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understanding is to be addressed, Theodorus now goes on to shew how the preacher fhould proceed with the other powers of our mixed nature.

· The next grand principle, says he, to which the preacher ought to address himself with a peculiar energy, I take to be the CONSCIENCE, or that maral faculty of perception, by which we diftinguish between virtue and vice, are conscious of good or bad order within, and approve or condemn accordingly. To address this faculty to purpose, and to rouse its inmolt feelings, is a matter of infinite delicacy and moment. That preacher who would speak home to the confciences of men, must lay open the human heart, and trace its windings, its difruises and corruptions : he muft unfold the principles and springs of human conduct, remove from actions their falsc colourings, and distinguish appearances from realities: he must detect the various biale ses of self-love and self-deceit, expose the struggles of interfering pafîions, paint the several virtues and vices, in all the beauty of one, and deformity of the other, give to every character its just form and boundaries, bring it to the test of the great rule of life, and, in short, draw voice and paflion from the heart of man; so that every one mall hear, fee, and recognize himself, and stand acquitted or condemned in his own breait, according as he delerves one or the other. This is to address the conscience. And whoever can do this to purpose, has hit upon the true masterkey of sacred eloquence, and poffefses that powerful art, by which he may alarm, controul, and govern the human mind.

'A faculty immediately subordinate to this, and which must be employed as a main instrument to work upon it, is the IMAGINATION, that active and wonderful power, which presents to us the various images of things, and invests i hem, with the mighty force they have to charm or frighten, to attract our admiration, or excite our aversion. It must therefore be no mean part of the preacher's business to apply himself to this noble faculty, by laying proper materials before it, combining strong images, selecting those circumftances which are moit adapted to impress the mind, and to thew things as it were present to its very sense, exhibiting natural and moving pictures of life and manners, cmploying bold sentiments and glowing figures, animating the whole with such itsengih and spirit, and adorning it with fuch elegance and grace, both in his diction and manner, as are fittest to allure, to seize, and transport the hearers.

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« The art you talk of, fays Agoretes, seems to he of wide extent, and of gr at difficulty in the execution: but should a preacher indulge to the flights of fancy, which you appear to recommend, is there no danger of his losing himself in those airy regions, which terminate in chimera, of his quitting the fimplicity or debafing the dignity, of such compofitions, by an affectation of too much ornament, and appearing to lay baits for catching the imagination, rather than to offer arguments for convincing the judgment ? Would it not, therefore, be better to keep to the more plain and fase riad of common sense and sober reasoning?

• I frankly acknowledge, says Theodorus, there is abundance of danger in the wild excursions of an ungoverned fancy; and perhaps it is no easy matter to rein it well: but should we forbid the preacher the use of so efficacious an engine, we should deprive him of a main instrument of perfuafion, and hardly leave him any thing to move the palfions, which are however the great and immediate springs of action. Man is too listless and lazy a creature, to be actuated by cool views of interest, or dry speculations concerning his duty and happiness. One who is such a dupe to his pleasures, and who is always engaged in some present pursuit, which engrofles all his thought and care, needs many powerful motives to make him quit the chace, very interesting views to win his attention, and very convincing seasons to allure him to a different course. Objects which are remote from sense and marrer, as moral and divine truths are, must be brought near the mind, and rendered palpable and familiar to it by the beauty or ft:ength of imagery : objects diftane as to time and place, can only have that dirtance leffened, by being represenied in such a lively and len. sible manner, as to appear almost present to the mind. But how is this to be done, without borrowing all the lights and colouring which a bright and glowing fancy can buftow; without giving a body to our conceptions, by striking allufions, comparisons, and representations; in short, without making the imaginition fubfirvient to reason and judgment? It is therefore by natural and animated pi&tures of good and evil, virtue and vice, heaven and hell, and all those o: her auful and momentous topics which religion afords, that the imagination is to be roured, and the various affections of our nature interested. It is thus our admira'ion and love are to be kindkd, our averfion and indignation raised, our "hopes and fears awakened, cur joy and forrow, our fympa. behand, and other pasions, excited. In doing this, there wiil


be both necessity and scope for all the bold, the tender, the sublime, and the pathetic figures, which have been emploved, or recommended by the greatest masters of eloquence. Last of all, to set this whole machinery a-going, and to make a discourse come home with full weight on the hearer's mind, the preacher must add the majelty and harmony of found, with all the strength and propriety of action ; that the ear and eye may be fully satisfied, and concur to enforce the authority of the speaker, and to leave his words as stings in the hearts of the audience. This, gentlemen, I offer you only as a short and imperfect fhetch of the preacher's duty, or the method of setting about the instruction and persuasion of mankind. Your own reflections will easily suggest a thousand particulars on the subject, which are scarce to be reduced to rules, and are best learned from good models, but above all from the practice of the art.'

Theodorus, after thewing the tests whereby an indifferent person may judge of the excellence of a sermon, proceeds to point out the qualifications necessary to a preacher. The principal qualification, and that which he most enlarges upon, is that of being a good man; a lover of God, and a friend of men. A preacher, says he, who has not felt. the power, and imbibed the spirit of chriftianity, is the most unfit person in the world, to teach and recommend it to others. Christianity is not so much a bare system of doctrines, or of rules, as an institution of life, a discipline of the heart and its affiétions, a vital and vivifying spirit, a ray of light, fent down from the father of lights, to illuminate a benighted world, and io conduct wandering mortals to a state of perfection and happines. He, into whose mind this all irradiating and all quickening light has not shone, is yet dark and dead; and, whilst he continues fo himself, how can he enlighten or vivify others ?

You know, gentlemen, how much the foundest of the antient philosophers required, as well as recommended, a previous course of trial and preparation, before they admitted their fcholars, or thought them fit to be admitted, to a participation of the more fublime myfteries of science. What composure of mind and paffion, what discipline of filence and retirement, what disengagement from sense and the world, what purity of heart and manners, were deemed necesary to qualify them for beingles into the arcana, the fundamental principles of their philofophy? Now, as the christian institution is only a more refined so.cies of philofophy, a more efficacious art of purging the foul from the dregs of sense


and passion, and reuniting it to truth, reason, and virtue, and by consequence to the Divinity; as Jesus Chrift is the author of this divine philosophy, and our great my stazogue to introduce us into the Holy of Holies, and to impart the auguit mysteries of faith; he must certainly expect of all his disciples, and particularly require of those who are to minister to others, a more than ordinary refinement and simplicity of manners. A man must have conversed much with Jesus, must have long studied his maxims, and been formed after his holy and self-denying spirit, before he can thoroughly comprehend and relith his pure, and heavenly doctrines, or be qualified to teach them to others.

What watchful discipline of the heart, what fevere correction of the fancy, what struggles with himself, what contrition, what penitence, what humiliation must be have gone thorough, in order to conquer the prejudices of nature, and the prepoffeffions of habit, to reconcile him to the mysteries of the cross, and to make him submit chearfully to the ftrictness of the gospel-law? How often must be have fat at the feet of Jesus, before he learned to lose the subtilty of the man in the fimplicity of the child, the art of the fceptic in the candeur and ingenuity of the believer? I will be bold to say, that no man can truly underfand the dogmata of the christian faith, whose mind is sweli'd with vanity, sullied with vice, or funk in pleasure. This divine light cannot dwell amidst such impure fumes. Whatever principles of knowledge, whatever rules of life, we pretend to communicate to others, will take a tinature of the veffel through which they pais. To the clean, all will be clean; and to the impure, all will be impure. The good man, out of the abundance of his heart, will bring forth good things; but a wicked man evil things. And surely it may be laid down as a maxim, that, as a corrupt

heart can dictate no language, that is r.ot in some respect adulterated; fu a corrupt life can enforce no practice, but what is of a colour with itself.'

Another essential and indispenfible qualification of a preacher, we are told, is the knowledge of buman nature, ard of like. • The end of preaching, says Theodorus, which may be considered as the art of spiritual medicine, is, to remove a vicious temperament of mind, to introduce a good one, and to confirm it by proper applications and a right regimen. But it is evident, that this end can never be attained, without a thorough knowledge of the heart of man, of the diforders which arise there, and the various appearances which these put on in the characters of men, and the conduct of life. In order to acquire this neceffary branch of knowledge, the passions must be accurately surveyed, because these are the grand springs of action : the motives and causes which influence chem, those species of good and ill which impel or restrain their motions, their mutual connexions and dependance, together with those circumstances and relations in life that contribute to their growth or decay, must be carefully studied. For it is from a full and exact detail of the process of nature in the structure and operations of its leading powers, that we must deduce the true healing art, or the fureft rules for restoring and perfecting the human constitution. Therefore a preacher must study his own heart well, and be much conversant with mankind, with those especially who relign the health of their souls to his care, if he would practise with success upon such nice subjects.'


“You seem, Sir, fays Agoreles, in the last part of your discourse, to have mentioned a very material branch of the preacher's business; we should be glad to hear it explained at mcre length, and to know what are the best methods for carrying on the cure of diseased minds.

. For my pari, replies Theodorus, I know no cercain or universal recipes for the recovery of mental disorders. After the utmott care that mortals can take of them, they must be left at last in the hands of the almighty physician of souls, who knows their iomoft frame, and can apply fovereign and intallible remedies. Different minds must be treated differently, according to their leveral conftitutions. We fhall, however, apply the healing art the more succefsfully, if we remember what is the immediate cause of most dil. tempers that attack the human constitution. Now by observing the various complexions and characters of men, and analysing the several disorders to which they are obnoxious, we shall find, that it is generally some mistaken opinion of right and wrong, of God and religion, or the admiration fome partial, and generally some external good, that misleads and governs the bulk of mankind, and gives rise to all the irregular paflions which disquiet their minds, and to all the wild disorders which deform their lives. Some false species of good, borrowing delusive colours from the fair and genuine forms of virtue, beauty, or happinejs, and having past into the region of fancy, unexamined and undistinguished by the judgment, first raises admiration, then passion ; which, being succeeded by choice, gives birth to resolution,


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