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Liutprand, king of the Lombards, and the Exarch of the Greek Emperor, marched to the conqueft of Spoleto and Rome: the ftorm evaporated without effect; but the policy of Liutprand alarmed Italy with a vexatious alternative of hoftility and truce. fucceffor Aiftulphus, declared himself the equal enemy of the Emperor and the Pope: Ravenna was fubdued by force or treachery; and this final conqueft extinguished the series of the Exarchs, who had reigned with a subordinate power fince the time of Justinian, and the ruin of the Gothic kingdom. Rome was fummoned to acknowledge the victorious Lombard as her lawful fovereign; the annual tribute of a piece of gold was fixed as the ranfom of each citizen, and the fword of destruction was unfheathed to exact the penalty of her disobedience. The Romans hefitated; they intreated; they complained; and the threatening Barbarians were checked, by arms and negociations, till the Popes had engaged the friendship of an ally and an avenger beyond the Alps."

"In his distress the first Gregory had implored the aid of the hero of the age, of Charles Martel, who governed the French monarchy with the humble title of Mayor, or Duke,



and who, by his fignal victory over the Saracens, had faved his country, and perhaps Europe, from the Mahometan yoke. ambaffadors of the Pope were received by Charles with decent reverence: but the greatnefs of his occupations, and the shortness of his life, prevented his interference in the affairs of Italy, except by a friendly and ineffectual mediation. His fon Pepin, the heir of his power and virtues, affumed the office of champion of the Roman Church P."

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When Aiftulphus began to make tions for the conqueft of Rome, Pontiff, Stephen II. addreffes himself to his powerful patron and protector, Pepin; reprefents to him his deplorable condition, and implores his affistance. The French Monarch embarks with zeal in his caufe, croffes the Alps A. D. 754, with a numerous army; and having defeated Aiftulphus, obliged him by a folemn treaty to deliver up to the fee of Rome, the exarchate of Ravenna, Pentapolis, and all the cities, caftles, and territories which he had feized in the Roman dukedom. It was not however long before the Lombard prince violated without remorse, an engagement which he had


• Gibbon, vol. v. p. 114, 115.


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entered into with reluctance. In the year 755, he laid fiege to Rome for the fecond time, but was again obliged to fue for peace, by the victorious arms of Pepin, who returned into Italy, and forcing the Lombard to execute the treaty he had fo audaciously violated, made a new grant of the Exarchate, and of Pentapolis, to the Roman Pontiff and his fucceffors in the apoftolic See of St. Peter. And thus was the Bishop of Rome raised to the rank of a temporal Prince 9." "The fplendid donation was granted in fupreme and abfolute dominion, and the world beheld for the first time a Chriftian Bifhop invefted with the prerogatives of a temporal prince; the choice of magiftrates, the exercise of justice, the impofition of taxes, and the wealth of the palace of Ravenna.Before the end of the eighth century fome apoftolical scribe, perhaps the notorious Ifidore, compofed the Decretals, and the Donation of Conftantine, the two magic pillars of the fpiritual and temporal monarchy of the Popes. This memorable donation was introduced to the world by an Epiftle of Adrian the first, who exhorts Charlemagne to imitate the liberality, and revive the name of the great Constantine. According to the legend, the first of the Chrif

a Mosheim, vol. i. p. 353.

tian Emperors was healed of the leprofy, and purified in the waters of b by St. Silvefter, the Roman Bishop. His royal profelyte withdrew from the feat and patrimony of St. Peter; declared his refolution of founding a new capital in the East; and refigned to the Popes the free and perpetual fovereignty of Rome, Italy, and the provinces of the Weft. This fiction was productive of the most beneficial effects. The Greek princes we e convicted of the guilt of ufurpation; and the revolt of Gregory was the claim of his lawful inheritance. The fovereignty of Rome no longer depended on the choice of a fickle people; and the Succeffors of St. Peter and Conftantine were invefted with the purple and prerogatives of the Cefars."

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Thus did the mystery of iniquity begin to work, with all deceivableness of unrighteousness. Thus was the fovereign Pontiff mighty in power, but not by his own power; and thus did he practife and profper, and through his policy be caufed craft to profper in his hand. Thus Rome" acquired a new feat and domi

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nion in this patrimony of St. Peter, which has continued for above a thousand years. beaft appeared to be wounded to death,—but the deadly wound inflicted by the fword of Odoacer, King of the Heruli, was healed, after the Roman Empire had received fuch an injury in one of its heads, or forms of government (that is, the fixth) as left no probable profpect that Rome fhould ever more rise to power and empire. And all the world wondered after the beast: for this event of a new and extraordinary form of government, divers from all others" this facerdotal monarchy," as Gibbon calls it, excited the aftonishment of mankind in the fucceeding ages of its of its aggrandizement.

"After their return from Avignon, the keys of St. Peter were guarded by the fword of St. Paul. Rome was commanded by an impregnable citadel: the use of cannon is a powerful engine against popular feditions: a regular force of cavalry and infantry was enlifted under the banners of the Pope: his ample revenues fupplied the resources of war; and, from the extent of his domain, he could bring down on a rebellious city an army of hostile neighbours and loyal subjects. Since the union of the dutchies of Ferrara and Ur

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