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Total,

100.0 100.0 * 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 In absolute numbers, the males y Male, 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 being 1,000,

. | Female, 1,021 1,030 1,005 662 907 876 1,202 974 Compared with the number liv. , Male,

11,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 ing of each sex at all ages, ./ Female,

841

1,115 904 Compared with the number liv. ( Male, 1,000 1,000 1,000

ing of each sex under 10 years of age,

Female, 1,034 1,044 ' 1,019 Compared with the number liv. ( Male,

1,000 ing of each sex under 5 years Female,

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of age,

Death Rates per 10,000 of the Population living at Each Age Period of Life

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The mortality for phthisis was in the ratio of 1,000 males to 1,202 females, or, when compared with the number living of each sex, as 1,000 males to 1,115 females. The mortality of the sexes also differed considerably at different ages, that of females being greatest for all ages up to 30 years, while that of males was greatest for all the later ages from 30 to 80 years.

In the table of age periods the most noteworthy departure from what may be termed a normal rate of increase or decrease from one age period to another exists in the column for small-pox. In the few instances of such tables as have been preserved in Europe from the statistics of the pre-vaccination period, the death rate from small-pox of children under 5 years was very much greater than that of the present day, while that of the later ages was comparatively small. In the present table for Massachusetts the large ratio of deaths of children under 5 years corresponds to the experience of partially vaccinated populations, and the increasing ratio at the ages 10-30 undoubtedly indicates a neglect of re-vaccination at a time when the renewed susceptibility to smallpox has not been met by re-vaccination of persons living at those ages.

SEASONAL MORTALITY.

[See diagram on the following page.]
Percentages of Deaths in Different Months of the Year (1871-90).

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The following table affords a good illustration of the truth of Dr. Farr's rule or statement, relative to the effect of density of population in increasing the death rate from infectious diseases. In the direction westward toward Berkshire County the same uniformity is not shown, since the diminishing ratio of density is not maintained in that direction, Hampden having a greater density than Worcester County. In the southward direction, however, as shown in the following table, the mortality rate from two of the principal infectious diseases decreases inversely with the distance from the metropolitan county of Suffolk and the density of population (expressed in acres per inhabitant) :

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DIPHTHERIA & CROUP.

TYPHOID FEVER.

PHTHISIS

PNEUMONIA.
The diagrams shown above are intended to illustrate the seasonal mortality from the eight causes of death presented on page 873.

In the construction of theme diagrame, the radius of the circle represents the average mortality of one month. The actual mortality of each
month is represented relatively by the distance of the pointe or angles of the shaded areas from the centre of the circle. The shaded arene do not
express the actual mortality quantitatively.

The total numbers of deaths from which the diagrame are constructed are stated on page 760.

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HEALTH OF TOWNS.

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