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whether there be not certain unknown regions, which they may attack, and reduce under subjection to the Roman empire. For we see, that if a country is thought to be powerful in arms, the Romans attack it, because the conquest will be glorious; if inconsiderable in the military art, because the victory will be easy; if rich, they are drawn thither by the hope of plunder; if poor, by the desire of fame. The east and the west, the south and the north, the face of the whole earth, is the scene of their military atchievements; the world is too little for their ambition, and their avarice. They are the only nation ever known. to be equally desirous of conquering a poor kingdom as a rich one. Their supreme joy seems to to be ravaging, fighting, and shedding of blood; and when they have unpeopled a region, so that there are none left alive able to bear arms, they say they have given peace to that country.
Nature itself has peculiarly endeared to all Tenderness men, their wives and their children. But it is known to you, my countrymen, that the conquered youth are daily draughted off to supply the deficiencies in the Roman army. The wives, the sisters, and the daughters of the conquered, are either exposed to the violence, or at least corrupted by the arts of these cruel spoilers. The fruits of our industry, are plundered to make up Accufing, the tributes imposed on us by oppressive avarice, Britons sow their fields; and the greedy Romans reap them. Our very bodies are worn out in car- Complaint. rying on their military works, and our toils are rewarded by them with abuse and stripes. Those, who are born to slavery, are bought and maintained by their master. But this unhappy coun- Indignation try pays for being enslaved, and feeds those who enslave it. And our portion of disgrace is the bitterest, as the inhabitants of this island are the last, who have fallen under the galling yoke.
Accufing. Our native bent against tyranny, is the offence, which most sensibly irritates those lordly usurpers. Our distance from the seat of government, and our natural defence by the surrounding ocean, render us obnoxious to their suspicions: for they know, that Britons are born with an instinctive love of liberty; and they conclude, that we must be naturally led to think of taking the advantage of our detached situation, to disengage ourselves one time or other, from their oppression.
Thus, my countrymen, and fellow-soldiers, suspected and hated, as we ever must be by the Romans, there is no prospect of our enjoying even a tolerable state of bondage under them. Let us, then, in the name of all that is sacred, and in defence of all that is dear to us, resolve to exert ourselves, if not for glory, at least for safety; if not in vindication of British honour, at least in defence of our lives. How near were the Brigantines (1) to_shaking off the yoke-led on too by a woman ?-They burnt a Roman settlement: they attacked the dreaded Roman legions in their camp. Had not their partial success drawn them into a fatal security, the business was done. And shall not we, of the Caledonian region, whose territories are yet free, and whose strength entire, shall we not, my fellow-soldiers, attempt somewhat, which may shew these foreign ravagers, that they have more to do than they think of, before they be masters of the whole island.
But, after all, who are these mighty Romans! Are they gods, or mortal men, like ourselves? Do we not see that they fall into the same errors and weaknesses as others? Does not peace effeminate them? Does not abundauce debauch them? Does not wantonness enervate them? Contempt. Do they not even go to excess in the most un
(1) The Brigantines, according to Ptolemy, inhabited what is now called Yorkshire, the bishopric of Durham, &c.
manly vices? And can you imagine, that they, Courage. who are remarkable for their vices, are likewise remarkable for their valour? What, then, do we dread?. -Shall I tell you the very truth, my fellow-soldiers? it is by means of our intestine divisions, that Romans have gained so great advantages over us. They turn the mismanagements of their enemies to their own praise. They boast of what they have done, and say nothing of what we might have done, had we been so wise as to unite against them.
What is this formidable Roman army? Is it Contempt. not composed of a mixture of people from different countries, some more, some less, disposed to military atchievements; some more, some less, capable of bearing fatigue and hardship. They keep together, while they are successful. Attack them with vigour distress them: you will see them more disunited among themselves, than we are now. Can any one imagine, that Gauls, Germans, and-with shame I must add, Britons, who basely lend, for a time, their limbs, and their lives, to build up a foreign tyranny; one imagine, that these will not be longer enemies than slaves? Or that such an army is held together by sentiments of fidelity, or affection ? No; the only body of union among them is fear. And, whenever terror ceases to work upon minds of that mixed multitude, they, who now fear, will then hate their tyrannical masters. On our side, there is every possible incitement to valour. The Roman courage is not, as ours, inflamed by the thought of wives and children in danger of falling into the hands of the enemy. The Romans have no parents, as we have, to reproach them, if they should desert their infirm old age. They have no country here to fight for. They are a motly collection of for- Contempt. eigners, in a land wholly unknown to them, cut off from their native country, hemmed in by the
surrounding ocean, and given, I hope, a prey into our hands, without any possibility of escape. Let not the sound of the Roman name affright your ears. Nor let the glare of gold or silver upon their armour, dazzle your eyes. It is not by gold, or silver, that men are either wounded or defended; though they are rendered a richer Courage. prey to the conquerors. Let us boldly attack this disunited rabble. We shall find among themselves a reinforcement to our army. The degenerated Britons, who are incorporated into their forces, will, through shame of their country's cause, deserted by them, quickly leave the Romans and come over to us. The Gauls, remembering their former liberty, and that it was the Romans who deprived them of it, will forsake their tyrants, and join the assertors of freedom. The Germans, who remain in their army, will follow the example of their countrymen, the Usipii, who so lately deserted. And what will there be Contempt. then to fear? A few half-garrisoned forts; a few municipal towns, inhabited by worn-out old men, discord universally prevailing, occasioned by tyranny in those who command, and obstinacy in Courage. those who should obey. On our side, an army united in the cause of their country, their wives, their children, their aged parents, their liberties, their lives. At the head of this army-I hope I Apology. do not offend against modesty in saying, there is a General ready to exert all his abilities, such as they are, and to hazard his life in leading you to victory and to freedom.
I conclude, my countrymen, and fellow-soldiers, with putting you in mind, that on your behaviour this day depends your future enjoyment of peace and liberty, or your subjection to a tyrannical enemy, with all its grievous consequences. When, therefore, you come to engage-think of your ancestors and think of your posterity.
TION OF LEARNING. COMPULSION. (See Moliere's MARRIAGE FORCE.)
LONGHEAD Solus, with an open letter in his hand.
I WAS wrong to proceed so far in this matter so
hastily. To fix the very day, and then fail. Her