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SUMMARY OF WATER SUPPLY STATISTICS.
At the end of 1891 the State contained 28 cities and 323 towns, no change having been made in the number of cities or towns since the previous year.
During 1891 a public water supply was introduced into the towns of Foxborough, Holliston, Leicester, Millis and Reading, so that at the end of the year all of the cities and 114 towns, a total of 142 places, were provided with a public water supply.
The following table gives a classification, by population, of cities and towns having and not having public water supplies Dec. 31, 1891. The populations are taken from the census of 1890:
From the totals given in the table it will be seen that, although but forty per cent. of the cities and towns in the State have a public water supply, yet the total population of places supplied represents 86.6 per cent. of the whole population of the State. In this estimate of the total population of municipalities supplied all of the inhabitants in them are included, and it consequently includes rather more than the actual number of persons to whom a public water supply is available; the difference, however, is not large. There are now but 7 towns having a population exceeding 4,000 which are not provided with a public water supply. These are given in the following table :
In the following table the various water supplies are classified according to the dates when a fairly complete system of supply was first introduced into a city or town:
Of the 28 cities in the Commonwealth, 24, having a total population in 1890 of 1,302,929, own their water works, while 4, having a total population of 69,371, are wholly supplied by private companies. Of the 114 towns having public water supplies, 64, with a total population of 350,577, are supplied from their own works, wbile 50, with a total population of 215,481, are supplied by private companies. The total population in both cities and towns owning their works is 1,653,506, against 284,852 in those supplied by private companies.
The following table gives statistics with regard to the consumption of water in many of tbe cities and towns in this State. The populations for 1891, as given in the table, were obtained in a somewhat arbitrary manner by adding one-fifth of the increase in population from 1885 to 1890 to the population as determined by the census taken in the latter year. The daily consumption per inhabitant, obtained by dividing the average daily consumption by the total population of the city or town in 1891, shows a large variation, which, in most cases, is due to the different rate at which water is used in different places. In some cases, however, where the consumption per inhabitant is very low, it is occasioned by using the total population of the town as a divisor when only a limited portion of the inbabitants were supplied with water. This is especially the case where there are villages in the town to which the water works have not been extended, or where works have recently been built and there has not been sufficient time for the general introduction of water.
Statistics relating to the Consumption of Water in various Cities and Towns.
Abington and Rocklaod,
9,671 293,000 Andover,.
11,148 765,000 Boston (Cochituate Works),
421,611 37,687,000 Boston, somerville,
Chelsea und Ever.
ell(Mystic W ks), 121,137 9,055,000 Braintree,
5,010 299,000 Bridgewater and
Eası Bridgewater, 7,264 102,000 Brockton,
28,696 669,000 Brookline,
12,685 980,000 Cambridge,
72,102 4,871,000 Cobasset,
2,494 55,100 Dau vers and Mid. ditton, .
8,461 513,000 Dedham,
7,219 212,000 Easton,*
4,602 85,500 Fall River,
77,904 2,356,000 Framingham,
9,432 221,000 Franklin, .
8,652 439,000 Gloucester,
25,241 491,000 Hyde Park and Mil.
14,979 498,000 Lawrence,
45,812 3,180,000 Lowell,
80,414 | 5,920,000 Lyon and Saugus, 61,536 3,131,000
9,071 473.000 31,313 2,726,000 1,695 30,000
52 87 18
61 29 19 30 23
* The population given is that of the whole town but only a part of the town is supplied with water.
The rainfall for the whole year 1891 was somewhat above the average, but it was very unevenly distributed. In the first three months it was excessive, and during the remainder of the year was below the normal. During these drier months the deficiency in rainfall produced a drought, which, though not as severe as droughts which have occurred in previous years, was long-continued, and in many cases caused a heavy draught upon ponds and reservoirs used as sources of water supply, thereby reducing their level to a lower point than for several years.
The average annual rainfall * in Massachusetts, as deduced from long-continued observations in various parts of the State, is 45.22 inches. In the following table is given, in inches, the normal rainfall for each month in the year, the rainfall for each month in 1891, and the departures from the normal. †
* Including melted snow.
† This and subsequent tables of rainfall have been prepared from the records of the New England Meteorological Society.
To enable the condition preceding the collection of samples of water in any part of the State to be understood, the following tables are presented, which give the daily rainfall in inches at nine stations scattered about the State :