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of making peace only, but of joining and incorporating with the murderous Irish, formerly by himself declared against, for “wicked and detestable rebels, odious to God and all good men.” And who but those rebels now are the chief firength and confidence of his fon? While the prefbyter Scot that woos and folicits him, is neglected and put off, as if no terms were to him fordid, irreligious and dishonourable, but the scottish and presbyterian, never to be complied with, till the fear of instant perishing starve him out at length to fome unfound and hypocritical agreement.

He bids his son “keep to the true principles of piety, virtue, and honour, and he shall never want a kingdom. And I say, people of England ! keep ye to those principles, and

ye shall never want a king. Nay, after such a fair deliverance as this, with so much fortitude and valour shown against a tyrant, that people that should seek a king, claiming what this man claims, would show themselves to be by nature Naves, and arrant beasts; not fit for that liberty, which they cried out and bellowed for, but fitter to be led back again into their old servitude, like a fort of clamouring and fighting brutes, broke loose from their copy-holds, that know not how to use or porsess the liberty which they fought for; but with the fair words and promises of an old exasperated foe, are ready to be stroked and tamed again, into the wonted and wellpleafing state of their true norman villanage, to them best agreeable.

The laft fentence, whereon he seems to venture the whole weight of all his former reasons and argumentations, “ That religion to their God, and loyalty to their king, cannot be parted, without the fin and infelicity of a people,” is contrary to the plain teaching of Christ, that “No man can serve two masters; but, if he hold to the one, he must reject and fortake the other.” If God, then, and earthly kings be for the most part not several only, but opposite masters, it will as oft happen, that they who will ferve their king muft forsake their God; and they who will serve God must forsake their king ; which then will neither be their fin, nor their infelicity; but their wisdom, their- piety, and their true happiness; as

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to be deluded by these unfound and subtle oftentations here, would be their misery; and in all likelihood much greater than what they hitherto have undergone: if now again intoxicated and moped with these royal, and therefore so delicious because royal, rudiments of bondage, the cup of deception, spiced and tempered to their bane, they should deliver up themselves to these glozing words and illusions of him, whose rage and utmost violence they have sustained, and overcome to nobly.

XXVIII. Entitled Meditations upon Death.

IT might be well thought by him, who reads no further than the title of this Jaft eflay, that it required no answer. For all other human things are disputed, and will be variously thought of to the world's end. But this business of death is a plain case, and admits no controverfy : in that centre all opinions meet. Nevertheless, fince out of those few mortifying hours, that should have been intirest to themselves, and most at peace from all passion and difquiet, he can afford spare time to inveigh bitterly against that justice which was done upon him; it will be needful to fay fomething in defence of those proceedings, though briefly, in regard so much on this lubject hath been written lately.

It happened once, as we find in Efdras and Josephus, authors not less believed than any under sacred, to be a great and folemn debate in the court of Darius, what thing was to be counted strongest of all other. He that could refolve this, in reward of his excellent wisdom, should be clad in pårple, drink in gold, fleep on a bed of gold, and sit next Darius. None but they doubtless who were reputed wise, had the question propounded to them : who after some respite given them by the king to consider, in full assembly of all his lords and gravest counsellors, returned severally what they thought. The first held, that wine was strongest

, another that the king was strongest. But Zorobabel prince of the captive Jews, and heir to the crown of Judah, being one of them, proved women to be ftronger than the king for that he himself,


had seen a concubine take his crown from off his head to set it upon her own : and others besides him have likewife seen the like feat done, and not in jeft. Yet he proved on, and it was fo yielded by the king himself, and all his sages, that neither wine, nor women, nor the king, but truth of all other things was the ftrongeft. For me, though neither asked, nor in a nation that gives such rewards to wildom, I shall pronounce my sentence fomewhat different from Zorobabel ; and ihall defend that either truth and justice are all one, (for truth is but juftice in our knowledge, and justice is but truth in our practice : and he indeed fo explains himself, in saying that with truth is no accepting of persons, which is the property of justice :) or else if there be any odds, that justice, though not stronger than truth, yet by her office is to put forth and exhibit more strength in the affairs of mankind. For truth is properly no more than contemplation; and her utmost efficiency is but teaching : but justice in her very effence is all strength and activity; and hath a lword put into her hand, to ute against all violence and oppression on the earth. She it is most truly, who accepts no perfon, and exempts none from the severity of her stroke. She never fuffers injury to prevail, but when faltehood first prevails over truth; and that alfo is a kind of justice done on them who are so deluded. Though wicked kings and tyrants counterfeit her sword, as fome did that buckler, fabled to fall from heaven into the capitol, yet the communicates her power to none but such as like herfelf are just, or at least will do juftice. For it were extreme partiality and injustice, the flat denial and overthrow of herself, to put her own authentic fword mto the hand of an unjust and wicked man, or fo far to accept and exalt one mortal person above his equals, that he alone thall have the punishing of all other men tranfgressing, and not receive like punishment from men, when he himself thall be found the highest tranfgreffor.

We may conclude therefore, that justice above all other things, is and ought to be the strongest : she is the strength, the kingdom, the power, and majesty of all ages. Truth, herself would subscribe to this, though Darius and all the monarchs of the world thould deny. And if

by by sentence thus written, it were my happiness to set free the minds of Englishmen from longing to return poorly under that captivity of kings, from which the firength and supreme fword of justice hath delivered them, I shall have done a work not much interiour to that of Zorobabel : who by well praising and extolling the force of truth, in that contemplative strength conquered Darius ; and freed his country and the people of God, from the captivity of Babylon. Which I shall yet not despair to do, if they in this land, whose minds are yet captive, be but as ingenuous to acknowledge the strength and fupremacy of justice, as that heathen king was to confess the ftrength of truth : or let them but, as he did, grant that, and they will soon perceive, that truth refigns all her outward strength to justice : justice therefore must needs be ftrongest, both in her own and in the ftrength of truth. But if a king may do among men whatsoever is his will and pleasure, and notwithstanding be unaccountable to men, then contrary to his magnified wisdom of Zorobabel, neither truth nor justice, but the king is strongest of all other things, which that persian monarch himself

, in the midst of all his pride and glory durst not assume.

Let us see therefore what this king hath to affirm, why the sentence of justice, and the weight of that sword, which the delivers into the hands of men, should be more partial to him offending, than to all others of human race. First he pleads, that “no law of God or man gives to lubjects any power of judicature without or against him.” Which affertion shall be proved in every part to be most untrue. The first express law of God given tó mankind was that to Noah, as a law, in general, to all the tons of men. And by that most ancient and universal law, “ Whosoever theddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed;" we find here no exception.

If a king therefore do this ; to a king, and that by men also, the same shall be done. This in the law of Mofes, which came next, several times is repeated,' and in one place remarkably, Numb. xxxv. “ Ye shall take no fatisfaction for the life of a murderer, but he shall surely be put to death : the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is thed therein, but by the blood of him


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that shed it.” This is so spoken as that which concerned all Israel, not one man alone, to fee performed; and if no satisfaction were to be taken, then certainly no exception. Nay the king, when they should set up any, was to observe the whole law, and not only to see it done, but to“ do it; that his heart might not be lifted up above his brethren,” to dream of vain and reasonless prerogatives or exemptions, whereby the law itself must needs be founded in unrighteousness.

And were that true, which is most false, that all kings are the Lord's anointed, it were yet absurd to think, that the anointment of God should be, as it were, a charm against law, and give them privilege, who punish others, to fin themselves unpunishably. The high priest was the Lord's anointed as well as any king, and with the faine confecrated oil : yet Solomon had put to death Abiathar, had it not been for other respects than that anointment. If God himtelf say to kings, “ touch not mine anointed,” meaning his cholen people, as is evident in that pfalm, yet no man will argue thence, that he protects them from civil laws if they offend; then certainly, though David as a private man, and in his own cause, feared to lift his hand against the Lord's anointed, much lefs can this forbid the law, or dilarm juttice from having legal power against any king. No other fiipreme magiftrate, in what kind of government soever, lays claim to any such enormous privilege ; wherefore then thould any king, who is but one kind of magiftrate, and set over the people for no other end than they?

Next in order of time to the laws of Mofes are those of Christ, who declares professedly his judicature to be spiritual, abstract from civil managements, and therefore leaves all nations to their own particular laws, and way of government. · Yet because the church hath a kind of juritiliction within her own bounds, and that also, though in process of time much corrupted and plainly turned into a corporal judicature, yet much approved by this king; it will be firm enough and valid against him, if subjects, by the laws of church also, be“ invested with a power of judicature" both without and against their king, through


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