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ceased, de jure, before the whole of what was prefigured by its being, duties and offices, was fulfilled. And therefore, although there was an intercision of its administrations for seventy years, during the Babylonish captivity, yet was the office itself continued in its right and dignity, because what it designed to prefigure was not yet attained. And this was not done till the Lord Christ ascended into the heavenly sanctuary, to administer in the presence of God for the church. For until then, the bigh priest's entering into the holy place in the tabernacle once a year, had not an accomplishment in what was prefigured thereby. Wherefore, there was not an end put unto their office and ministration by the oblation of Christ on the cross, but they still continued to offer sacrifices according to the law. For there yet remained unto the fulfilling of what was designed in their whole office, his entering into the holy place above. Wherefore they were still to continue priests, until he had completed the whole service prefigured by them, in the oblation of himself, and entering thereon into the heavenly sanctuary.

This therefore is the sense of the apostle's reasoning in this place. The priests of the order of Aaron continued, de jure, their administrations of holy things, or were so to do, until all was accomplished that was signified thereby. This was not done until the ascension of Christ into heaven. For the first tabernacle was to stand until the way was made open into the holiest of all, as we shall see afterwards. Now the Lord Christ was not a priest after their order, nor could he offer the sacrifices appointed by the law. Hence it is evident, that he could not have been a priest, had he been to continue in the earth, and to administer on the earth, for so their priesthood with which his was inconsistent, could never have had an end. For this could not be without his entrance as a priest into the heavenly sanctuary.

It appears therefore how vain the pretence of the Socinians is, from this place to prove, that the Lord Christ did not offer his expiatory sacrifice here on the earth. For the apostle speaks nothing of his oblation, which he had before declared to have been once for all, before he entered into heaven to make intercession for us. But he speaks only of the order of his priesthood, and the state and condition wherein the present administration of it was to be continued.

Obs. I. God's institutions, rightly stated, do never interfere.-So we see those of the ancient priesthood, and that of Christ, did not. They had both of them their proper bounds and seasons, nor could the latter completely commence and take place, until the former was expired. The entrance of Christ into the holy place, which stated him in that condition wherein he was to continue the exercise of bis priesthood unto the consummation of all things, put an absolute period unto the former priesthood

by accomplishing all that was signified thereby, with a due and seasonable end unto all legal worship, as to right and efficacy. When he had done all that was figured by them, he took the whole work into his own hand.

Obs. II. The discharge of all the parts and duties of the priestly office of Christ, in their proper order, was needful unto the salvation of the church. His oblation was to be on the earth, but the continuation of the discharge of his office was to be in heaven. Without this the former would not profit us; if he had done no more he could not have been a priest. For, 1. As this dependeth on the infinite wisdom of God, ordering and disposing all things that concern the discharge of this office unto their proper times and seasons; so, 2. Believers do find in their own experience, how all things are suited unto their conditions and wants. Unless the foundation of a propitiation for their sins be first laid, they can have no hopes of acceptance with God. This therefore was first done in the offering of the body of Christ once for all. But when this is done, unless they have a continual application of the efficacy of it unto their souls, neither their peace with God, nor their access unto God, can be maintained. And this is done by the ministration of his office in the heavenly sanctuary, which ensues thereon.

VER. 5.—Οιτινες ὑποδείματι και σκια λατρεύεσιν των επερανίων, καθώς κεχρηματισται Μωσης, μέλλων επιτελειν την σκηνήν. Ορα γαρ, φησί, ποίησης παντα κατα τον τυπον τον δειχθεντα σου εν τω όρει.






"Ovis Qui, ut qui, as those who,' λalgsuron, deserviunt, inserviunt. Syr. pwn, who ministered,' as in a sacred office, properly. Todri[μatı, exemplari, Rhem. that serve the exemplar and shadow, every way imperfectly. Syr. xn, unto the similitude.' Twy gv, Eras. Cœlestium; others, Rerum cœlestium, of heavenly things.' Syr. w 77, of the things which are in heaven.' Kados nexenuariotas, sicut responsum est Mosi. Rhem. As it was answered Moses.' Xquatioμos is not an answer, but an oracle, given out upon inquiry, and so any divine instruction. Quemadmodum divinitus dictum est, admonished of God,' say we. Syr. 773887, it was spoken,' simply; which expresseth not the original.

VER. 5.-Who serve (in sacred worship) unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, even as Moses was admonished of God, when he was about to make the tabernacle; for see (saith he) that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.

1. We must first consider the reading of these words, by reason of the testimony which the apostle quotes out of the law, and his rendering thereof. The words in the original, Exod.

וראה ועשה בתבניתם אשר אתה מראה בהר ,xxv. 40. are

And look (or take heed) and make after their pattern which was shewed thee in the mount. The apostle adds, avta, all things,' which is not in the original, nor in the version of the LXX. But, 1. He might take it from ver. 9. of the chapter,

: ככל אשר אני מראה אותך,where the word is expressed


cording unto all that I shall shew thee.' 2. Things indefinitely expressed, are to be expounded universally. 1 Kings viii. 39.

and to give to every man according to his ways, that is, 2 Chron. vi. 30. and render to every man according to all his ways.' Deut. xix. 15. At the mouth of two or three witnesses shall the matter be established,' that is, 2 Cor. xiii. 1. 'shall every word be established.' Psal. cx. 1. Until I make thine enemies thy footstool,' that is, 1 Cor. xv. 25. ⚫ all thine enemies. Wherefore, the apostle by the addition of arra, all things,' says no more but what is expressed in one place, and necessarily understood in the other.

2. Onan According to their pattern, or the pattern of them; the apostle renders by xaтα TOY TUTOY only, according to the pattern,' which comes all to one. Τύπος : the word is from 22, to bind; and it is used for a prepared pattern or similitude that any thing is to be framed unto. So whereas the apostle renders it by τύπος, he intends προτότυπος or αρχέτυπος, not εκTU, such a type or pattern as other things are to be framed by, and not that which is the effigies or representation of somewhat else.

2. The connexion of these words with the preceding discourse, which gives us the general design of the apostle, is next to be considered. He had before intimated two things. 1. That the high priests, according to the law, did not minister the heavenly things. 2. That the Lord Christ alone did so; whence he concludes his dignity and pre-eminence above them, which is the argument he hath in hand. Both these he confirms in these words. For he confines their ministry unto the types of heavenly things, exclusively of the heavenly things themselves. And by shewing, as in the verse preceding, that if Christ had been to continue on the earth, he could not have been a priest, he manifests that he alone was to administer those heavenly things.

3. The argument in general whereby the apostle proves that they served unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, that is, only so and no more, is taken from the words of God to Moses. And the force of the argument is evident. For God in those words declares, that there was something above and beyond that material tabernacle, which was prescribed unto him. For he shewed him either an original or an exemplar in the top of the mount, which, what he was to do below, did but shadow and represent. And therefore they who ministered in what he was to make, could serve only therein to be the exam



ple and shadow of heavenly things. This therefore is the apostle's argument from this testimony: If God shewed unto Moses on the top of the mount that which was heavenly, and he was to make an example or shadow of it, then they that ministered therein served only unto the example and shadow of heavenly things. In the words may be observed, 1. The persons spoken of, who.' 2. What is ascribed unto them, they serve. 3. The limitation of that service; wherein there is, 1st, The present immediate object of it, an example and shadow.' 2d, The ultimate things intended, heavenly things.' 4. The proof of the whole assertion, from the words of God to Moses; wherein there is, 1st, The manner of the instruction given him, he was warned of God.' 2dly, The instruction or warning itself, see that thou make,' &c.







1. There is the persons spoken of, drives, who.' It refers unto the priests mentioned, ver. 4. Seeing there are priests that offer gifts; who.' But although that expression comprised the whole order of Levitical priests, yet it refers in particular unto the high priests, ver. 3. as yag agxiigius, 'every high priest,' which high priests.'



2. What is ascribed unto them; λurgius, do serve.' The general signification of the English word to serve,' is not intended, as any thing doth serve for an end, or one person serves another. For it is a sacred word, and signifies only to minister in sacred worship and service, as the Syriac translation renders it. And in particular, it respects here all the dixwμata raτgrias, 'the ordinances of divine service,' which were appointed under the first tabernacle, ch. ix. 1. they do serve: they do according unto the law officiate in sacred things; that is, they did so, de jure, in their first institution, and continued, de facto, so to do still. And the word area, is applied both unto the inward spiritual, and outward instituted holy worship of God; see Matt. iv. 10. Acts vii. 7. Rom. i. 9. It respects therefore all that the high priests did, or had to do, in the worship of God, in the tabernacle or temple.


3. The limitation of their sacred service is, that it was iжδείγματι και σκια, 6 to an example and shadow. Δειγμα is a specimen of any thing, that whereby any thing is manifested by a part or instance. It is used in the New Testament only Jude 7. Çoxsivтai daigua, are set forth for an example,' speaking of Sodom and Gomorrah, or a particular instance, of what would be God's dealing with provoking sinners at the last day. AyuriZw, which is framed of duyua, is but once used in the New Testament, Col. ii. 15. where we render it to make a shew, that is, a representation of what was done day, the word here used, is an example shewing or declaring any thing in a way of instance. John xiii. 15. vodyμa sòwxα vμy, I have given you an example,' saith our Saviour, when he had washed his disci


ples' feet; that is, shewed you in what I have done, what you ought to do also. So James v. 10. Take, my brethren, the prophets for an example.' But whereas, principally and commonly, examples are patterns of other things, that which they are to be conformed to, as in the places cited, John xiii. 15. James v. 10. this cannot be the sense of it in this place. For the heavenly things were not framed and fashioned after the example of these, but on the contrary. Wherefore examples are of two sorts, effigiantia and effigiata, that is, goтoruña and ExTUTK; such as other things are framed by, or such as are framed by other things. In this latter sense it is here used; and I would choose to render it by a resemblance. It is less than dupa, simile quiddam, an obscure representation. Hence it is added,


Kai exia, and the shadow.' Some suppose a shadow is taken artificially, and opposed unto an express image or complete delineation of any thing, by a similitude taken from the first lines and shadows of any thing that is afterwards to be drawn to the life; and so they say it is used, chap. x. 1. The law had only a shadow of good things to come, and not the express image of the things themselves.' But properly it is taken naturally, and opposed unto a body or substance, Col. ii. 17.

Which things have a shadow of things to come; but the body is Christ.' It is indifferent in whether sense we here take the word, for what is affirmed is true in both. If we take it in the first way, it intends that obscure delineation of heavenly mysteries, which was in the legal institutions. They did represent and teach them, and so were taught and represented in the divine service of those priests. But it was so obscurely, that none could see their beauty and excellency therein. If it be used in the latter way, then it declares that the substance of what God intended in all his worship, was not contained nor comprised in the services of those priests. There were some lines and shadows to represent the body, but the body itself was not there. There was something above them and beyond them, which they reached not unto.


4. The things themselves whence they are restrained by this limitation, are expressed, Twy gα, of heavenly things. The things intended in these words, are no other than what God shewed unto Moses in the mount; and therefore we shall defer our inquiry into them, until we come unto those words. This therefore is the meaning of the words. The whole ministry of the priests of old, was in and about earthly things, which had in them only a resemblance and shadow of things above. And we may observe by the way,

Obs. I. God alone limits the signification and use of all his own institutions. We ought not to derogate from them, nor to take any thing out of them, which God hath put into them;

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