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Page 269 - ... but especially to all found within human habitations, and, we might also add, with equal certainty, the habitations of all animals. If you pick up a stone in a city, and wash off the matter on the surface, you will find the water to contain ammonia. If you wash a chair, or a table, or anything in a room, you will find ammonia in the washing; and if you wash your hands, you will find the same; and your paper, your pen, your table-cloth, and clothes, all show ammonia, and even the glass cover to...
Page 161 - Under such circumstances therefore the cloud would be converted into rain or hail according as the particles were water or ice. The size of the drops from such a cloud would depend simply on the quantity of water suspended in the space swept through by the drop in its descent, that is to say...
Page 49 - Hailstone. lu texture they have the appearance of an aggregation of minute particles of ice fitting closely together, but without any crystallization such as that seen in the snow-flake — although the surface of the cone is striated, the striae radiating from the vertex. Such a form and texture as this is exactly what would result if the stones were formed in the manner described above. When a particle which ultimately formed the vertex of the cone...
Page 4 - There can be no doubt, the author believes, that this chasm has been formed by the chemical action of carbonic acid in water, and that it has attacked this particular spot either from the unusual softness of the rock originally situated here, or because there was here a joint or shrinkage in the strata. There is nothing, however, in the position of Elden Hole to lead one to suppose that any stream has ever flowed through it ; no signs of such a state of things appear anywhere around. It is not related...
Page 271 - ... (two- thirds of an ounce) of water was used. This was tested for ammonia at once with the Nessler solution. The second washing, taken immediately, produced no appearance of ammonia. Ammonia could be observed after an hour and a half's exposure at any rate ; but I do not know the shortest period.
Page 53 - ... blast of air against a small object ; and in this way I obtained masses closely resembling hailstones : but these also were too fragile to bear moving. At ordinary temperatures the powdered naphthaline does not adhere like ice when pressed into a lump. No doubt at very low temperatures ice would behave in the same way ; that is to say, the particles would not adhere from the force of impact. Hence it would seem probable that for hailstones to be formed the temperature of the cloud must not be...
Page 270 - It is probable that the chief cause of the presence of ammonia on surfaces in houses and near habitations is the direct decomposition of organic matter on the spot. If so, being more readily observed than organic matter itself, it may be taken as a test, and the amount will be a measure of the impurity. A room that has a smell indicating recent residence will, in a certain time, have its objects covered with organic matter ; and this will be indicated by ammonia on the surface of objects.
Page 18 - ... temperature is such that the extremity of the mercurial column is either below or above the stem. Now the thermometer has a small upper chamber, and by means of a method of manipulation well known to those who work with thermometers, it is possible to add to or take away from the main body of mercury in the bulb, so as to keep the end of the mercurial column always in the stem. But experience has convinced me that for a thermometer with such a large bulb, frequent manipulation of this kind is...
Page 270 - Stones that not twenty hours before had been washed by rain showed ammonia. It is true that the rain of Manchester contains it also ; but, considering that only a thin layer would be evaporated from these stones, it was remarkable that they indicated the existence of any. The surface of wood was examined ; palings, railings, branches of trees, grass (not very green at the time), all showed ammonia in no very small quantities. It seemed as if the whole visible surface around had ammonia. I went into...