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. I have dwelt the longer on this instance, because, whilft it takes nothing from the truth which has been esta blished, it teaches us another of great importance. Wise men are certainly superior to all the evils of exile. But in a ftri& sense he, who has left any one passion of his soul unsubdued, will not deserve that appellation. It is not enough that we have studied all the duties of public and private life, that we are perfetly acquainted with them, and that we live up to them in the eye of the world. A palfion that lies dormant in the heart, and 'has escaped our fcrutiny, or which we have observed and indulged as venial, or which we have perhaps encouraged, as a principle to excite and to aid our virtue, may one time or other destroy our tranquillity, and disgrace our whole character.—This was the case of Cicero. Vanity was his cardinal vice. It had, I question not, warmed his zeal, quickened his induftry, animated the love of his country, and supported his conftancy against Cataline : but it gave to Clodius an entire victory over him.'

Having shewn, that change of place is the delight of many, and that it may be borne by every man; his lordship proceeds thus: But who can bear the evils that accompany exile ? You who ask the question can bear them. Every one who considers them as they are in themselves, instead of looking at them through the false optic which prejudice holds before our eyes. For what? you have loft your estate : reduce your desires, and you will perceive yourself to be as rich as ever ; with this considerable advantage to boot, that your cares will be diminished.-Banish out of your exile all imaginary, and you will suffer no real wants. The little stream which is left will suffice to quench the thirst of nature, and that which cannot be quenched by it, is not your thirst, but your diftemper; a distemper formed by the vicious habits of your mind, and not the effect of exile. How great a part of mankind bear poverty with chearfulness, because they have been bred in it, and are accustomed to it? Shall we not be able to acquire, by reason and by reflection, what the meanest artisan possesses by habit ? ---Let us cast our eyes backwards on those great men who lived in the ages of virtue, of fimplicity, of frugality, and let us blush to think that we enjoy in banishment more than they were masters of in the midit of their glory, in the utmost affluence of their fortune. Let us imagine that we behold a great dictator giving audience to the Samnite ambassadors, and preparing on the

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hearth his mean repaft with the same hand which had lo often subdued the enemics of the commonwealth, and borne the triumphal laurel to the capitol. Let us remember that Plato bad but three servants, and that Zeno had none. - After such examples, fhall we be afraid of poverty? Shall we disdain to be adopted into a family which has so many illustrious ancestors ? Shall we complain of banishment, for taking from us what the greatest philosophers, and the greatest heroes of antiquity never enjoyed ?'

His lordship now considers the inconvenience attending exile, which arises from a separation from our family and friends... You are separated, says he, from your family and your friends: take the list of them, and look it well over. How few of your family will you find who deserve the name of friends ? and bow few among those who are really such? Eraze the names of such as ought not to stand on the roll, and the voluminous catalogue will soon dwindle into a narrow compass. Regret, if you please, your separation from this small remnant. Far be it from me, wbilft I declaim against a shameful and vicious weakness of mind, to proscribe the sentiments of a virtuous friendthip. Regret your separation from your friends; but regret it like a man who deserves to be theirs. This is strength, not weakness of mind; it is virtue, not vice.'

With regard to contempt and ignominy, he tells us, that they can never fall to the lot of a wise and virtuous man. . It is impossible, says he, that he who reverences himself should be despised by others : and how can ignominy affect the man who collects all his strength within himself, who appeals from the judgment of the multitude to another tribunal, and lives independent of mankind and of the accidents of life? Cato lost the election of prætor, and that of consul; but is any one blind enough to truth to imagine, that these repulses reflected any disgrace on him?' The dignity of these two magistracies would have been encreased by his wearing them. They suffered, not Cato.

« BANISHMENT, with all its train of evils, is so far from being the cause of contempt, that he who bears up with an undaunted spirit against them, while so many are dejected by them, ercets on his very misfortunes a trophy to his honour: for such is the frame and temper of our minds, that nothing ftrikes us with greater admiration than a man intrepid in the midst of misfortunes. Of all ignominies an ignominious death must be allowed to be the

greatest; greatest; and yet, where is the blasphemer who will prelume to defame the death of Socrates? This faint entered the prison with the same countenance with which he reduced thirty tyrants, and he took off ignominy from the place: for how could it be deemed a prison when Socrates was there?

His lordfhip concludes this excellent treatise in the following manner : “ These are some of those refections which may serve to fortify the mind under banishment, and under the other misfortunes of life, which it is every man's interest to prepare for, because they are common to all men: I say, they are common to all men; because even they who escape them are equally exposed to them. The darts of adverse fortune are always levelled at our heads. Some reach us, some graze against us, and Ay to wound our neighbours. Let us therefore impose an equal temper on our minds, and pay without murmuring the tribute which we owe to humanity. The winter brings cold, and we must freeze. The summer returns with heat, and we must melt. The inclemency of the air disorders our health, and we must be fick. Here we are exposed to wild beasts, and there to men more savage than the beasts: and, if we escape the inconveniencies and dangers of the air and the earth, there are perils by water and perils by fire. This established course of things it is not in our power to change: but it is in our power to assume such a greatness of mind, as becomes wise and virtuous men; as may enable us to encounter the accidents of life with fortitude, and to conform ourselves to the order of nature, who governs her great kingdom, the world, by continual mutations. Let us submit to this order; let us be persuaded, that whatever does happen ought to happen, and never be fo foolish as to expoftulate with nature. The best resolution we can take is, to suffer what we cannot alter, and to pursue, without repining, the road which providence,' who directs every thing, has marked out to us : for it is not enough to follow; and he is but a bad foldier who fighs, and marches on with reluctancy. We must receive the order with spirit and chearfulness, and not endeavour to link out of the post which is assigned us in this beautiful difpofition of things, whereof even our sufferings make a necessary part. Let us address ourselves to God, who governs all, as CLEANTHES did in those admirable verses, which are going to lose part of their grace and energy in my translation of them.

" Parent

« Parent of nature ! master of the world!
Where'er thy providence directs, behold
My steps with chearful resignation turn.
Fate leads the willing, drags the backward on.
Why should I grieve, when grieving I must bear?

Or take with guilt, what guiltless I might share?”
· Thus let us speak, and thus let us act. Resignation
to the will of God is true magnanimity. But the sure
mark of a pufillanimous and base spirit, is, to struggle
againft, to censure the order of providence, and, instead
of mending our own conduct, to set up for correcting
that of our Maker.'

Ri

IN

ART. XLVII.

THEODORUS: A dialogue concerning the
art of preaching. By mr. David Fordyce, late profesor
of philosophy in the marischal college, Aberdeen. 12mo.
35. Dodfley.
N an advertisement prefixed to this excellent performance

we are told, that the author was originally designed for the church, to which he was early prompted, both by his genius and disposition; and that the whole aim of his ambition, and the whole purpose of his studies, for a course of years, was to prepare himself for it. What kind of appearance he made as a preacher, we know not : but that he was well qualified for appearing with honour in that character, no one, we are persuaded, who peruses the piece now before us with candour and attention, will doubt. He writes like one who felt the importance of the sacred charaEter, and who was deeply sensible of the necessity of acquiring a-large stock of furniture, in order to support it with honour'and usefulness. His piety appears to have been manly and rational ; his sentiments of the divine perfections exalted and amiable his knowledge of human nature, and of the various ways of affecting the human heart, very extensive; and his eloquence natural and affecting.

It were to be wished that all, who have the facred office in view, would peruse this small treatise with care and attention : for, tho' our author has not entered into a full and particular detail of pulpit-eloquence, he has shewn what the great end is, which a preacher of the gospel ought to propose to himself; what are the qualifications he ought to be poslefied of; and what are the properest methods of fer

ting about the instruction and persuasion of mankind. With regard to his ftile and manner of writing, we need say nothing; as it may be fairly presumed that most of our readers are well acquainted with his ingenious and entertaining dialogues on education.

Our author takes up almost a third part of his performance in reviewing the different modes of eloquence that have prevailed in different ages and nations of the world, and the more observable revolutions that have happened in the method of preaching in our own country, since the reformation. In this part of his work he has shewn great knowledge of antient and modern times, a thorough acquaintance with the genius of Greece and Rome, and has given several hints which may be extremely useful to all who study with a view either to the pulpit or the bar : we shall not, however, detain our readers with any extracts from it, but proceed directly to that part where he enters more closely upon his subject, after having given them his sentiments concerning our modern preachers, which he delivers in the character of AGORETES, a gentleman intended for the ministry.

· I am conscious to myself of no prejudices against our modern preachers, said AGORETES, and am very willing to allow them all the merit that you or their warmest advocates can plead for. I allow them generally a noble superiority to popular errors, great freedom and beauty of sentiment, clear reasoning and coherence of thought, deep critical skill, elegance of itile, a just arangement of periods, propriety of pronounciation, and much modesty in their action and manner. But, after all, I have so unhappy a taste, or so unfashionable a way of thinking, as not to be thoroughly satisfied even with all these combined excellencies. I want, my dear fri'nd, to have my mind exalted above the world, and above itself, with the sacredness and sublimity of divine things: I want to feel, warmly to feel, no less than to be coolly convinced of, the transcendent beauty and excellence of virtue: I want to be suspended, and awed, as with the presence of God, to sink into deep proftration before him, to be ftruck with the majesty of his perfections, and transported with the wonders of his love: I want to conceive an infinite horror at fin, to glow with an aident paflion of doing good, to pant after perfection and immortality, and to ripen apace for both: in short, I want to have my understanding enlightened, my heart inflamed, every affection thrilled, and my whole life reformed. Vol. VI. Еe

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