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employed intensely on a subject, as Horace had long since observed,
Verbaque prævifam rem non invita sequentur. His selecting the most simple and obvious cause of animal motion has rendered his account of the distinct modes of it, in different organs, clear, consistent, very analogous, and highly probable. His frequent diffenfion from writers of name appears to rise from a true spirit of philosophizing; and the pleasure he seems conscious of in honouring the best physiologists evinces him to be superior to any little local narrowners, while it renders him a very just object of the respect and candour of others. Though his subject is naturally abftrufe, he has generally declined abftraét and metaphysical reasonings; and in those fe&tions, where the particular divisions of his subject made them inevitable, they seem as illustrating as the difficulty will permit. But what must entitle him to the first esteem of his wiseft readers, is that habitual and unaffected veneration of the original and ultimate Mover of the subject of his contemplation; and that acknowledgment of human deficience, which so naturally occur in such a work, and which result from that most essential philosophy, SELF-KNOWLEDGE. His intelligent medical readers will hope with pleasure for a practical falutary application of his doctrine of the vital motions in a future volume: but at present he seems (after having tacitely interrogated himself on the cui bono, the firft laudable scope of his performance) not to be ashamed of imitating, under a different system, the wiseft Pagans, who could discover, from the light of Reason and Nature, the justness and decorum of a Jove principium. In brief, his admirable conclusion of the whole makes it very evident, that there is a most eligible medium between the perverse self-ignorance of libertines on the one hand, and the ravings cf enthufiafts on the other; and that he who worships with the trueft understanding, is most likely to worship with the truest spirit also. But it is unnecessary to anticipate it, and it were injurious to the public, and consequently injudicious in us, to substitute any thing in its place.
• As philosophical inquiries, however agreeable and entertaining they may be to the mind, become ftill more interesting when they can be applied to practice; I intended to have Thewn, how far the theory of the vital and other involuntary motions, which we have endeavoured to elablish, may be useful towards explaining the nature of several difeases, and consequently towards pointing out the most proper method of curing them. But, as this essay has swelled to a much greater bulk than I at first expected, I shall now, omitting that part of my design, conclude with a reflexion of a diferent nature.
From what has been offered, then, in the preceding pages, it may appear, how unjustly the study of medicine has been accused of leading men into scepticism and irreligion. A little philosophy may dispose some men to atheism; but a more extensive knowledge of nature will surely have the contrary effect. If the human frame is considered as a mere CORPOREAL system, which derives all its power and energy from matter and motion ; it may, perhaps, be concluded, that the IMMENSE UNIVERSE itself is deftitute of any higher principle. But if, as we have endeavoured to Thew, the morions and actions of our small and inconfiderable bodies are all to be referred to the active power of an IMMATERIAL principle; how much more necessary muft it be to acknowledge, as the author, sustainer, and fovea reign ruler of the universal system, an INCORPOREAL NATURE, every where and always present, of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; who conducts the motions of the whole, by the most consummate and unnerring reason, without being prompted to it by any other impulse, than the original and eternal benevolence of his nature !
Nam quis non videt, finita si breve corpus
parva moveri Machina; tam fragilis ; te judice, tanta regetur Mentis inops ! Credant Epicuri de grege porci *.
The true physiology, therefore, of the human body, not only serves to confute those philosophers, who, rejecting the existence of IMMATERIAL BEINGS, ascribe all the phenomena and operations in nature to the powers of matter and motion ; but, at last, like all other sound philosophy, leads us up to the First Cause and supreme AUTHOR of All who is ever to be adored with the profoundeft reverence by the reasonable part of his creation.'
Conclufion af mrs. Jones's MISCELLANIES.
N the Review for March last we gave a specimen of
mrs. Jones's poetry, with some mention of her prosewritings; from which we are now to make a few extralls, and therewith conclude our account of the volume of milcellanies published by this ingenious lady.
The first article we meet with in this part of her book, is a short piece of humour, entitled, An abstract of an order of convocation (held at Oxford] in relation to Mélissa's taking off medals, &c. in paper. Next, we have another humorous performance, an incorrect copy of which was fome years ago printed without the author's name, from a MS. privately handed about; viz. the celebrated Letter ta dr. Pitt: the occasion of which was to quicken the performance of the doctor's promises of repairing with a wall, a very sorry and Matter'd old mound of pales, which die vided bis garden from that belonging to the author's place of residence. The inconveniencies of this nusance are here set forth in a moft ingenious allegory, alluding to the doctor's medical profeffion. It would have given us no small pleasure, to have enriched our collection with an extract of this article ; but we doubt not that most of our readers have already seen it.
: Following the letter to dr. Pitt, is a treatise of demoniacs; an ironical satire upon some of those defects or follies of mankind, which, as our author expresses it, are of our own seeking, i. e. such as spring from a depravity of our nature, and come under the notion of wrong-headedness or perverseness. Among these demoniacs the author ranks many of our fine gentlemen and ladies, enthusiasts and extravagant devotees, wrong-headed divines, physicians, &c. &c. whose absurdities the humorously points out, and pleasantly accounts for, by resolving all into different kinds of madness, or the being pofleffed by demons.
The miscellaneous letters are divided into three parts, Those in the first division are addressed to mrs,
等 *** and are comprised in 90 pages. In the more serious of these, the amiable writer appears to no small advantage in the character of a moral philofopher, and opens to us the treasures of a well-cultivated mind, with a graceful negligence of manner, and that becoming openness of expres-, fion, which are generally connected with an ingenuous, unaffected, honeft difpofition. In those of a gayer turn, the
discovers a refined freedom of sentiment, a command of language, a Aow of imagination, and a fund of pleasantry and chearfulness, which altogether compose an entertainment that cannot fail of pleasing a reader of true taste. The following extracts, we apprehend, will need no formality of introduction.
As (a) to the instability of the human mind, the supreme intelligence would have frustrated his own designs, if he had made it incapable of being touch'd, or mov'd with the appearance of good. The present and future is all we are, concern'd about. The present will naturally take place, 'till we have tasted and try'd it; and if it is found insuffi- . cient, he has given us the reasoning faculty to carry our reo searches farther, even to revelation, which will light us thro' the mists of error and ignorance. If then we use this faculty right, it will lead us on, 'till we arrive at the highest good ;--the improvement of our natures here, and glory. and immortality hereafter. This infiable disposition therefore of the human mind is it's proper state ; as it leads us, by just gradations, on to perfection, and at the same time leaves us free agents.
. The manifest insuficiency of sensual enjoyments no one surely ever deny’d. -A life of pleasure, a total immersion in sensuality, can by no means be the proper happiness of a human creature : a creature compos’d of two diftinct principles of action, reflection as well as sensation. From the latter we may infer the temperate gratification of the inferior faculties; and from the former the necessity of restraining them within proper bounds. For whenever they exceed, either in kind or degree, they encroach upon that faculty, which ought to be the governing principle, and consequently destroy that happiness they were design'd to promote.
• There is so close a connection between the body and soul, that whatever one enjoys or suffers, the other partakes of. Now the body is as much a part of our nature as the soul ; our appetites and paffions, as our reason: therefore whats cyer gives the body its proper tone or vigour, that is, what ever is most likely to smooth and harmonize the passions, and hinder them from preying upon themselves, or others, must at the same time bid faireft for regulating the powers of the understanding, and give them likewise their due force and energy. Temperate gratifications therefore, as they are highly conducive to these ends, must of consequence promote, rather than disturb the harmony of virtue, in that,
by. (a) Page 198.
by contributing to (or rather being) the health of the body, they corroborate the powers of the mind, and keep the paflions in good humour, which would otherwise contract Tournefs and morofity, and create a perpetual war within. -Take away the pallions entirely, and, in effect, you take away virtue and vice ; invert their order or course, and you turn every thing topsy-turvy; but under proper reguJations, and allow'd their due influence, they come in for a considerable thare of the harmony, and render the balance on virtue's fide, more strong, compleat, and full.
• If by religion, or virtue, is meant only divine adoration, or the worship of the Deity, this is so far from being the file business or happiness of a moral agent, that ’ris onJy one pa: ticular branch of it, tho' undoubedly the firft and highest Our neighbours, and ourselves require a large porsion of our care and concern; and these again branch'd out into their several relations and duties. But if we fuffer one particular duty (even the worship of the Deity) to engross us all, or even to entrench upon the relt, we make but a very imperfect essay towards religion, or virtue, and are still at a confiderable distance from the business of a mo
There are many well-meaning people, who, out of a mistaken zeal for religion, have carried this duty to such an excess, as to exclude not only pleasure, but even morality from its fociety.-Have conceived, they might at any time set aside some of the fighter matters of the law, such as justice, mercy, fidelity, when the bell rings for church; and can easily dispense with a commandment or two, if they are but time enough for the absolution. For your own part, I not only believe, but know you to be truly religious, in a sense of the highest import; but at the same time, I say, 'tis posible to be highly religious in the other sense ; that is, omit no acts of devotion either in public or private, and yet be very immoral agents. And ’tis no wonder pleasure fhould be excluded from this scheme, where neither the relation we stand in to ourselves, or fociety, is at all considered ; and nothing but a gloomy dread of the Almighty, whose darling attribute is love, or an intemperate zeal for his service, which zeal he bids us manifest in loving one another, prevails.
• By virtue therefore I mean an universal obedience to the will of the supreme Law-giver: and this, we equally grant, is the sole burness and happiness of a moral agent. But virtue no where forbids those temperate gratifications and