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was freed from the servitude of the little prayer beginning · Hail, the ceremonial law, had become Mary,' would be repeated no fewer more enslaved than Judaism itself than fifty times. And this is, I -that, in short, the simplicity of
have no doubt, actually performed, the gospel had been forgotten.” If day by day, by hundreds of misethis saint were alive at the present
rable devotees, even in this metroday, he would have infinitely more polis, in which we are now rereason to complain on this score. siding. Many Catholic theologians are of Ing. You say, I think, that in the same opinion with the holy this rosary there are fifty prayers father; but have not the same put up to the Virgin, and only ten honesty or courage to give pub- to God? licity to their sentiments. Thus it Prot. Yes, and this is by no is that, between the connivance or means an exaggerated proportion. timidity of some and the interested So ready is the human mind to imposture of others, the errors of run to any refuge rather than that the ignorant are confirmed, and salvation which God has provided, true religion lies buried beneath an and to cling to any intercessor accumulated weight of extrava
rather than to Him who is “ exaltgance, absurdity, and supersti- ed to give repentance and remis
sion of sins ;” that it is upon record Ing. And is this really the ac
that in the cathedral of Canterbury, count of the matter given by a in the days of England's darkness, priest of your Church ?
" Whereas there used to be three Rom. Mr. O'Croly has been a offerings made by the people in priest, I believe, but is at present that church : one to Christ, anounder suspension.
ther to the Virgin Mary, and anoProt. But not for ill conduct, I ther to Thomas à Becket, the apprehend, or false doctrine ; but oblations made at the altar of Thomerely or chiefly because, as you mas à Becket did generally amount will perceive in this extract, his to eight hundred or a thousand eyes have been partly opened to pounds, those to our Lady's to two the errors and superstitions of the hundred pounds ; while those to Romish Church. Let us, however,
Christ's would be five marks, and return to the subject. Here is a sometimes • hoc anno nihil!”. So little book, which I purchased the
certain is it, that if other intercesother day, at the chief Roman or objects of worship are Catholic booksellers' in London, allowed at all, they will immecalled · The Daily Companion ; diately draw away our hearts from or, Little Pocket Manual.' And Him who ought to be the great here, in it, I find the rosary, ex- object of worship, and thus work actly as Mr. O'Croly has described our infinite loss and hazard. From it.
It is given as ordered by his which we see at once the wisdom holiness Pope Pius V.;' and it is and the necessity of that rule which so contrived as to be suited, by a puts down at once all other or succession of changes, for every
subsidiary worship, and declares, day in the year. Each day's ser
that “ to us there is but one God, vice contains five mysteries,' as
and one Mediator between God and they are called ; and after every man, the man Christ Jesus.” (1 'mystery' follows,
Tim. ii. 5.). i Our Father,' &c. once.
Rom. You are constantly ad• Hail, Mary,' &c. ten times. ducing these and similar texts, reSo that, in the morning's devotion, gardless of our repeated disclaim
ers and explanations. How con* O'Croly's Inquiry, 8vo. pp. 139–146. stantly has it been stated, in every
variety of form, and by all our to establish really exists, still I writers, that we hold, as firmly as cannot but fear that the common you can do, one sole Mediator of people are incapable of making salvation ; but that does not pre- such nice distinctions. .I tell vent our recognizing many media- you,' rejoined the priest, it is tors of intercession.
not the case; they can understand Prot. I am well aware of these this matter as well as I do. I subterfuges, by which, doubtless, should like,' said the minister, many of your most sincere adhe- « to be assured of this; however, rents contrive to delude them- I shall put it to the proof. Come selves. But I leave any man of here, my man,' addressing himself common sense to say, whether the to one of the turnkeys who hapgreat mass of mankind,—for whom, pened to cross the ball in wbich as much as for the intelligent and
You are a Roman the learned, Christianity is in- Catholic ?' • I am, your revertended, -whether these can be ex- ence,' said the turnkey respectpected to understand these nice fully, while he touched his forelock distinctions, or your other degrees with his thumb and fore finger. and gradations, as of worship of . And tell me now,' continued the dulia, and worship of latria, and minister,
you pray to the the like. I met with an anecdote blessed Virgin? Oh, to be the other day, the truth of which is sure I do, please your reverence,' so internally apparent, that I shall replied the man promptly. The make no excuse for reading it to priest's countenance and tone exyou. The narrator says,
pressed any thing but that gentle66 A Protestant clergyman, per- ness with which St. Paul comsonally known to the writer, once manded Timothy to administer reentered into conversation with a proof, as he vociferated, “You Romish priest in the gaol of lie, you don't you rascal !' This Carrick. As religion was the ended the controversy; for the subject, they did not speak much
poor turnkey sneaked off as fast as before controversy was introduced. he could, observing, in a subdued The priest accused Protestants of tone, . Sure your reverence knows want of candour in charging Ro- best.' man Catholics with praying to the Rom. That story may do very blessed Virgin.
. We don't
well for a free discussion like this; to her, Sir,' said he;
but I would beg of you to tell me calumny to assert it; we only ask what you prove by it. This priest her intercession.' . But,' replied of Carrick may, or may not, have the minister calmly, the Council
been so foolish as to deny that the of Trent decreed that even the Church prays to the Virgin, but no saints, whom it regards as entitled one is accountable for this piece of to a degree of worship inferior to forwardness but himself. Our best that which is due to the blessed
writers, including those referred to Virgin, are to be suppliantly in- in our last conversation, do all voked (suppliciter invocari ) and it admit that in a restricted sense, we teaches, too, that this invocation do address our prayers to the Virmay be mental : now to me it seems gin and the Saints. No one, therethat the man who kneels to an in
fore, was caught by the Protesvisible being, and presents his tant's ready retort-at Carrick, but supplications to that being, in
the priest himself. Nor do I
perthought, may, without any abuse
ceive what help you derive from of language, be said to pray to this story, in the present argument. him : but even were I to admit that the difference which you wish * Protestant Magazine, Vol. i. pp. 150.
Prot. I adduce it chiefly to ite among your people.
• The illustrate (believing as I do the rosary,' says Mr. O'Croly, 'which authenticity of the narrative) the should be called their devotion to readiness with which the mind of the Virgin, forms the sum total of the ignorant worshipper seizes hold their religious worship.' And, of the object presented to it by placed in this elevated rank, as your church, and thus avoids the hiding the Saviour almost wholly necessity which the Bible lays from the sinner's view, it could upon him, of seeking God, who is not be otherwise than dreadfully a Spirit, and must be worshipped offensive to God, even were it less in spirit and in truth, through the sinful and unscriptural in itself. alone mediation and intercession of But when we remember that this Christ. You may define what worship, which, it is thus admityou call latria and what you call ted, absorbs and swallows up the dulia ; but the poor mechanic, or
whole soul of devotion among your the simple child knows only one people, is in itself altogether opthing, which is worship. This wor- posed to the word of God, to ship he pays to a piece of wafer, reason, and to common sense, and when uplifted by the priest at what can rank no higher, with any rightly you call the altar.' He pays it judging man, than the worship of again before the image of the Vir- Juno or of Minerva
the gin, so soon as the mass' is over. ancient heathen, how frightful does He then returns home, and before the view become ! The whole he sleeps, he says
which church, falsely called “ Catholic,” includes a vain and senseless repe- bowing down with consent tition of the Lord's Prayer ten before the efligy of a poor human times; but a still more senseless creature ! Men and women called address to the Virgin of fifty Christians, addressing, from the prayers. All that is really accom- four quarters of the globe, prayers plished by this idle ceremony, is to one who cannot hear them ! And the offering an insult to God, by as the result of the whole, that elevating Mary to greater honour result which is Satan's grand aim, than her Creator and Redeemer ! the Saviour disregarded; scarcely But ask this
ever addressed in prayer, or when touching the difference between his so addressed, insulted with the prayers to God and to the Virgin. petition, that he will do so and so, What can he tell you, beyond the in respect to the merits of Saint verbal distinction, that is Clementina, or St. Carlino, or some latria and the other dulia? Prac- other poor creature, whose salvation, tically, however, there is no real if achieved at all, was solely his difference; or if there be any, it own work, and the reward of his consists in a greater degree of faith own sufferings! No! it is imporand hope, exercised with respect sible for any calm and unbiassed to his addresses to Mary, than with mind, to contemplate seriously the reference to those to God or to habitual worship of your people, Christ. He believes, he is taught without being convinced, that the to believe, that Mary's ears are worship of God has been supermore open to his cry, that her seded and pushed aside among heart more readily sympathizes them; and that it is replaced by with his wants and his sorrows, than another worship, the worship of does the heart of his Saviour. dead men and women,
which is And therefore it is that this idol
or less than IDOworship is so universally a favour- LATRY.
Review of Books.
LETTERS FROM IRELAND. MDCCCXXXVII. By CHARLOTTE
ELIZABETU. Pp. vi. and 436. Seeleys. 1838.
IRELAND is favoured with few and thrive from one plain root, culpable warmer and more industrious friends neglect of the poor ; and that one remedy than CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH.
alone can reach the seat of disease, a
competent provision for that neglected Her pen is incessantly employed, class. You will not suppose that in these and her numerous tracts and essays words I include only bodily relief: I do appear to have been eminently indeed believe, and am perfectly certain, useful. We took up therefore the
that without a permanent, legalized, suffi
cient provision, on the plan of a poor-law present volume with pleasing anti
enactment, nothing whatever will be done cipations, and those anticipations to improve the state of Ireland; but I have been realized. These Letters am equally sure that the most ample contain much that is instructive and
supply of all their temporal need will be
alike inefficacious, while their minds interesting, and they justly deserve
remain under the baneful influence of an extensive circulation.
popery. It is idle to argue the contrary, Our Author landed at Water- from the fact of some continental nations ford in June 1837. From that city presenting a picture of tranquil industry she proceeded to New Ross, Wex
and comparative prosperity, while still in
bondage to the See of Rome: they are not ford, Enniscorthy, Vinegar Hill,
subjects of an essentially Protestant Dublin, Mullingar, Trim, Droghe- state : nor is it the interest of their da, Newry, Tollymore Park, priests to encourage disaffection to their Tandragee Castle, Belfast, Cole
If it were so,
the history of the world, from the first raine, and Londonderry, from which
rise of the Papal kingdom to this time, city she returned by steamer to furnishes proof that they would speedily Liverpool in August, having spent find a pretext for exciting the people. eight weeks in Ireland. Her route
The cruel, shameful neglect, that allows
the Irish peasant to perish in utter destilay through many of the most inter
tution, is indeed a powerful weapon in esting spots in a moral point of the hands of his misleaders : but, were view in Ireland; and she ex- that removed, so long as the high places plored with unwearied activity
in the state, the revenues of the church, the natural beauties with which
the magisterial and military power, are
not lodged exclusively with themselves, so the country abounds. Her work long will those whose influence governs abounds with lively narrative, the popular mass, both of mind and matand description; but our notice
ter, in this country, be movers of sedi.
tion. Trust me, while Mordecai sits in of it must be chiefly confined to
the gate, his ancient enemy, Haman, who those parts especially relating to
abhors his race, will disregard with sullen the moral and religious state of unthankfulness all the favours, all the Ireland.
privileges that can be heaped upon One of the first and most im
him, and go to his house heavy and dis
pleased. portant inquiries with respect to Ireland is, To what is its destitute
How far the recent enactments and degraded state especially
of our legislature are calculated to owing?
meet the exigency of the case may
admit of considerable doubt. The I have looked around me with an earnest desire to obtain clear views on that
opposition of O'Connell is indeed a stiffly-contested point, the origin of Irish strong presumption in favour of any ev:ls. Their existence is not disputed, nei- measure ; for as bis wealth is intither can any person actually on the spot, mately connected with the miseries who has had previous opportunities of investigation, deny that they have alarmingly
of Ireland, whatever is really increased. I have no hesitation in declar
beneficial to his country, interferes ing that, trunk and branch, they spring
with his own
narrow and selfish If he reserves to himself so much them, on the approach of the premature of the produce as will feed his household, old age induced by their severe privations the remainder will never for any time and over-work. Accordingly, they hasten suffice to cover the landlord's claim. On to form an alliance. The mere boy, the other hand, if he undertakes to work anticipating the period when he shall no out the value of his possession, a rate of longer be able to labour for himself, deter- wages is invariably fixed that leaves him mines to provide betimes against the evil far behind hand; and the arrear accumuday, and looks about for a girl to suit lating as he goes on, increases his difficulhim, when, in all probability, the connex- ties, depresses his mind, and paralyses ions of both parties can scarcely muster the main-spring of industry-honest inamong them the means for paying the dependence. Children are born, unavoidexorbitant marriage fee which the priest able expences are incurred, and for the never omits to demand. They must have supply of all these pressing wants he has a habitation, and the youthful settler is the little potatoe plot, which, in a bad not long in finding a cabin with its single season, will not furnish his own family apartment, mud walls, ceiling of thatch, with a daily meal throughout the year,
views, and therefore provokes his
and floor of earth. Chimney it has proindignation. There are however
bably none, the window is merely an
aperture in the side ; the door a few practical difficulties in the way of broken boards patched together, and the the Poor Law Commissioners
fire-place a stone laid on the bare ground. which can only be surmounted by For furniture, there is a straw palliasse, great acuteness and dexterity. The
or very likely only a litter of straw shaken
down one corner, to form the bed, and extent of Irish pauperism is beyond perhaps a blanket or so. A thick block, all calculation, and the scarcity of hewed from a tree, serves as the table ; intelligent and trustworthy agents the householder, if ingenious, may have to supply the place of guardians,
fashioned out a couple of stools; or some
wealthy friend may present him with a overseers, relieving officers, &c.
wooden chair. An iron pot to boil potamay well excite apprehensions as toes, and a mug of any material, complete to the final result, especially as the the necessary furniture of this abode. introduction of English agents
Plates, knives, and such appendages, are would doubtless excite considerable
unthought of. Whatever surplus may
remain after satisfying the priest, must hostility and opposition.
go towards treating the friends of the The state of the English and family. Irish peasantry is strikingly con
But the rent-such a cabin is rated as trasted by our author.
high as the Englishman's cottage. I do
not remember to have known less than The English labourer, she ob- thirty shillings charged on any one in a
long street of these dwellings, where I was
intimately conversant with all the details. Has his tenement at a fair valuation :
How is the young tenant to pay this rent, so long as his rent is forthcoming he may entering on the holding as he does, pennysafely calculate on the continuance of less, and with the hopeful prospect of a these comforts; and when all fails, a re- growing family to enliven it ? As the source is left, and he is under no appre- English cottager does. No-there is no hension of perishing by the road side. parallel here.
The Irish cottier, But the poor Irish cottier, or labourer, labourer, knows nothing of bread as an knows nothing of this independence. article of food; his scanty wages would You must imagine, first, a state of society not purchase enough of it to satisfy the where the individual past work has no cravings of his own hunger, much less public asylum, no gratuitous provision would they extend to the wants of his of any sort whatever in store: the only family, and the payment of his rent. The prospect is that of having children grown potatoe is his only dependence, and the up, who, through the powerful influence first necessary of life is to procure a plot of natural feelings, cherished as most of ground for the cultivation of the root. sacred among these people, will be con- Two alternatives alone appear; either he strained to shelter and sustain an infirm must agree with his landlord to work out parent. Go where you will among the in day-labour the amount of his holding, Irish poor, you may hear this motive ex- or else he must make the ground attached pressly assigned for the very early mar- to it yield a sufficiency for all demands. riages that they contract. If they defer- The latter he can rarely, if ever do: for red the engagement until they might ground to be at all productive demands have realized some little matter to begin frequent dressing; and this again requires the world with, their children would not an outlay of money, and money he has be sufficiently grown to take charge of