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as a writer in heroics; Sappho, Anacreon, and Simonides, in lyric; Euripides ONLY, among tragic writers; among the hiftorians, Ephorus, and Theopompus; and Ifocrates among the rhetoricians all thefe, fays he, have used words that are ΛΕΙΑ, και ΜΑΛΑΚΑ, και ΠΑΡΘΕΝΩΠΑ. The writers which he a1leges as inftances of the third fpecies, who have happily blended the two other fpecies of compofition, and who are the most complete models of style, are Homer, in epic poetry; Stefichorus and Alcæus in lyric; in tragic, Sophocles; in hiftory, Herodotus; in eloquence, Demofthenes; in philofophy, Democritus, Plato, and Aristotle.

40. Fancy and art in gay PETRONIUS pleafe,
The scholar's learning with the courtier's ease. *

For what merit Petronius should be placed among useful critics, I could never difcern. There are not above two or three pages, containing critical remarks, in his work: the chief merit of which is that of telling a story

* Ver. 668.)

with grace and ease. His own ftyle is more affected than even that of his cotemporaries, when the Auguftan fimplicity was laid aside. Many of his metaphors are far-fetched, and mixed; of which this glaring inftance may be alleged. Neque concipere aut edere


partum mens poteft, nifi ingenti flumine "literarum inundata :"* where animal conception and delivery, are confounded with vegetable production. His character of Horace however celebrated, "Horatii curiofa fa"licitas," is furely a very unclaffical inverfion; for he ought to have called it the happy carefulness of Horace, rather than his careful happiness. I fhall obferve by the way, of this author found fome years ago, bears many fignatures of its spuriousness, and particularly of its being forged by a Frenchman. For we have this expreffion, "ad CASTELLA fefe receperunt," that is, " to their "CHATEAUX," inftead of ".ad Villas."

that the


41. In grave QUINTILIAN'S copious work we find
The jufteft rules, and cleareft method join'd.

Pag. 109. Ed. Amftel. 1663.


To commend Quintilian barely for his method, and to infift merely on this excellence, is below the merit of one of the most rational and elegant of Roman writers. Confidering the nature of Quintilian's fubject, he afforded copious matter, for a more appropriated and poetical character. No author ever adorned a fcientifical treatise with so many beautiful metaphors. Quintilian was found in the bottom of a tower of the monaftery of St. Gal, by Poggius; as appears by one of his letters dated 1417, written from Conftance, when the council was then fitting. The monaftery was about twenty miles from that city. Silius Italicus was found at the fame time and place.

42. Thee bold LONGINUS all the Nine inspire,

And bless their critic with a poet's fire. *

THIS abrupt addrefs to Longinus is more spirited and striking, and more suitable to the character of the perfon addreffed, than if he had coldly spoken of him in the third perfon. * Ver. 676.


The taste and fenfibility of Longinus were exquifite, but his obfervations are too general, and his method too loofe. The precifion of the true philofophical critic is loft in the declamation of the florid rhetorician. Instead of shewing for what reafon a fentiment or image is SUBLIME, and discovering the fecret power by which they affect a reader with pleasure, he is ever intent on producing something SUBLIME himself, and ftrokes of his own eloquence. Instead of pointing out the foundation of the grandeur of Homer's imagery, where he defcribes the motion of Neptune, the critic is endeavouring to rival the poet, by faying that, "there was not room enough " in the whole earth, to take fuch another "step." He should have fhewn why the speech of Phaeton to his son, in a fragment of Euripides, was fo lively and picturesque: instead of which, he ardently exclaims, "would "not you fay, that the foul of the writer af"cended the chariot with the driver, and was "whirled along in the fame flight and danger "with the rapid horfes?" We have lately feen

A 2

feen a just specimen of the genuine method of criticifing, in Mr. Harris's accurate Discourse on Poetry, Painting, and Mufic. I have frequently wondered, that Longinus, who men tions Tully, fhould have taken no notice of Virgil. I fuppofe he thought him only a fervile copier of the Greeks.

43. From the fame foes, at last, both felt their doom, And the fame age faw learning fall and Rome. *

" "TWAS the fate of Rome to have scarce an intermediate age, or fingle period of time, between the rise of arts and fall of liberty. No fooner had that nation begun to lofe the roughness and barbarity of their manners, and learn of Greece to form their heroes, their orators, and poets on a right model, than by their unjust attempt upon the liberty of the world, they juftly loft their own. With their liberty, they loft not only their force of eloquence, but even their style and language itself. The poets who afterwards

* Ver. 686.


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