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cution upon

vindication.

an

little service was this privilege to him, that while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution-for his exe

Horror. the cross ! O liberty !- sound once delightful to every Lamenta. Roman ear 1-0 sacred privilege of Roman citizenship -once sacred !--120W trampled upon;! Exciting to But what then! Is it come to this 2 Shall inferior magistrate, a governor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at the last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen ? Shall neither the cries of ina nocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, nor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance.

I conclude with expressing my hopes, that your wisdom, and justice, Fathers, will not, by suffering the atrocious and unexampled insolence of Caius Verres to escape the due punishment, leave room to apprehend the danger of a total subversion of authority, and introduction of general anarchy and confusion.

LXIV.

TERROR. DISCOVERY OF SECRET

WICKEDNESS.

The Ghost of Hamlet king of Denmark, mur

dered by his brother, in concert vith his queen, appears to Hamlet his son.

(Shakes. HAMLET.) Horatio,

LOOK!

OOK! my lord, it comes ! Hamlet. Angels and Ministers of grace, ,

defend us!

Aların. Starting.

Trembling. (1) Be thou a spirit of health, or goblin damn'd;
Bring'st with thee airs from Heav'n or blasts

from hell,
Be thy intents wicked or charitable ?

Thou com'st in such a questionable (2) shape,

That I will speak to thee. I'll call thee Hamlet,
Earnestness. King, Father, Royal Dane! O answer me,

Why thy bones hears'd in canonized earth,
Have burst their cerements? (3) Why the

sepulchre,
Wherein we saw thee quietly inurn’d,
Hath op'd his ponderous and marble jaws,
To cast thee forth again? What may this mean,
That thy dead corpse, again in warlike steel,
Revisits thus the glimpses of the moon,

Making night hideous ?
Question. Say, why is this? What would'st thou have

done for thee?
Horror. Ghost. (4) I am thy father's spirit, to earth

return'd Foul murder to disclose-List then, O Hamlet ! Narration. 'Tis given out, that sleeping in my garden,

A serpent stung me. So the ear of Denmark

Is, by a forged process of my death,
Complaint Grossly abused. But know, thou princely youth,
of Injury. The serpent, that did sting thy father dead,

Now wears his crozin. Sleeping within an alcove,
On my security thy uncle stole

(1) Hamlet, standing in conversation with Hvratio and Mar.
cellus, is supposed to be turned from the place where the ghost
a spears, and which is seen by Horatio. When Horatio gives the
word that the ghost appears, Hamlet turns haftily round toward it
in great consternation, and expresses his fear in the first line, " Angels
and Ministers,"? &c. Then, after a long pause, looking earnestly at the
fpeétre, he goes on. “ Be thou a spirit,” &c. See Fear, p. 21.

(2) Questionable, means inviting question. The ghost appeared in a ihape so interesting to the young prince, viz. that of his father, that he could not help venturing to speak to it, though with great reluctance from fear.

(3) Cerements are the medicated swathings put about a dead body, to preserve it longer from putrefaction ; from cera, wax.

(4) The speech of the ghost to be spoken without action, very now and folemn, with little variation of voice, and in a hollow deep and dreary tone.

IT

With juice of cursed hebenon distill’d,
And in the porches of mine ears did pour
The leprous poison, whose contagious nature
Holds such an enmity with the life of man,
That with a sudden vigour it doth curdle
The thin and wholesome blood. So did it mine,
And instantly a tetter bark'd about,
Most lazar like, with vile and loathsome crust,
All iny smooth body.
Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother's hand,
Of life, of crown, of queen, at once bereft!
Cut off ev’n in the blossom of my sins ;
No reck’ning made, but sent to my account,
With all my imperfections on my head.
If thou hast nature in thee, bear it not.
Let not the royal bed of Denmark be
A couch for filthiness, and beastly incest.
But how soever thou pursu'st redress,
Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive
Against thy mother aught. Leave her to heav'n,
And to those thorns, that in her bosom lodge,
To goad and sting her. Fare thee well at once.
The glow-worm shews the morning to be near ;
His ineffectual fire begins to pale.
Farewel. Remember me.

Exciting.

Indignation

Cautioning.

Anguilh.

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LXV.

EXHORTATION. REPROACHING.

The Athenians, being unsuccessful in the war against

Philip of Macedon, assembled in great dejection, in or-
der to consult what measures were to be taken to retrieve
their seemingly desperate affairs. DEMOSTHENES en-
deavours to encourage them, by shewing that there was
nothing to fear from Philip if they prosecuted the war in
a proper manner. [Demost. Philip ORAT.]

ATHENIANS!
Had this assembly been called together on
an unusual occasion, I should have waited to
hear the opinions of others, before I had offered

Apology,

my own; and if what they proposed had seemed

to me judicious, I should have been silent ; if Submission. Otherwise, I should have given my reasons for dif

fering from those, who had spoken before me. Apology. But as the subject of our present deliberations

has been often treated by others, I hope I shall be excused, though I rise up first to offer my opinion. Had the schemes, formerly proposed, been successful, there had been no occasion for the pre

sent consultation. Encourage. First, then, my countryinen, let me intreat

you not to look upon the state of our affairs as desperate, though it be unpromising. For, as on

one hand, to compare the present with times past, Concern. matters haveindeed a very gloomy aspect ; so, on

the other, if we extend our views to future times, Hope. I have good hopes, that the distresses, we are

now under, will prove of greater advantage to us, than if we had never fallen into them. If it be asked, what probability there is of this, I an

swer, I hope, it will appear, that it is our egreReproach. gious misbehaviour alone, that has brought us

into these disadvantageous circumstances. Froin Directing. whence follows the necessity of altering our con

duct, and the prospect of bettering our circum

stances by doing so. If we had nothing to accuse Apprehen. ourselves of ; and yet found our affairs in their

present disorderly condition, we should not have

room left even for the hope of recovering ourExciting. selves. But, my countrymen, it is known to

you, partly by your own remembrance, and partly

by information from others, how gloriously the Courage. Lacedæmonian war was sustained, in which we

engaged in defence of our own rights, against

an enemy powerful and formidable; in the whole Approba. conduct of which war nothing happened unworthy

the dignity of the Athenian state ; and this within these few years past. My intention in recall

ing to your memory this part of our history, is Exciting to shew you, that you have no reason to fear

any enemy, if your operations be wisely planned, and vigorously executed ; as, on the contrary, Apprehen. that if you do not exert your natural strength in a proper manner, you have nothing to look for but disappointment and distress ; and to suggest Exciting. to you, that you ought to profit by this example of what has actually been done by good conduct against the great power of the Lacedæmonians, so as in the present war to assert your superiority over the insolence of Philip ; which it is evident Encourage. from experience may be effected, if zou resolve to attend diligently to those important objects, which you have of late shamefully neglected. The enemy has indeed gained considerable advantages by Regret. treaty, as well as by conquest. For it is to be expected, that princes and states will court the alliance of those, who, by their counsels and arms, seem likely to procure for themselves and their confederates, distinguished honours and advantages. But, my countrymen, though you have, of late, Encourage. been too supinely negligent of what concerned you so nearly; if you will even now, resolve to Earnestness. exert yourselves unanimously, each according to his respective abilities and circumstances, The rich, by contributing liberally towards the expense of the war, and the rest by presenting themselves to be enrolled, to make up the deficiencies of the army and navy, if, in short, you will Encourage. at last resume your own character, and act-like yourselves, it is not yet too late, with the help

Courage. of Heaven, to recover what you have lost, and to inflict the just vengeance on your insolent enemy. Philip is but a mortal. He cannot, like a god, secure to himself, beyond the possibility of disappointment, the acquisitions he has made.

There are those who hate him; there are who Exciting. fear, and there are who envy him ; and of these some, who seem most inseparably connected with him. These, your inactivity obliges, at present, to Reproach. stifle their real sentiments, which are in your fa

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