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substance, and that merely the of this great gift, are in a state of appearance of it remained ?
reprobation ? Now let me offer to Rom. You must excuse your mind, in disproof of this nofrom replying to such a question at tion, the striking fact, that Judas, the very moment of its suggestion. the betrayer of Christ, was one of I must take a short time to con- those who took from the Saviour's sider the difficulty on every side. own hand the first eucharist, over
Prot. Do so, but remember, which the Lord himself had just that if you cannot reply to it in pronounced the awful words,the affirmative, you do thereby * Take, eat, this is my body." tacitly admit that of which I ven- Yet Judas, only a few hours be. tured to hint a suspicion at the fore, bad covenanted to betray outset; namely, that your priests Christ, and within a few hours do, in fact, demand of their people after, he actually perpetrated that an universal and entire belief in a crime! W bat benefit then, will miraculous change, the truth of you tell us that his soul had re. which they find it impossible to ceived by that eating? Again, the realize in their own minds.
dying thief, we know, had never Rom. But there is one point of participated in this or any other the case which we must not part sacrament ; yet he was a saved without adverting to; I mean the man, and was removed from the general consent of the Fathers.
cross to paradise, into the immediProt. · I am about to pass on to ate presence of his Saviour, unthat ; but before we quit the main baptized, unanointed, without question, let me propose one other having eaten of this bread, or drank difficulty to your mind. I observe of this cup, which is made, in your that Dr. Wiseman closes his re- church, the very palladium of salview of the question, by charging vation ! upon Protestants “ the neglect of Ing. The difference must surely a sovereign command, a neglect to have been, that the one merely, in which is attached a fearful penalty, form and without any faith, or “ Unless ye eat the flesh of the Son spiritual intention, ate the bread of man, and drink his blood, ye and drank the cup,—while the have no life in you.” Now if I other, wanting the external observrightly understand his meaning, he ances, exercised that spiritual afficlearly implies, that to take this ance which is the essence of the real sacrament rightly, the miracle of communion. Faith, I suppose, in the transubstantiation having been duly one,and the absence of it in the other, performed, is “ to eat the flesh of the constituted the grand difference. Son of man," and thus “ to have Prot. Exactly so, as Auguslife ;” while to be without it, is to tine's words, which I have already be without Christ. Is not this
“ Why do you
prepare," says he, “your teeth Rom. Certainly; we do not and your stomach ? Believe only, imagine that Christ condescends and you will have eaten.” And in to pass into every eucharistic sa- strict accordance with this statecrifice, without thereby conveying ment, are the decisions of the any certain benefit. We have no English church.“ To such," says doubt that he who partakes of that the XXVIIIth Article," as rightawful sacrifice, is a partaker of ly, worthily, and with faith, receive Christ, and is mystically joined the same, the bread which we to him.
break is a partaking of the body of Prot. Such an one, then, is, at Christ; and the cup of blessing a least for the time, in a state of partaking of the blood of Christ." safety, while all who are destitute But “ the body of Christ is given,
your doctrine ?
taken, and eaten in the Supper, iu
ages this great doconly after a heavenly and spiritual trine was held as firmly by the manner. And the mean whereby” Universal Church, as it is now it “ is so received and eaten in the by those who remain in the Supper, is Faith.”
communion of the sovereign pon“ such as be void of a lively faith, tiff. Dr. Wiseman has referred although they do carnally and to the writings of Chrysostom, visibly press with their teeth, as Justin Martyr, Cyril, Gregory Augustine saith, the sacrament of of Nyssa, Irenæus, Augustine, the body and blood of Christ, yet Isaac of Antioch, and Amphiin no wise are they partakers of lochius, and he might have Cbrist, but rather to their con- quoted many others, had his space demnation do eat and drink the sign allowed. What is your expedient, or Sacrament of so great a thing." for getting rid of the force of their
Here, then, lies the distinction combined testimony? between the Protestant and the Prot. I have no desire to get rid Romish doctrines. We hold, that of them, for although they make after a heavenly and spiritual man- some show upon paper, the least ner, the body and blood of Christ examination shews these quotations are received by the real Christian to be quite beside the arguinent. in the Sacrament, through the me- Scarcely any of them do more than dium of faith, But we deny that merely paraphrase or vary our the ungodly receive Christ in any Lord's own expression, wise in that Sacrament. Conse- eat, this is my body.” When, quently we deny that when the therefore, we have satisfied ourconsecrated bread and wine lie selves that our Lord's own words upon the table, there exists, under
were merely figurative, what diffithe appearance of bread, the actual culty can we find in classing the body and blood of Christ. Your glowing language of the Fathers church, on the other hand, de- under the same head ? clares every one
ACCURSED, In fact, so overladen with figure “ who denies that a whole and and hyperbole did the theology of entire Christ is contained in every the Fathers become, that it is particle of what appears to be almost wonderful that we can at bread, and also in every particle of all see our way through the mazes what appears to be wine.” Con- of all their exaggerations. A caresequently, both Judas and every ful examination, however, of their other traitor to Christ who has usual modes of expression, will partaken of this Sacrament since soon remove all danger of a too his time, must have actually re- literal interpretation of their terms. ceived Christ himself, as certainly Cyril, for instance, who is as the thief on the cross was left greatly relied upon as a witness without the power of receiving for transubstantiation, thus speaks him. I leave this reflection on of another rite. He represents your mind, and shall now proceed " the oil of baptism, after conseto consider the testimony of the cration, not as mere oil, but as the Fathers. But we must pass very
grace of Jesus : as the bread is not rapidly over this part of the sub- mere bread, but the body of our ject, for our time has expired.
Thus we have transubRom. I only alluded to it, in stantiated oil, as well as transuborder to remind you of a fact, stantiated bread and wine. which you surely will not deny, Many of the fathers declare the that in almost every period of the water of Baptism to be Christ's Church, we have the most illus- blood. Chrysostom describes the trious witnesses, who testify that
* Cyril, 292,
baptised as “ clothed in purple
what blood are the bread and cup garments dyed in the Lord's which he delivered the images ? blood.'
"* Jerome describes Christ By these symbols he commended as saying to all Christians, “ Ye
bis memory to his disciples.” are baptised in my blood.” † Au- (Dial. iii. cont. Marcion.) Clegustine represents the faithful mens Alexandrinus says,
6. Such participating in our Lord's flesh food” (for faith) our Lord elseand blood in baptism.”
where sets forth in the Gospel of A sort of transubstantiation is John by symbols, saying, “ Eat also described as taking place in my flesh, and drink my blood.” men themselves at Baptism. (Pæd. c. 6. 1. 1. p. 100.) Cyril am changed," says Gregory,“ into
of Jerusalem says,
" In the type Christ in Baptism."
of the bread is given to you the faithful,” says Bede, “ are trans- body, and in the type of the wine, formed into our Lord's members, the blood.” (Cat. Myst. iv. 1. p. and become his body.”
“ Man, 292.) Eusebius of Cesarea says, in Baptism," says Leo, “is made “ Christ appointed them to use the body of Christ.” Now this bread as a symbol of his sort of language, which abounds body.” (Dem. Evan. lib. 8, c. 1.) throughout the writings of the Tertullian speaks of “ the bread by fathers, should render us cautious which Christ represents his body.' how we catch at their exaggerated (Adv. Marcion. lib. 1. p. 372.) phrases, and turn them into theo. Ambrose
" You receive the logical dogmas. Happily, how- sacrament as a similitude ; it is ever, in the present case, we have the figure of the body and blood not only reflex and inferential evi- of the Lord. You drink the likedence, but the most express decla- ness of his precious blood.” (De rations, in their own writings, that Sacram. lib. 4. c. 4.) Cyprian in calling the consecrated elements says,
" The blood of Christ is “ the body and blood of Christ," shewn by the wine.” (Cecil. patri. they meant nothing approaching epis. 65. p. 153.) and Pope Gelato transubstantiation. Augustine sius (A.D. 492) plainly declares, says,
6. Christ delivered to his that “ the substance or nature of disciples the figure of his body
the bread and wine ceases not to and blood.” (Enarrat. in Psal. iii.) exist, and assuredly the image and He adds, that “ he who does not similitude of the body and blood abide in Christ, and in whom of Christ are celebrated in these Christ does not abide, undoubtedly mysteries. (Contra Eutychen.) neither eats his flesh nor drinks Here are ten of the leading his blood.” (In Joh. Ev. c. vi. fathers of the church, and if time Tract_xxvi.) Chrysostom asks, permitted I might refer to forty “ If Jesus did not die, of what more, who all explicitly tell us, are the things which we perform, that in calling the sacramental the symbols ?” (Serm. on. Matt.) elements, the body and blood of He also says, that the
Christ, they mean no more than ment“ is esteemed worthy to be they apprehend Christ himself to called the Lord's body, although have meant-namely, that the the nature of the bread remaineth bread and wine were the types, the in it.” Origen asks, “ If Christ symbols, the figures, the represenhad neither Aesh, or blood, as some tations, of his body and blood ; heretics affirm, of what body and but that they continued to be
bread and wine still. And so much * Chrysost. 2, 226, ad illumin. Cate. 1. + Jerom 3, 16. in Isai. i.
for your boasted evidence from anAugust. Tract 11.
tiquity, in favour of TRANSUB§ Gregory. Orat, 40.
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The times in which we live are have very recently accumulated certainly marked by many striking our table, and clearly show and peculiar features, one of which that the friends and supporters of unquestionably is a very eminent our Church are active and energetic degree of activity. Our railroads in meeting every exigency; so and our steam engines are almost that no sooner does any assailant annihilating time and
space ; appear, than able and efficient bodies of every description are in combatants are found fully armed rapid motion; and the march of and equipped for the field. mind is the subject of many fore- We are not indeed clear whether bodings on the one hand, and of the so called Oxford Tracts have lively anticipations on the other : not produced a deeper impression in neither of which however do we than their intrinsic merits deserve, participate to any thing like the or than the danger which they extent of many around.
threaten can justify. That they not indeed the subjects of any des- abound in heresy, and are deeply ponding apprehensions. That our tainted with Popery is to us most church and state will be tried, that obvious; but at the same time we our enemies are malignant and rather rejoice that the symptoms determined, that many of our are now becoming clear and unfriends are ignorant, supine, mis- questionable. Pharisaism is as taken or lukewarm, are all suffi- destructive to the soul as Popery ; ciently obvious; but it is equally but the evils and dangers of Pharicertain that the cause of truth and saism are less alarming and revoltrighteousness shall prevail, nor ing; it is therefore rather can we see either in the language advantage to the general cause of prophecy or in the progress of when men speak out. The Froudes events, any reason to apprehend and Puseys and Newmans are that Popery shall ever again in only more fully developed plants these realms resume the ascendant. of the germs apparent in the re
We are well aware that widely membrancers, the orthodox, and different views are entertained by anti-evangelicals of former days : many whom we highly esteem. they may and will seduce a few, That the existence of a popish and and mislead a few; but they will infidel party in the House of Com- demonstrate to many the real tenmons ; the increase of popish dency of certain plausible princichapels throughout the land; and ples; will lead to the examination the out-breaking of semi-popish of the foundation of those principrinciples at Oxford and elsewhere, ples, and will thus eventually call depress the minds of many Protes- men off from human authority, to tants, and occasion Romanists to simplicity and dependance on the rejoice and triumpb; but these word of God. The Puseyite, various circumstances contribute Newmanian and Froudian princimost powerfully to elicit other ples may prevail to a certain extent feelings and excite counter-exer- amongst theorists and speculators, tions, so that at the very moment but they will not find much acwhen the ungodly triumph, their ceptance among practical men. downfall becomes most inevitable. They are suited to a collegiate and To enter fully into particulars, conventual atmosphere, but they would
occupy more time and space will never survive the buffettings than we can at present devote to of the real business and storms the discussion ; but we refer with of life. Those clergymen by whom confidence and congratulation to these principles are conscientiously the long list of publications pre- held, will find when they come to fixed to this article, all of which labour in parishes, that their.exer