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mountains of Armenia, with 400 of his Turks. "From thence they began their excursions and the other Turks affociating with them, and following their standard, they gained feveral victories over the Tartars on one fide, and over the Chriftians on the other. Ortogrul dying in 1288, Othman, or Ofman, his fon, fucceeded him in power and authority; and in 1299, as fome fay, with the confent of Aladin himself, he was proclaimed Sultan, and founded a new empire; and the people afterwards [a mixed multitude, the remains of the four fultanies] as well as the new empire, was called by his name.”

"In this manner, and at this particular time, the four angels were loofed to flay the third part of men, that is, to conquer and to overthrow the fubjects of the Roman Empire. The Latin or Western Empire was broken to pieces under the first four trumpets; the Greek or Eastern Empire was cruelly burt and tormented under the fifth trumpet; and here under the fixth trumpet it is to be flain and utterly deftroyed. Accordingly all Afia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Thrace, Macedon, Greece, and all the countries which formerly belonged to the Greek or Eastern Emperors, the Othmans have conquered and fubjugated to their


dominion. They firft paffed over into Europe, in the reign of Orchan their second emperor, in the year 1357. They took Conftantinople in the reign of Mohammed their seventh emperor, in the year 14533 and in time all the remaining parts of the Greek Empire shared the fate of their capital city. The last of their conquefts were Candia, or the antient Crete, in 1669, and Cameniec in 1672. For the execution of this great work, it is faid that they were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year *. Now it is wonderfully remarkable, that the first conquest mentioned in history, of the Othmans over the Chriftians, was in the year of the Hegira 680, and the year of Chrift 1281. For Ortrogrul in that year (according to the accurate Hiftorian Saadi) crowned his victories with the conqueft of the famous city of Kutahi upon the Greeks.' Compute 391 years from that time [according to established prophetic calculation] and they will terminate in the year 1672: and in that year, as it was hinted before, Mohammed the fourth took Cameniec from the Poles

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and forty-eight towns and villages in the territory of Cameniec were delivered up' to the Sultan upon the treaty of peace. Whereupon

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Prince Cantemir hath made this memorable reflection, This was the laît victory by which any advantage accrued to the Othman state; or any city or province was annexed to the ancient bounds of the empire.' Agreeably to which obfervation, he hath intitled the former part of his hiftory, Of the growth of the Othman Empire, and the following part, Of the decay of the Othman Empire. Other wars and flaughters, as he fays, have enfued. The Turks even befieged Vienna in 1683; but this *xceeding the bounds of their commiffion, they were defeated. Belgrade and other places have been taken from them, and furrendered to them again: but still they have subdued no new state or potentate of Christendom how for the space of between 80 and 90 years; and in all probability they never may again, their empire appearing rather to decrease than increase. Here then the Prophecy and the event agree exactly in the period of 391 years; and if more accurate and authentic hiftories of the Othmans were brought to light, and we knew the very day wherein Kutahi was taken, as certainly as we know that wherein Came niec was taken, the like exactness might also be found in the 15 days. But though the time be limited for the Othmans flaying the third part of men, yet no time is fixed for the duration

duration of their empire; only this fecond woe will end, when the third woe, or the deftruc tion of the beaft, fhall be at hand 1."

And the number of the army of the borsemen were two hundred thousand thousand, or as the words be tranflated more literally, may 66 two myriads of myriads." It was the custom of the Tartarian tribes to count their forces by myriads; and Gibbon, fpeaking of the Turkish cavalry, adopts this mode of computation. The Hiftorian, defcribing the peculiar manners and customs of their ancestors, fays ", their wandering life maintains the spirit and exercife of arms; they fight on horseback." The Sultan Mahmud inquired of a chief of the race of Seljuk, who dwelt in the territory of Bochara, what fupply of men he 1038. could furnish for military fervice. If you fend, replied Ifmael, one of these arrows into our camp, fifty thousand of your fervants will mount on borse-back. And if that number, continued Mahmud, should not be fufficient? Send this fecond arrow to the horde of Balik, and will find fifty thousand more.


A. D.


1 Newton, vol. iii. p. 116, &c.-See the fecond Introductory Chapter.

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faid the Sultan, if I fhould ftand in need of your whole kindred tribes? Difpatch my bow, was the laft reply of Ifmael, and as it is circulated around, the fummons will be obeyed by two hundred thousand horse.

A. D. **1071.

When Alp Arflan invaded the Roman empire, "his hopes of victory were placed in the arrows of the Turkish cavalry, whose squadrons were loosely diftributed in the form of a crefcent P." At the last siege of Conftantinople in the numerous army of Turks, which confifted of two hundred and fifty-eight thousand men, there were, according to an historian quoted by Gibbon, only fifteen thousand Janizaries, troops which are known to be the principal infantry of the Ottomans ;-fo that if an allowance be made for forty thoufand foot, collected together under other denominations, there will remain for the number of the army of the horsemen on this fingle occafion, literally twenty myriads, or two hundred thoufand 9."


• Gibbon, c. 57. Whitaker, p. 151.

"The Timariots, or Horfemen holding lands by Terving in the wars, are the ftrength of the Turkish government; and thefe, as Heylin affirms, are in all accounted between seven and eight hundred thousand fighting men:


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