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shipped and adored, in the form of pontifical, containing the various a piece of wafer:

ceremonies to be performed by 2. Images of God, in the vari- bishops, is a volume of considerous representations of the cross, on able bulk, larger by far than the which our salvation was wrought New Testament. Catholic divines out, of the Virgin, and of various admit that this pontifical contains real or supposed saints :

a great quantity of superfluous 3. A whole army of mediators matter, which, however, is not to and intercessors, in heaven, or in be passed over so long as it remains the upper regions of the air, who on the statute-book. The Council are to be prayed to, in the belief of Trent has even gone so far as to that they are more accessible, and anathematize all such as should have a readier sympathy with our presume, of their own private auwants and miseries, than either thority, to retrench or to alter any Christ or the Father :

portion of it. Bishops themselves, 4. A priesthood endowed with much less the clergy of the second miraculous powers !

who can

order, have no choice or jurisdiccreate God himself out of a piece tion in such things. This law, of wafer - who can endow water however, is sometimes disregarded or oil with medicinal or restorative by refractory individuals, who, or protective power by a word, and pressed by time or actuated by at whose sentence the sins of their carelessness, or for other reasons votaries depart, and souls spring best known to themselves, skip up out of purgatory into heaven. over many of the prescribed cere

Now all these inventions of Po- monies, and hasten to the conclupery have a direct tendency to inter- sion of their work. cept and break off the spiritual in- “ The ceremonies of the mass, tercourse which ought to be carried how multifarious ! Genuflections on between man and God. They and crosses without number; comall present to man other refuges, plicated movements; the quarterother reliances, other Saviours, wheel, the semicircular, and the than HIM “ whom God hath ex- circular, as the case may require; alted ;" and therefore they are all, the repeated shifting of the book intrinsically and practically, in na- from side to side, and the blaze of ture and in effect, positively ido- candles amid the glare of tbe merilatrous.

dian sun. Doubtless the generality Rom. You are but repeating a of priests attach little importance great part of your accusations at to these matters ; not so the conour last meeting.

gregation, who would be highly Prot. I partly admit the charge, scandalized if the mass suffered Let me turn, then, from my own any defalcation in this respect. views and opinions, and read to 6. The devotional exercises of the you the recent confessions of a multitude in general are of a very Roman Catholic priest, the Rev. odd description; scarcely a house David O'Croly, of Cork, who, in without a consecrated bead, a relihis last work on the differences gious piece of furniture supposed between Protestantism and Popery, to possess extraordinary virtue, thus laments the weight of super

particularly if consecrated by the stition which has encumbered the Pope. This guides them in the worship of his own Church : arrangement of their prayers, most

“ Nothing can be more compli- of which are addressed to the cated than the Roman Catholic Blessed Virgin, whom the beadceremonial. Simplicity, the ori- gentry invoke ten times for once ginal characteristic of Christianity, they invoke the Almighty. Nor has been abandoned. The Roman is this mode of praying confived to

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" Ave

the vulgar and illiterate. It is his diocese ; which odd practice is prescribed in the common prayer

still observed under his enlightened books, is repeated by priests pub- successor. He also instituted licly at the altar, and is practised monthly processions, at which this in all the nunneries and religious litany is chanted in her honour. communities. The costume of a “ The litany in question is nouun is incomplete unless a conse- thing but a formidable series of crated bead hangs dangling from adulatory epithets bestowed on the her girdle. In the chair of con- Virgin for the purpose of procuring fession the satisfactory works im- her favour and intercession. It is posed generally consist of so many of general use, and is reckoned by rosaries to be repeated on the five some indispensable. It is, howdecad or fifteen decad bead with- ever, more common in some places in a certain limited time. At the than in others, more used by womass, especially in country chapels, men than by men, and more by the you will scarcely hear any thing ignorant than by the well-informbut rosaries— Ave Maria ten times ed. The priest recites the litany and Pater Noster once. This dis- on his bended knees; but, when proportionate alternation is kept the mass commences, he stands up without intermission from the erect. This is odd enough. He beginning to the end of mass, from addresses the Virgin on his knees, the Introibo' to the gospel of St. and he addresses the Almighty in John. If they stay at home from a standing posture.

He shews mass on a Sunday or holiday, they more respect to the creature than repeat a rosary or two on their to the Creator. Much the same bead as a set-off against the omis- happens when the hymn sion. In short, the rosary, which maris stella. .“ Hail star of the should be called their devotion to sea”-is sung in her honour, or to the Virgin, forms the sum total of procure her favour. At the first their religious worship. The Vir- verse all go on their knees, as is gin is transformed into a divinity, done at the verse,

"O crux ave" of whom her female votaries con- .“ Hail! O! cross,” when chantstantly crave pardon for their trans- ing the hymn Vexilla Regisin gressions. The Colliridiani, as we honour of the cross -a posture of learn from Epiphanius, were con- adoration unheeded when hymus demned as idolaters in the primi- are sung in honour of God. tive church, for a custom they ob- " What a multitude of odd served, of offering a cake as a sort ceremonies is connected with the of sacrifice, in honour of the Virgin. use of holy water. It is astonishIt would not be easy to shew that ing what virtue is ascribed to this the cake of the Colliridiani consecrated element. Nothing can more opposed to the purity of be blessed or hallowed without it; divine worship than this perpetual neither candles, nor new fruits, nor rosary. It is, indeed, quite cer


eggs, nor ships, nor tain, that the Virgin never enjoyed dwelling-houses, nor churches, nor higher honours or prerogatives than bells, nor sacerdotal vestments. It she does among her female votaries is used in the administration of all now-a-days, at least in old Ireland. the sacraments, before mass and The late Dr. Moylan, Roman Ca- after mass, and at the churching of tholic bishop in Cork, ordered the

Nothing, in short, can litany of the Blessed Virgin, or be done without holy water. Even the litany of our Lady of Loretto, the butter-churn is sprinkled with (a place celebrated in the annals of it before the churning commences, sacrilegious romance,) to be recited that the cream might work the always before mass, throughout better. It purifies the air, heals



distempers, cleanses the soul, ex- what object of this kind is there pels Satan and his imps from to which the adoration of the oils haunted houses, and introduces the may

be referred ? Holy Ghost as an inmate in their The efficacy of this benedicstead. It is generally believed tion lasts but for one year; at the that the holy water blessed at expiration of which, it is underEaster and Christmas, possesses stood that the holy oil becomes superior virtue, on which account unfit to communicate grace, and several tubs or barrels full must be should be committed for combusblessed upon these occasions, in tion to the devouring element of order to supply the increased de- fire. The solemn consecration by mand. Protestants being quite the bishop, backed by a multitude incredulous as to the miraculous of crosses and insufflations, &c. virtues ascribed to boly water, performed by the body of priests have abolished the use of it, and in attendance, proves insufficient are of opinion that it bears a strong to protect it from the injuries of resemblance to the lustral water time and the decay of nature; just that was commonly used in the as happens to the consecrated host, rites of pagan superstition.

which, when it happens to suffer “ Salt in like manner is pressed decomposition, is acknowledged to into the ceremonial of religion, be nothing more than decayed probably because in the New Tes: bread, unfit to nourish either body tament the apostles were called

or soul. the salt of the earth. It is blessed Nothing can exceed the comfor a variety of purposes. After plication and multitude of the being, first of all, duly exorcised ceremonies observed in the conitself, it is made use of in the ad. ferring of holy orders; which, ministration of baptisın and in the though reckoned one individual manufacture of holy water.

sacrament and of a spiritual na“ The ceremonial of blessing the ture, is, like matter, divisible ad oils--the oleum infirmorum, the infinitum. You have particular oil for the sick, the oleum cathe- ceremonies for the consecration of cumenorum, the oil of catechu

a pope, for the consecration of a mens, and the chrisma or chrism, patriarch, for the consecration of is complicated beyond measure, an archbishop, for the consecration and magnificent withal. On Maun- of a bishop, for the consecration of day Thursday it is consecrated by an abbot, for the ordination of a the bishop, robed in his pontificals, priest, for the ordination of a deain the presence of the diocesan con, for the ordination of a subclergy, robed in their vestments ; deacon, for the collation of the who all, at the appointed times,

four minor orders of reader, of porwhile it is in progress of conse- ter, of alcolite, of exorcist, and, cration, worship it by triple genu- finally, for giving the prima tonflection, salutation, and psalmody!

What a tremendous ceThe holy oil is adored on Maun

remonial !

What cumbrous day Thursday, just as the cross is machinery of religion !! and from on Good Friday; on which latter such simple beginnings. occasion also, a multiplicity of Religion, indeed, was overodd ceremonies takes place. loaded with extravagancies at an

The worship of inanimate early period. St. Augustine comthings is justified on the score of plains of the vast increase of its being merely relative; that is, whimsical ceremonies in bis time. referable to something really en- He says, “ things in this respect titled to our adoration. There had arrived at such a pitch of abmay be some reason in this. But surdity, that Christianity, which



tion.” *

upon record

was freed from the servitude of the little prayer beginning · Hail, the ceremonial law, had become Mary,' would be repeated no fewer more enslaved than Judaism itself than fifty times. And this is, I --that, in short, the simplicity of have no doubt, actually performed, the gospel had been forgotten." If

.” If day by day, by hundreds of misethis saint were alive at the present rable devotees, even in this metroday, he would have infinitely more polis, in which we are now rereason to complain on this score. siding. Many Catholic theologians are of Ing. You say, I think, that in the same opinion with the holy this rosary there are fifty prayers father; but have not the same put up to the Virgin, and only ten honesty or courage to give pub- to God? licity to their sentiments. Thus it Prot. Yes, and this is by no is that, between the connivance or means an exaggerated proportion. timidity of some and the interested So ready is the human mind to imposture of others, the errors of run to any refuge rather than that the ignorant are confirmed, and

salvation which God has provided, true religion lies buried beneath an and to cling to any intercessor accumulated weight of extrava

rather than to Him who is "exaltgance, absurdity, and supersti- ed to give repentance and remis

sion of sins ;' that it is Inq. And is this really the ac

that in the cathedral of Canterbury, count of the matter given by a in the days of England's darkness, priest of your Church ?

" Whereas there used to be three Rom. Mr. O'Croly has been a offerings made by the people in priest, I believe, but is at present

that church : one to Christ, anounder suspension.

ther to the Virgin Mary, and anoProt. But not for ill conduct, I ther to Thomas à Becket, the apprehend, or false doctrine ; but oblations made at the altar of Thomerely or chiefly because, as you mas à Becket did generally amount will perceive in this extract, his to eight hundred or a thousand eyes have been partly opened to pounds, those to our Lady's to two the errors and superstitions of the hundred pounds ; while those to Romish Church. Let us, however, Christ's would be five marks, and return to the subject. Here is a sometimes 'hoc anno nihil! So little book, which I purchased the certain is it, that if other intercesother day, at the chief Roman sors or objects of worship are Catholic booksellers' in London, allowed at all, they will immecalled • The Daily Companion ; diately draw away our hearts from or, Little Pocket Manual.? And Him who ought to be the great here, in it, I find the rosary, ex- object of worship, and thus work actly as Mr. O'Croly has described our infinite loss and hazard. From it. It is given as ordered by his which we see at once the wisdom holiness Pope Pius V.;' and it is and the necessity of that rule which so contrived as to be suited, by a puts down at once all other or succession of changes, for every subsidiary worship, and declares, day in the year. Each day's ser

that “ to us there is but one God, vice contains five mysteries,' as and one Mediator between God and they are called ; and after every man, the man Christ Jesus.(1 'mystery' follows,

Tim, ii. 5.) • Our Father,' &c. once.

Rom. You are constantly ad• Hail, Mary,' &c. ten times. ducing these and similar texts, reSo that, in the morning's devotion, gardless of our repeated disclaim

ers and explanations. How con* O'Croly's Inquiry, 8vo. pp. 139–146. stantly has it been stated, in every

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variety of form, and by all our to establish really exists, still I writers, that we hold, as firmly as cannot but fear that the common you can do, one sole Mediator of people are incapable of making salvation ; but that does not pre- such nice distinctions. I tell vent our recognizing many media- you,' rejoined the priest, it is tors of intercession.

not the case; they can understand Prot. I am well aware of these this matter as well as I do. I subterfuges, by which, doubtless, should like,' said the minister, many of your most sincere adhe- • to be assured of this; however, rents contrive to delude them- I shall put it to the proof. Come selves. But I leave any man of here, my man,' addressing himself common sense to say, whether the to one of the turnkeys who hapgreat mass of mankind,-for whom, pened to cross the ball in which as much as for the intelligent and they stood. "You are a Roman the learned, Christianity is in- Catholic ?' • I am, your revertended, -whether these can be ex- ence,' said the turnkey respectpected to understand these nice fully, while he touched his forelock distinctions, or your other degrees with his thumb and fore finger. and gradations, as of worship of " And tell me now,' continued the dulia, and worship of latria, and minister, · Do you pray to the the like. I met with an anecdote blessed Virgin?' Oh, to be the other day, the truth of which is sure I do, please your reverence,' so internally apparent, that I shall replied the man promptly. The make no excuse for reading it to priest's countenance and tone exyou. The narrator says,

pressed any thing but that gentle- A Protestant clergyman, per

ness with which St. Paul comsonally known to the writer, once manded Timothy to administer reentered into conversation with a proof, as he vociferated, “You Romish priest in the gaol of lie, you don't—you rascal !' This Carrick. As religion was

the ended the controversy; for the subject, they did not speak much

poor turnkey sneaked off as fast as before controversy was introduced. he could, observing, in a subdued The priest accused Protestants of tone, Sure your reverence knows want of candour in charging Roman Catholics with praying to the Rom. That story may do very blessed Virgin. . We don't pray

well for a free discussion like this; to her, Sir,' said he;

but I would beg of you to tell me calumny to assert it; we only ask

what you prove by it. This priest her intercession.' But,' replied of Carrick may, or may not, have the minister calmly, the Council been so foolish as to deny that the of Trent decreed that even the Church prays to the Virgin, but no saints, whom it regards as entitled one is accountable for this piece of to a degree of worship inferior to forwardness but himself. Our best that which is due to the blessed writers, including those referred to Virgin, are to be suppliantly in

in our last conversation, do all voked (suppliciter invocari ) and it admit that in a restricted sense, we teaches, too, that this invocation do address our prayers to the Virnay be mental : now to me it seems gin and the Saints. No one, there. that the man who kneels to an in

fore, was caught by the Protesvisible being, and presents his tant's ready retort-at Carrick, but supplications to that being, in the priest himself. Nor do I perthought, may, without any abuse

ceive what help you derive from of language, be said to pray to this story, in the present argument. him : but even were I to admit that the difference which you wish * Protestant Magazine, Vol. i. pp. 150.


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