the apostle in them, is expressed in the causal conjunction, yag, for. He both giveth a confirmation of what he had before affirmed, namely, that Christ was the minister of the true tabernacle, that is, of his body, and rendereth a reason why it should so be; and this he farther confirms in the verses ensuing. The reason he insists on, is taken from the general nature of the office of every high priest. That the Lord Christ is our high priest, he had sufficiently demon
strated and confirmed before: this therefore he now assumes as granted. And hereon what belongs unto him, as such, he farther manifests, by shewing what the nature of that office required, and what did necessarily belong unto every one that was partaker thereof.
There are therefore two things in the words.
I. A gencral assertion of the nature, duty, and office of every high priest.
II. A particular inference from thence, of what did necessarily belong unto the Lord Christ in the susception and discharge of this office.
I. In the first, 1. The universality of the expression is to be observed. Has agxugus, every high priest.' By the context, this universal is cast under a limitation with respect unto the law; every high priest, that is, made or appointed by the law, for of those alone the apostle treateth. There was indeed never any high priest accepted of God, but those ordained by the
w; yet was it necessary unto the apostle to make mention of the law also. And although they were many of them, yet were they all of the same order and office, and so were all alike authorized and obliged unto the same duties. Wherefore the apostle thus expresseth it by every high priest,' to evidence that there lay no exception against his argument, seeing that in the whole multitude of high priests in their succession from first to last, there was no one but he was appointed unto this end, and had this duty incumbent on him. Yea, it is not one especial duty of their office that might be omitted, which he insisteth on, but the general end for which they were ordained; as he expresseth it in the next word.
2. Kadioτatal, is ordained; that is, appointed of God by the law. Of the sense of this word, I have spoken before, as also of the thing intended; see chap. v. 12.
Obs. 1. God's ordination or appointment gives rules, measures and ends unto all sacred offices and employments.-Whoever undertakes any thing in religion or divine worship, without it, besides it, beyond it, is a transgressor, and therein worshippeth God in vain. He whom God doth not ordain in his service, is an intruder; and that which he doth not appoint is an usurpation. Nor will he accept of any duties, but what he himself hath made so.
3. The principal end why the high priests were ordained of God is expressed: it was to offer, wea τε και θυσίας, 6 gifts and sacrifices. This appears in their original institution Exod. xxviii. xxix.
First, They were to offer.' God appointed Aaron and his successors, on purpose to offer gifts and sacrifices for the whole people.
Secondly, None but they, that is, none but the priests, were
to offer; none but they might approach unto God, to offer any thing sacredly unto him. The people might bring their offerings unto God, but they could not offer them on the altar. And some offerings, as those at the feast of expiation, were appropriated unto the high priests only. So is the case stated by Azariah, the high priest, 2 Chron. xxvi. 15. Not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto the Lord, but to the priests, the sons of Aaron, who are consecrated,' from Exod. xxx. 7. Num. xviii. 7. God hereby taught the people, that nothing should ever be accepted from them, but in and by the hand of the great high priest, who was to come. And this is that which we are yet taught thereby. And whoever he be, if as great and prosperous as king Uzziah, who shall think to approach to God immediately, without the interposition of this high priest, he is smitten with the plague of spiritual leprosy.
4. What they were to offer is also declared:gifts and sacrifices.' Age, munera, donaria, dona. Sometimes all, the Corbanim,' in general, are intended by this word. For all sacred offerings, of what sort soever, are so called at their first institution, Lev. i. 2. If any one among you bring his Corban unto the Lord.' And thereon the especial kinds of offerings and sacrifices are enumerated, which in general were all Corbans. So every thing that is brought unto the altar, is called dagar, Matt. v. 23, 24. Пgorigns to dwgov, when thou bringest thy gift; that is, Tap apa N, to offer gifts,' sacred gifts of all sorts, especially sacrifices properly so called. Or by ga, the nn, Minchoth,' may be intended, as by Juries, the ⚫ Zebachim' are. For these two contain the whole complex of sacred offerings. For Zebachim, or via, are bloody sacrifices; sacrifices by immolation or killing, of what sort soever the matter of it was, or unto what especial end soever it was designed. And the Minchoth were offerings of dead things, as of corn, oil, meats and drinks. To offer all these was the office of the priesthood ordained. And we are taught thereby, that,
Obs. II. There is no approach unto God without continual respect unto sacrifice and atonement. The principal end of sacrifices was to make atonement for sin. And so necessary was this to be done, that the office of the priesthood was appointed for it. Men do but dream of the pardon of sin, or acceptance with God, without atonement. This the apostle layeth down as that which was necessary for every high priest by God's institution. There never was any high priest, but his office and duty it was to offer gifts and sacrifices, for unto that end was he ordained of God.
Hence he infers, that it was necessary that this man should have somewhat to offer. For being a minister of the heavenly sanctuary, and the true tabernacle, a high priest he was. But this he could not be, unless he had somewhat to offer unto God,
A priest that had nothing to offer, that was not ordained unto that end, is indeed no priest at all,
And in this assumption of the apostle, we may observe, 1. The note of inference, Wherefore.' 2. The designation of the person spoken of, this man.' 3. The manner of the ascription made unto him: he must have.' 4. The matter of it,. somewhat to offer.'
1. The note of inference is, 69, wherefore.' It is frequently used by the apostle, in this Epistle, when he proves his present assertions, from the old institutions of the law, and their signification, ch. ii. 17. iii. 1. vii. 25. ix. 18. And the whole force of this inference, especially that in this place, depends on this supposition, that all the old typical institutions did represent what was really to be accomplished in Christ; whence it was necessary, that he should be what they did signify and represent. Hence it is often observed in the gospel, that he did or suffered such things, or in such a manner, because things were so ordered under the law.
2. The designation of the person is expressed, T&T, this man,' he of whom we speak, this high priest of the New Tes tament, whom he had before described, and specified by his name Jesus, and by his dignity, the Son of God. That this man,' this Jesus, the high priest of the New Testament.
3. The subject being stated, that which he affirms thereof, is, that he, this priest, must have somewhat to offer.' And this was avafxasov, of necessity,' that so it should be. For whatever otherwise this glorious person were or might be, yet a high priest he could not be, unless he had somewhat to offer; for to offer gifts and sacrifices, is the sole end of that office. This necessity, then, was absolute. For without this, no office of priesthood could be discharged, and consequently no atone ment be made, nor could we be brought unto God. And it is said that it was thus necessary, xr, that he should have.' And it is not possession only that is intended, but possession. with respect unto use. He was so to have somewhat to offer, as to offer it accordingly. For it would not avail the church to have a high priest that should have somewhat to offer, if it were not actually offered. Wherefore, respect is had, both to the meetness of Christ unto his office, and his faithfulness therein. He had what to offer, and he did offer it.
4. The matter of his offering is expressed, • AgoTeveĺμn, 'somewhat to offer,' that is, in sacrifice unto God. The apostle expresseth it indefinitely, T; but what it is, which he was to have, he doth not as yet declare. He was not engaged farther by his present argument. But he elsewhere declares expressly what this was that he had to offer, what was the matter of his sacrifice, and what it was necessary that it should be. And this was himself, his whole human nature, soul and body.
It may be it will be said, that it doth not necessarily follow, that if he have somewhat to offer, it must be himself. For he might offer somewhat else out of the flocks and herds, as they did of old. Nor indeed doth the apostle intend directly to prove it in this place, namely, that it must be himself which he must offer. But it doth necessarily follow from the arguments before insisted on, chap. vii. For whatever else God had appointed or approved of to be offered in sacrifice, he had ordained the Levitical priesthood to offer, and appropriated the offering of it unto them, so as no such sacrifice could ever be offered by any who was not of the seed of Aaron. Whereas, therefore, our high priest was not of the tribe of Levi, but of Judah, it is evident that he could not offer any of the things which were appropriated unto their ministry and service. And hence our apostle in the next verse, affirms directly, that if he were on the earth, that is, to officiate in his office with the things of the earth, after the manner of other priests, he could not be so much as a priest at all, seeing all such services were appropriated unto, and performed by the priests of another order. Again, if he might have done so, and accordingly had done so, our apostle manifests that his priesthood must have been ineffectual as to the proper ends of it. For the law could make nothing perfect; not only because of the infirmity and imperfection of its priests, but also because of the insufficiency of its sacrifices unto the great ends of expiating sin, by whomsoever they were offered. "For it is impossible," as he declares," that the blood of bulls or goats should ever take away sin, or purge the conscience of the sinner," chap. x. 1-3. &c. Wherefore, as it was necessary that he should have somewhat to offer, so it was necessary that this somewhat should be himself, and nothing else.
Something must yet be added as unto the reading of the words themselves, which influenceth their proper sense. Avxzay, necessary,'' of necessity,' must have the verb substantive added to determine its signification. Erasmus adds, est, it is necessary;' and we render it, it is of necessity. Beza supplies fuit, as doth the Syriac interpreter, M, fuit, erat, ⚫ it was necessary.' And so he renders goren, by quod offerret, which he should offer, in both respecting the time past. Others render it by quod offerat, which he may offer,' with respect unto the time present or to come. And Beza gives this account of his translation, namely, that the apostle having respect unto the sacrifice of Christ which was past, affirms, that it was necessary that he should have somewhat that he might offer, and not that it is necessary that he should have somewhat to offer. And although I will not deny, but that the Lord, by reason of the perpetual efficacy of his oblation, and the representation of it in his intercession, may be said to