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1. Because, in her Articles - the burial of the dead directs the which was the proper place, if she minister and the assembled conhad held a dogma to that effect- gregation of mourners, to express the Church of England does not hearty thanks' on occasion of the declare baptism to be regeneration. removal of a brother or sister deIn the former part of Article 27, parted in the faith. This is on the it is called the sign of regeneration, supposition that the church is in a a signing and sealing of promises, state of pure discipline; the only
instrument of engrafting hypothesis on which public liturinto the church: but this instru- gies can be framed. But-supmental' office of baptism is still posing the judgment of charity to restricted to the right reception of have been most scrupulously cauregeneration ; and
tious, and the evidences of peace given individual shall have rightly in death to have been most satisreceived baptism, will be made ap- factory-still, we ask, does this parent only at the day of judg- hearty thanksgiving prove that the ment. The clauses in the middle departed actually is in glory? of that Article refer to the case of We say, our hope is, that our adults, inasmuch as infants (ac- departed brother rests in Christ. cording to our catechism) cannot So then there may be hearty exercise faith. In the close of that thanksgiving, yea, and well-founded Article, infant baptism is main- thanksgiving, without what would tained, simply on the ground of its amount to dogmatical opinion. being most agreeable with the in- We give another example from stitution of Christ, and not common life :-A faithful parent, being regeneration; an opportu- anxiously watching over his chilnity is here prætermitted by our dren, and discerning in them, one Reformers, which the tract-writers after another, credible proofs of would not have failed to seize, the true work of regeneration, may of dogmatically asserting baptism assuredly give hearty thanks that to be regeneration.
at length they are regenerated by 2. If a hearty thanksgiving to the Holy Spirit : but his own God, appointed by the Liturgy of fullest convictions on that head our church, is to be regarded as an cannot amount to a certainty, seeassertion of a fact, then the form ing that God alone knows the of thanksgiving appointed to be hearts of those children. We conused after the baptism of such as sequently infer that the most ferare of riper years, (differing in vent language of thanksgiving is terms only from that used in the not necessarily the language of doccase of infants) pronounces then trinal declaration. also to have become sons of God, In every thing below there is and heirs of eternal life. And yet always something imperfect : and (even according to the tract- most of all this is the case with our writers) a baptized adult may have knowledge of the real state of others. been all the while a hypocrite, and
Here indeed our knowledge entirely in that case his baptism is vitiated. fails. As to the notion that infants What then becomes of the decla- rightly receive” baptism, and ration that he is born again? This consequently are regenerated there. shews that the declaration is not a by, because they cannot oppose an dogma; it is a 'thanksgiving of
thanksgiving of obstacle, but are passively-right hope, offered up, after the inter- recipients, it so manifestly places cessory' prayer of faith,' and ac- Baptism in the light of "a charm," cording to the judgment of as Bishop Burnet remarks, and is charity.'
so clearly of a Popish character, In a similar way, the service for that it needs not more words. The Tract writers refer us to no docu- little more than a word or two of ment of the Church of England comment from ourselves. to support the opinion of the The following passage is from obicem non ponentes : should our St. Augustine ; quoted in the Tract readers be curious to know where on Baptism, p. 21. the words and the doctrine are to
Most excellently do the Punic Chris. be found, we refer them to the
tians entitle Baptism itself no other than Council of Trent, Session
salvation, and the Sacrament of the body Canon 6.
of Christ no other than life. Whence,
except from an old, as I deem, and aposWhen therefore the Church of
tolical tradition, by which they hold it England in her 27th Article limits inserted into the Church of Christ, that, the benefit of Baptism to those without Baptism, and the participation of who “rightly receive" that Sacra
the Lord's table, no man can arrive, ment, we consider the sense to be
either at the kingdom of God, or salva
tion and life eternal. This as we have said, obvious in the case of adults :
is what Scripture testifies. For what do while in the case of infants the they who entitle Baptism salvation, hold “ right reception " is a condition other than what is written, “He hath saved
us by the washing of regeneration : and held in abeyance, and waiting for
what St. Peter saith, “ The like figure them to verify and realize it in
whereunto Baptism doth now save you ?” their riper years,
adds not a little of believing parents and ministers
real explauation to Scripture ; exhave done all that Christ has ap
cepting that it appears to assert pointed them to do, when they that the Sacraments are absolutely with faith present their infant at the
(not as our Catechism says, genefont, they have a hope which they rally) necessary to salvation. On also must not only express in warm this subject, hear St. Augustine thanksgivings, but must aim at
again, quoted page 87. realizing and substantiating, by the Christian education of the
Who knows not, that in infants to be
lieve is to be baptized, not to believe is child.
not to be baptized ? Since little ones do As to what may be-as some not begin to be of Christ's sheep but by have expressed it—the grace ac
Baptism, then those, who do not receive
Baptism, will perish ; for they will not tually attending Baptism, as we
have eternal life, which he giveth to his do not draw the obligation of In
sheep. Further, the ecclesiastical rule, fant Baptism from that considera- which reckons baptized infants among tion, it is (for the present at least) the faithful, does not so judge (viz. that superfluous to discuss the question.
they are in a middle state, neither believ
ing nor unbelieving). If then they who Our aim thus far has been simply
are baptized, on account of the virtue and to shew that spiritual regeneration celebration of so great a sacrament, (aldoes not necessarily attend the though they do not with their own mouth Sacrament, according either to
and heart, anything appertaining to belief
or confession,) yet are accounted among Scripture or the Church of Eng
believers, they to whom this sacrament is land.
wanting, must be accounted among such III. Let us now glance at some
as do not believe the same ! of the passages quoted by Dr. This more explicitly pronounces Pusey from the early Fathers, from that Infants wanting baptism must which we shall be enabled to see perish. The second extract in the how little help-none at all, we preceding passage is what may be think—the writers gain from this called “technical, rather than source, in support of their opinions. “ dogmatical." Yet out of such
Our limits restrict us from quot- technical expressions of the Fathers ing very copiously ; but we will it is not difficult plausibly to not select partially. We present deduce very absurd dogmas. the following passages, in Dr. We conclude the extracts from Pusey's own translation, with St. Augustine with another pasDECEMBER 1838.
sage, at page 85. He is speaking What belongeth to him who hath been of the Baptism of an infant.
born of water? That as Christ died to
sin once, so he also should be dead and The little one then, although he have
motionless towards all sin, as it is written, not as yet that faith which consists in the
as many as have been baptized into will of the believer, is made a faithful one
Jesus Christ have been baptized into his by the sacrament of faith itself. For as
death.” And again—' The dispensation he is answered for as believing, so also he of our God and Saviour in behalf of man, is called faithful, not by assenting to the
is a recalling from his state of fall, a substance thereof by his mind, but by
return to a familiar intercourse with God receiving the sacrament of that substance
from that state of alienation which took of faith. But when the man shall begin
place through the disobedience. For this to understand, then he will not repeat
cause was the presence of Christ in the that sacrament; but will understand it,
flesh; the patterns of evangelical life; and be conformed by the harmony of his
the passion, the cross, the burial, the will to its truth. In the meantime the
resurrection; so that man, being saved sacrament will avail to protect him against
by the imitation of Christ, receives again the power of the enemy : so that if he
that ancient adoption of sons.
To the should depart out of this life before he
perfection then of life, there is needed the have the use of reason, he shall (the love imitation of Christ, not only of the gen• of the Church recommending him
through tleness, and humility, and long-suffering, that very sacrament) be freed, through
displayed in his life, but of his death also; this Christian succour, from the condem
as St. Paul saith-he, the imitator of nation which “by one man entered into
Christ,—" being conformed to his death, the world.” This he who believes not
if by any means I may attain unto the and thinks that it cannot be, is wanting in resurrection of the dead." How then do faith, though he have the sacrament of
we come to the likeness of his death? faith; and far to be preferred before such
By “being buried with him through bapan one as that little one, who though he
tism.” What then is the mode of burial, have not as yet faith formed in his con- or what the benefit of the imitation ? ception, yet at least puts no bar of any
First, it is necessary that the course of thought opposed to it; whence he receives
the former life should be broken through. the Sacrament beneficially.
But this is impossible, unless a man be From the Italics which are given
born again, as the Lord said. For the reto the closing words of this para
generation, as the name also itself implies,
is the beginning of a second life; so that graph, we may infer that it is con- before we begin the second, an end must sidered by the Tract Writers as be put to the preceding. Wherefore our one of the most triumphant. It
Lord, in dispensing life to us, gave us the seems, indeed, not wholly unlike
covenant of baptism, containing an image
of death and life-the water fulfilling the the Popish non ponentes obicem, image of death, and the Spirit giving the and may seem a good introduction earnest of life. This then is " to be born to it. But after all, what do the
again of water and the Spirit.” So that words of this Father amount to?
whatever grace there is in the water, is
not from the nature of the water, but from While they state that an Infant
the presence of the Spirit. may be benefitted by Baptism,
We should apprehend from the they do not say in what sense, or
clause, it is necessary that the in what measure this grace may be
course of the former life should be conferred. It may be merely a relative benefit, or a prospective
broken through' that St. Basil is benefit; nothing is here defined
here speaking of adults. If so, It gives no support
the quotation does not all help the to the Synchronic theory. And
notion that grace irresistibly enters as to the passiveness of the In
the passive, unconscious soul of a
little child on its receiving bapfant, it seems from this passage
tism. to furnish no further benefit, than inasmuch as it places him in a bet
The following extract is from ter situation than the Adult hypo
St. Chrysostom, quoted at page
30 of the Tract on Baptisın. crite, one who hypocritically asks for Baptism, while be has no faith.
Let us not continue, says St. Chrysos
tom, to the candidate for Baptism, 'to The following passage from St.
gape after the things of this life, the luxasil occurs at page 24.
ury of the table, or the splendour of dress;
for thou hast a most glorious garment: also, (in Baptism,) because with such thou hast a spiritual table; thou hast the simplicity, without pomp, or any new glory which is on high; and Christ be. array, and lastly without cost, a man let cometh every thing to thee, table, and down into the water, and washed, while garment, and dwelling-place, and head a few words are uttered, arises again not and root ;
for as many as have been much, or not at all the cleaner, it appears baptized into Christ have put on Christ.” incredible that he should thereby have obThis, it appears, is addressed to
tained immortality. On the contrary, the
rites of the idols obtained trust and authocandidates for Baptism, that is, to
rity by apparatus and expense. MiseraAdults. It is very good advice to ble unbelief, which denies to God his pro• them, and to all sincere believers, perties, simplicity and power. The first but on the doctrinal question of
waters were ordered to bring forth living the Tract, it has no bearing what
creatures, lest it should seem strange that
in Baptism waters should give life. soever.
Concerning which passage we At pp. 37,38, occurs one of those incidental disparagements of our
observe, that it does not dogmati
cally declare that Baptism neceschurch documents, which might be
sarily confers life; but it amounts expected from those who are long simply to this, that when Baptism ing for a second Reformation. It
is rightly received, it is truly wonis intimated that in the doctrine of
derful to contrast the simplicity of our church, we have a relic, (a relic only!) of the proper use of
the means, and the greatness of the
accompanying, effectual grace, the term " seal” in reference to Baptism. The drift of the argu
The same might be said of the
preached word, when mixed with ment here is, that not only all the
faith in them that hear it: wonpromises of God are visibly sealed
derful, that the simplicity, yea, to us in and by Baptism, but the
the foolishness of preaching should baptized person is also sealed; that
be the instrument by which Christ is, guarded, preserved. &c. We
gives life to the dead. should not have thought that the
We add but one passage more, following passage from Hermas
together with the encomiastic rewould have supported this opinion :
marks that accompany it, page 45, for such purpose, however, it is Note. quoted in the Tract.
There is a striking saying of St. Cyprian, Thus Hermas (about A. D. 65–81 :) Ep. 63, ad Cæcilium ; “ As often as water • Before a person receive the seal of the is mentioned alone in Holy Scripture, so Son of God, he is doomed to death ; but often is Baptism extolled.” Moderns may when he receives that seal, he is freed think lightly, (i. e. as it is, in truth, unfrom death, and made over to life. But philosophically and superficially) of this that seal is water, into which men go system of interpretation ; but which revedown bound over to death, but arise, being rence most the Sacrament of their Lord ? made over to life. That seal, then, was
Not so, truly : it is neither unpreached to them also, and they made use
philosophic nor superficial to repuof it, to enter into the kingdom of God.'
diate fanciful accommodations of The words of Hermas are
Scripture. If this passage means vague and indefinite, that they
that wherever we find may bear almost any construc
mentioned alone” in Scripture, we tion : he uses the metaphor of a
are bound reverentially to muse on seal,” like a person who had no
the Sacrament of Christian Bapvery distinct idea attached to it: nothing beyond the general import- minds, " a striking saying ;” but
tism, it may be indeed, to some ance of baptism. The following passage at p. 45,
it is precisely one of that kind,
which tends to vitiate the clear and Note, is from Tertullian.
sound exposition of the word of There is nothing which so hardens the
God. And what does it prove minds of men, as that the divine works appear in act so simple, while the effect concerning Regeneration ? Nothing promised is so magnificent; so that here at all.
On briefly reviewing the whole ciety. Suppose them to succeed subject, we must confess that we in infecting the public mind, account it a great happiness to live through the younger clergy,-and under the auspices of the First the consequence will be that in a Reformation ; and we would most very few years their beginnings earnestly lift up a warning voice will be regarded as but a comto the younger clergy of mencement of Popery. A new Dichurch, to beware how they tam- gest of Divinity, compounded of per with the scheme of a Second voluminous extracts from councils, Reformation. The Church of En. and the Fathers and Ecclesiastical gland in her present authorized Historians, must be prepared. documents, is on the whole so sim- And by whom? Not by persons ple, so close to Scripture language, who extol the Via Media : but by so wary of immoderate tenets, Papists who are sufficiently near (which were quite as well under- at hand, to make a true churchman stood by our Reformers, as by any tremble. Our hope, however, is divines of the present day,) that in God: we humbly trust that He we cannot do better than abide will not thus visit us in his dequietly under her shadow, aiming served displeasure; but that He to carry out her teaching to the will, by the abundant outpouring greatest possible perfection, in of his Holy Spirit, cause the strict accordance with Scripture. clergy and people of this land to With regard to the present projec- advance, and not to go backward, tors of fancied improvement, we in spirituality, in all good works, can view them in no higher light in sound understanding, and in than as a sort of Precursor So- Scriptural theology.
SUNDAY AFTERNOON LECTURES OR SERMONS preached in the district Church of St. Mark, Pentonville. By the Rev. JOSEPH JOWETT, M.A. Rector of Silk Willoughby, Sunday Afternoon Lecturer of St. Mark's, and Domestic Chaplain to Lord Barham. 12mo. Pp. xii and 340. Seeleys, 1838.
We have had occasion to commend Mr. Jowett's published discourses, as especially adapted for the Christian instruction of families, both on account of the correctness of their sentiments, the plainness and precision of their language, and the striking and familiar character of their illustrations; and we have no hesitation in describing the present volume as every way equal to its predecessors. It contains twenty discourses which were delivered to an afternoon congregation, comprising many individuals in the lower walks of lifs; and the exhortations are therefore especially
calculated for the benefit of per-
prove a permanent and extensive blessing.