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wages for “dummy men.” This phrase is Creation of dummy men used to designate such a system of fraud as prevented.

can only exist in a large undertaking where it is possible for the foreman, the timekeeper, or the pay clerk, either singly or in conspiracy, to show a larger number of men employed than is actually the case.

By the use of the same return, fraud, through the unauthorised alteration of the rates of pay of the workWeekly people, is prevented, and the authorised rate return of

recorded for future reference. The regulation alteration of rate. and recording of piece-work prices, and the payment of piece-work balances to those employés who have been paid during the continuance of piece-work at time rates, is described ; as are also the modes of controlling time made outside the factory and of preventing undue recourse to overtime.

It is then shown how deductions may, if required, be made from the wages of the employé, for rent, fines for non-observance of rules, &c., in respect of savings bank,

sick, superannuation, or other funds; or of other funds. the amounts of adverse balances on piecework, or of the deductions authorised by the Factory Acts. Attention is called to the fact that the Wages Book may be correctly and concisely compiled from these various returns, and that it, in its turn, may, if thought well, be summarised for the use of the principal into even a more condensed form.

The possibility of obtaining receipts from employés with very little trouble is dealt with, provision against Receipts for the misappropriation of unclaimed wages Wages.

suggested, and consideration given to the Duties of time clerk. mode of payment.

The work of the time clerk in reference to the systematic allocation of the

Sick and

wages for the Prime Cost Books, and of the timekeeper or other employé in reference to the records required by the Factory Acts is explained. The necessity of compiling a list of addresses and of obtaining information as to the character of employés, as well as some . miscellaneous matters, are incidentally dealt with.

and work

checks.

At the entrance to a factory there is almost invariably found a small building, where the time of the entry and Time office exit of every employé is registered by a gate

or time keeper. This is effected, as regards men's

the entry, by each employé, on entering the factory, being required to pass the time office and mention the number which has been allotted to him at the commencement of his engagement, receiving from the timekeeper a metal check, or other ticket, bearing his number and taken from a board, on which the checks have previously been consecutively arranged.

On leaving the factory the employé should deposit this check in a box placed outside the time office. The checks will be sorted by the timekeeper, and can, in any case of doubt or dispute, be compared with the entries made by him in a book which is hereafter described. The checks having been again placed on the board, the process referred to is repeated each time the workpeople enter or leave the premises.

Should a mess-room have been provided for the use of the employés there will not be any obstacle to the carryMess-room. ing out of the system if the mess-room is outside the timekeeper's lodge, but should it be situated inside the works, the checks can be issued from that point after meal hours.

The timekeeper having admitted the workpeople, pro

ceeds to register their time. He sees by the presence

or absence of checks on the board what Method os keeping time employés are, or are not, in the factory. In a books.

book so ruled as to show each employé's name and number, and each day of the week divided into four parts (for the time made before breakfast, after breakfast, after dinner, and overtime, or such other divisions as may be most suitable for the business), the timekeeper enters the employés present. This is in most cases done by a vertical stroke, absence being denoted by a horizontal one. In some cases the four divisions of time above referred to are shown in the form of a square, thus 0; or in cases where three divisions only are required, by means of a triangle, thus A. In the square, the top stroke is supposed to represent the time before breakfast, the down stroke, right hand, that after breakfast, the base, the time after dinner, and the up-stroke left hand, any overtime that may be made. In the triangle the down stroke left hand, is presumed to represent the first division of time, the base the second, and the up-stroke, right hand, the third. In printing the book the various lines of the square or angle may be faintly printed, and when entries are made, inked over completely or partially, as required.

Absence during any or all of these divisions is of course made apparent by the omission of the stroke or strokes. Specimens Nos. 1, 2, and 3 show a Tiine Book so ruled.

If the employés are working in two or three shifts a separate Time Book may be used for each shift; or one

book may be so ruled as to take all three treble shift. returns. The time of the workpeople who are admitted into the works, or allowed to leave, at

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intervals between any of these divisions, may be shown by a red ink note of the number of minutes or hours' difference between the time at which they should have presented and did present themselves for admittance and departure, or, if the square and the triangle are adopted, by recognised shortenings of the strokes. The time at which employés are admitted into the works if they are late in arriving, will, of course, follow prescribed rules. No employé should be allowed to leave work at an irregular time unless provided with a permit signed by his foreman.

If it be deemed desirable to have a record of the employés

who periodically ab

sent themselves, it may be kept in an Absentee Book ruled to show the names of those away on any particular day, and to bring out prominently the names of those who are most frequently absent. The same principle may be applied in recording, by means of a Time Lost Book, the names of those who are unpunctual.

Friday.

Absentee
Book.

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It may also be desirable to keep a similar record as to overtime (Specimen No. 4).

TIME BOOK.-SPECIMEN No. 2.

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