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Empire, the Præfectura Galliarum .
Spain, Gaul, and Britain. Eusebius

' the British Ocean the western *. Gildas a. the beginning of his history calls Britain “ insula in extremo ferme orbis limite circium occidentemque versus ti" Bede says,

66 that Laurentius, Austin's successor in the See of Canterbury, in a letter addressed to the Irish Bishops and Abbots, says: Dum nos sedes Apostolica, more suo sicut in universo orbe terrarum, in his occiduis partibus ad prædicandum gentibus paganis dirigeret, atque in hanc insulam, quæ Britannia nun

cupatur, &c.!”


There is an interesting passage in Gregory's Morals, which marks the connection of Britain with the extremity of the West, and the utmost bounds of the world. Omnipotens Dominus coruscantibus nubibus cardines maris operuit, quia emicantibus prædicatorum miraculis ad fidem etiam terminos mundi perduxit. Ecce enim pene cunctarum jam gentium corda penetravit, ecce in una fide Orientis limitemque Occidentis ; conjunxit ecce lingua Britanniæ, quæ nil aliud noverat quam bar

* Eusebius Vit. Constant. plus semel, + Gildæ Hist. p. 1. ed. Gale, 1691. Bede, Eccl. Hist. L. ii. C. 4.

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«m fundere, jamdudum in divinis laudibus febræum Haleluja resonare*. If we compare Gildas's extremo orbis limite occiitentem versus, and Gregory's terminos' mundi limitemque Occidentis, applied by them to Britain, there can be no doubt how they must have understood Clement's επι το τερμα της δυσεως, ad terminos sive limitem'occidentis.

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Arnobius calls Britain the boundary of Christianity to the West +

Theodoret speaking of the multitudes that flocked to Syria, attracted by the austerities of Symeon, the Stylite, says, that “ many person's came

, from the remotest parts of the West, from Spain and Britain, and from Gaul, which lies between them :” αφικoντο δε πολλοι, τας της εσπερας οικοντες εσχατίας, Σπανοι τε και Βρετανοι, και Γαλαται οι το μεσον τουτων κατεχονTEST We cannot have a more literal interpretation of Clement's το τερμα της δυσεως than Theodoret's τας της εσπερας εσχατιας, nor a plainer proof that in the utmost bounds of the West Clement included Britain, the remotest of the three countries.

* Gregorii, Mag. Moralium, xxvii. c. 6.

† Arnobius in Psalm cxlvii. p. 443. ed. Basil. 1560. et Adversus Gentes."

| Theodoret Historia Relig. p. 881. op. vol. iii.


Nicephorus says *, ''in one passage, that some of the Apostles went to the utmost bounds of the Ocean, and to the British Isles.; in another of, that “ Simon Zelotes entered the Western Oceani, and preached the Gospel in the British Isles." These passages of Nicephorus are here quoted, not for the sake of the fact mentioned in the latter passage, in which he was, perhaps, mistaken, but for the relation, which his language (the extreme bounds of the ocean, the western ocean, and the British Isles) bears to the words of Clement.

Jerome says, that St. Paul, after his liberation from imprisonment at Rome, preached the Gospel in the IVest." His words are remarkable: “ Paulum a Nerone dimis sum, ut Evangelium Christi in Occidentis quoque partibus prædicaretur :" not that Nero liberated St. Paul that he might go to the West ; but that his journey to the West (and not the East) was the immediate consequence of his liberation.

As a proof that Jerome included Britain within the utmost bounds of the IVest, I referred, in my former letter, to a passage quoted in Gibson's translation of Camden's Britannia. The passage is not in the Epituphium Marcellæ, as cited on the margin of Gibson's translation, but in the letter ad Marcellum, which was written to invite Marcella to Bethlehem * Quicumque in Gallia fuerit primus, huc properat. Divisus ab orbe nostro Britannus, si in religione profecerit t, occiduo sole dimisso, quærit locum fama sibi tantum et scripturarum relatione cognitum. Quid referam Armenios, quid Persas, &c. "

* Eccl. Hist. L. iii. C. 1. + Ibid. L. ii. C. 40. # De Script. Eccles. p. 35. ed. Fabric.

If we recapitulate the evidence respecting St. Paul's journies, and the western situation of Britain, it will, I think, leave no doubt as to the meaning of Clement. tency of his testimony, as the fellow-labourer of St. Paul, there can be no question. Clement, then, says that St. Paul went to the ut most bounds of the IVest. Catullus calls Britain ultima Occidentis insula, Gildas says that Britain is situated in extremo orbis limite occidentem versus,

Of the compe

* Hieron. Op. vol. i. p. 128. ed. Lugd. 1530.

† These wortis, which in the English edition of Camden are translated, if they go in pilgrimage, are explained in Erasmus's Scholia by si (in religione) provectior fuerit.

# It is a great loss to young students in Theology and to the lovers of devotional reading, that the epistles and miscellaneous works of Jerome are not m accessible to coinmon readers.

Gregory calls Britain terminum mundi, and limitem i Occidentis. Nicephorus says,

that the Britons inhabited the utmost parts of the West. St. Paul therefore in going to the utmost bounds of the West went to Britain.

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Again, Eusebius, and, after him, Nicephorus, says, that some of the Apostles went to the British Isles ; and calls the British Ocean the IVestern. Jerome says, that St. Paul preached the Gospel in the West, and that he went from Ocean to Ocean: Theodoret, that St. Paul went to the Islands that lie in the Ocean: and Chrysostom, speaking of the first introduction of the Gospel into the British Islands, describes them, as lying in the Ocean, and distinguishes them from the Islands of the Mediterranean, which was not called the Ocean, St. Paul therefore preached the Gospel in the British Islands.

The easy communication, both military and commercial, between Rome and the utmost bounds of the West, removes all appearance of rhetorical expression from the kanguage of Clement.

Jerome speaking of

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