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On these passages

mus ille Episcopus aliquem ex Apostolis, vel
Apostolicis viris, qui tamen cum Apostolis
perseveraverit, habuerit auctorem et anteces-
sorem. Hoc enim modo ecclesiæ Apostolicæ
census suos deferunt *.
of Irenæus and Tertullian, Pearson and
Bingham have observed as follows: Erant
quidem successiones Episcoporum in Apos-
tolicis ecclesiis a veteribus observatæ, et ad
catholicæ doctrinæ traditionem adversus hæ-
reticorum deliria comprobandam usurpatæ ;
ex quibus argumentum a Patribus confectum
est irrefragabile, cui hæretici nunquam res-
pondere ausi sunt f. “ This implies that
the Apostles, as they founded Churches,
settled Bishops in them; and that this might
be proved from the records and archives of
every Church, the most of which were pro-
bably then remaining, when Tertullian made
this challenge to all Hereticks, and appealed
to these original records in behalf of the
catholick Church I."


In this manner Metaphrastes says the Church of Britain was established: επιμεινας

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* De præscript, C. 32, + De successione primorum Romæ Episcoporum, Cap. III.

. Antiquities of the Christian Church, B. II. ch. i. $. &.

τε εν Βρετανια, – και εκκλησιας συστησαμενος, επισκοπους τε και πρεσβυτερους και διακονους χειροτονησας, &c. though he was mistaken in his account of the author of these appointments,

The following authorities for St. Paul's appointment of Aristobulus are quoted by Usher. Aristobulum quoque, cujus ipse in epistola ad Romanos (xvi. 10.) meminit, Britannorum episcopum a Paulo ordinatum, in Menæis Græcorum invenio: ubi Aristobuli ad 15 mum diem Martii, hujusmodi fit commemoratio.

Ουτος ην είς των εβδομηκοντα μαθητων ηκολουθησε δε τω αγιω Αποστολο Παυλω, κηρυττων το ευαγγελιον, εις πασαν την οικουμενην διακονων αυτω" υφ' ου και χειροτονείται επισκοπος εις την των Βρεττανων χωραν -όδεν και εκκλησιας σοστησαμενος, και πρεσβυτερους και διακονους εν αυτη καταστησας, ετελειωθη. Similiter et apud Dorotheum in Synopsi Aristobulum Episcopum Britanniæ factum fuisse legimus, (Britann. Eccles. Antiq. p. 9.)

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On the testimony of Gildas,

THE involved language of Gildas has led to much misapprehension of his meaning in


the passage, which defines the time of the first introduction of the Gospel into Britain : -as in the following account of the passage. 66 After the black frost of a very severe “ winter, Christ, the sun of righteousness “ warmed our country with the rays of his

heavenly doctrine, although the Senate or “ Parliament of Rome resisted and endea“ voured to stop the progress of the Gospel.

- This is the meaning of the whole that “ Gildas says, who wrote his history about “ the year of Christ 546. It is evident “ therefore that the Gospel was first

preached to this island, as soon as the year

of our Lord, 62, or, at furthest, the


year 63."

Gildas does not say that the Gospel was introduced into this country in the time of Tiberius, when the Senate opposed the Emperor's will.concerning Christ; but that, at that time, its bright beams were displayed, generally, to the whole world; and afterwards, before the defeat of Boadicéa, to this island. The two diffusions of the light of the Gospel are thus distinguished,

1. Universo orbi

2. Insulæ rigenti, &c.

And these belong to two different periods of time:

1. Summo tempore Tiberii

2. Interea primum, &c.

The general diffusion of the Gospel was in the latter part of Tiberius's reign; the introduction of it into this country, was in the interim of the events mentioned by Gildas. This interim is limited, on one hand, by the event, which is last mentioned by him, viz. the defeat of Boadicea, A.D. 61. and on the other hy events not far distant, such as the defeat of Caractacus, A. D. 51. This interval comprehends not more than ten years. The commencement of the interval is twelve years after the end of Tiberius's reign ; the interim of it includes the ține of St. Paul's imprisonment at Rome, (A D. 57, 58.) and the release of Caractacus's family, as well as of St. Paul, A. D. 58. It does not therefore follow from the testimony of Gildas, that the Gospel was first preached in Britain, “ as soon as the year of our Lord, 62, or at fúrthest the

year 63," but before the year 61. Our old protestant writers sunk the general diffusion of the Gospel in the particular ; the Roman Catholick author of Anglo Saxon Antiquities, reverses this misapprehension of Gildas, and sinks the particular event recorded by Gildas in the general diffusion of Christianity,

For the following observations on Claudia Rufina, Pomponia Græcina, and other converts at Rome, I am indebted to William Williams, Esq. of Ivy Tower, the learned author of Primitive History, the Christian Code, a New Trunslation of the New T'estament, &c.


On the British Converts, Claudia Rufina, and

Pomponia Græcina.

I HAVE been all along of opinion that St. Paul's Claudia came from Britain in the reign of Claudius, and not later than the public entry of Aulus Plautius ; whose wife,

; Pomponia Græcina, became attached to the foreign superstition, such as Christianity was deemed. I beg leave to set down, and remark on the words of Tacitus, Annal. 13, 32, premising that his last words are somewhat mysterious; and that the serious and reserved manners of this Christian Convert,

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