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the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is the New Jerufalem. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit faith unto the churches *."

"In the year 1312, the captivity or ruin of the feven churches of Afia was confummated; and the barbarous lords of Ionia and Lydia ftill trample on the monuments of claffic and Christian antiquity. In the lofs of Ephesus, the Chriftians deplored the fall of the first angel, the extinction of the first candlestick of the Revelations: the defolation is complete; and the temple of Diana, or the church of Mary, will equally elude the fearch of the curious traveller. The Circus and three stately theatres of Laodicea are now peopled with wolves and foxes; Sardis is reduced to a miferable village; the God of Mahomet, without a rival or a fon, is invoked in the moschs of Thyatira and Pergamus; and the populoufnefs of Smyrna is fupported by the foreign trade of the Franks and Armenians. delphia ALONE has been faved by Prophecy, or courage. At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the emperors, encompassed on all fides by the Turks, her valiant citizens defended their re

* Rev. iii. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.


ligion and freedom above fourscore years ; and at length capitulated with the proudest of the Ottomans. Among the Greek colonies and churches of Afia, Philadelphia is ftill ere&t; a column in a scene of ruins; a pleafing example, that the paths of honour and fafety may fometimes be the fame Y.??

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But though the Greek or Eastern Roman Empire, and the Eastern churches, with this fingle exception, were thus fignally overthrown, yet the rest of men who were not killed by thefe plagues, repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils and idols of gold and filver, and brass and stone, and wood, which can neither fee, nor hear, nor walk; neither repented they of their murders, nor of their forceries, nor of their fornications, nor of their thefts. The Latin or Western churches, which had fuffered but little from these plagues, perfifted in the worship of faints and images, in their perfecutions and inquifitions, pretended miracles, and revelations, in fornication and every fpecies of profligacy, in exactions, impofitions, and frauds. But history has recorded their predicted punish

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▾ Gibbon, vol. vi. p. 314.

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Mahuzzim, daoua, demons, or mediating gods, laints, and angels.


ment connected with the increase and decline of the Papal power-a fubject shortly stated in the preceding Chapter. The Greek or Eaftern churches continuing funk in fuperftition, idolatry, and wickednefs, have, with little exception, been more vifibly oppreffed by the yoke of Mahometan defpotism.

We have feen the exactnefs with which history has verified the prophetic description of this destroyer, and traced its rife and progrefs to the meridian of its power. The various and extraordinary marks of decline, fince the period affigned by Prophecy for the height of its elevation, will appear equally ftriking, from a fhort account of the later history, and of the present state, of the Turkish Empire, for which the Reader is principally indebted to a recent publication, of great value on account of the illuftrations it fupplies to many parts of this prophecy

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Since the conqueft of Crete and Cameniec in the year 1672, the sword of Apollyon, a

a The Survey of the Turkish Empire, by Mr. Eton, many years refident in Turkey, 1798. This work is written with fingular energy, and reflects the higheft credit on its author; on account of the ftrong, accurate, and clear views which he gives of the manners and cuftoms of a degenerate and cruel people.


term applicable to every Turkish Sultan as well as to Mahomet, has not been permitted to subject any other Chriftian ftate. The Turks b have met with many loffes fince that memorable period, and have fhewn evident figns of the decay of their empire, if not of its approaching diffolution. Mustapha II. endeavoured to revive the military ardour of his fubjects, by taking the field in perfon against the Germans; but he was defeated in 1699, by the great Eugene; and the peace of Carlowitz

gave to the Emperor the whole province of Transylvania. The inordinate ambition of Achmet III. gained him fome advantage over the Ruffians; but he was reduced, by repeated defeats, to the neceffity of concluding a disgraceful peace with the Venetians, and other Chriftian powers. His war with Kouli Khan, the Perfian Ufurper, proved equally unfuccessful, and terminated in the lofs of his crown, as he was depofed by Mahomet V. in 1730. This prince engaged in a war against the Ruffians and Germans ; but the former advanced against him with so much rapidity, as to threaten his capital, and he was therefore compelled to conclude a hafty peace. In the year 1769, Mustapha III. burning with revenge against the Ruffians,

• Eton, c. v. p. 129.


roufed the numerous and favage hordes of Tartars to carry fire and fword into their territories. This was the commencement of a moft bloody war, which was distinguished by the exploits of Prince Gallitzin. He repeatedly attacked the Turkish armies at Choczim, and gained feveral victories over them; and his career of martial fame was followed by his fucceffor in command, General Romanzoff, who overran Moldavia and Walachia, and received the oaths of allegiance readily offered by their inhabitants. Soon after a fleet of Ruffians was fent into the Mediterranean, the Turkish Empire was attacked on both fides, and the inhabitants of the Morea, the oppreffed defcendants of the antient Greeks, eager to throw off the yoke of Mahometan defpotifm, flew to arms on the approach of the Ruffians, their Chriftian allies. The naval victory of Tchefmè, a harbour on the coaft of Natolia, added to other fucceffes of the Ruffians, compelled the Porte to conclude a dishonourable peace. This blow was effectually followed up by the fucceeding war, which was terminated in the year 1790, in a manner still more fayourable to Ruffia. The martial spirit of


"It is scarcely to be doubted that another war, conduted upon fimilar principles, muft totally extinguifh the Turkish

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