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nance ; all which only heighten the confusion of his appearance.
Remorse, or a painful sense of guilt, casts down the countenance, and clouds it with anxiety ; hangs down the head, draws the eyebrows down upon the eyes. The right hand beats the breast. The teeth gnash with anguish. The whole body is strained and violently agitated. If this strong remorse is succeeded by the more gracious disposition of penitence or contrition; then the eyes are raised (but with great appearance of doubting and fear) to the throne of heavenly mercy; and iinmediately cast down again to the earth. Then floods of tears are seen to flow. The knees are bended ; or the body prostrated on the ground. The arms are spread in a suppliant posture, and the voice of deprecation is uttered with sighs, groans, timidity, hesitation, and trembling.
Courage, steady, and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. The accents are strong, full mouthed and articulate, the voice firm and
Boasting, or affected courage, is loud, blustering, threatening. The eyes stare ; the eyebrows drawn down; the face is red and bloated ; the mouth pouts out ; the voice hollow and thundering ; the arms are set a-kimbo ; the head often nodding in a menacing manner ; and the right fist clenched, is brandished, froin time to time, at the person threatened. The right foot is often stamped upon the ground, and the legs take such large strides, and the steps are so heavy, that the earth seems to tremble under them.
Pride assumes a lofty look, bordering upon the aspect and attitude of anger. The eyes open, but with the eyebrows considerably drawn dozon ; the mouth pouting out; mostly shut, and the lips pinched close. The words walk out a-strut, with a slow, stiff, bombastic affectation of importance. The arms gergrally a-kimbo, and the legs at a distance from one another, taking large tragedy-strides:
Obstinacy adds to the aspect of pride, a dogged sourness like that of malice. See Malice.
Authority opens the countenance; but draws down the eyebrows a little, so far as to give the look of gravity..
Commanding requires an air a little more peremptory, with a look a little severe or stern. The hand is held
and moved toward the person, to whom the order is given, with the palm upwards, and the head nods toward him.
Forbidding, on the contrary, draws the head backward, and pushes the hand from one with the palm downward, as if going to lay it upon the person, to hold him down iinmoveable, that he may not do what is forbidden him.
Affirming, especially with a judicial oath, is expressed by lifting the open right hand, and eyes, toward heaven ; or, if conscience is appealed to, by laying the right hand upon the breast.
Denying is expressed by pushing the open right hand from one ; and turning the face the contrary way. See Aversion.
Differing in sentiment, may be expressed as refusing. See Refusing:
Agreeing in opinion, or conviction, as granting. See Granting.
Exhorting, as by a general at the head of his army, requires a kind, complacent look ; unless matter of offence has passed, as neglect of duty, or the like.
Judging demands a grave, steady look, with deep attention; ihe countenance altogether clear from any appearance of either disgust or favour. The accents slow, distinct, emphatical, accompanied with little action, and that very grave.
Reproving, puts on a stern aspect, roughens the voice, and is accompanied with gestures not much different froin those of threatening, but not so lively.
Acquitting is performed with a benevolent, tranquil countenance, and tone of voice ; the right hand, if not both, open, waved gently toward the person acquitted, expressing dismission. (See dismissing.)
Condemning assumes a severe look, but mixed with pity. The sentence is to be expressed as with reluctance.
Teaching, explaining, inculcating, or giving orders to an inferior, requires an air of superiority to be assumed. The features are to be composed to an authoritative gravity. The eye steady, and open, the eyebrow a little
drawn down over it; but not so much as to look surly or dogmatical.
The tone of voice varying according as the emphasis requires, of which a good deal is necessary in expressing matter of this sort. The pitch of voice to be strong and clear ; the articulation distinct; the utterance slow; and the manner preceptory. This is the proper manner of pronouncing the commandments in the cominunion office. But (I am sorry to say it) they are too commonly spoken in the same manner as the prayers, than which nothing can be more unnatural.
Pardoning differs from acquitting, in that the latter means clearing a person after trial of guilt ; whereas the foriner supposes guilt, and signifies merely delivering the guilty person from punishment. Pardoning requires some degree of severity of aspect and tone of voice, because the pardoned person is not an object of entire unmixed approbation; otherwise its expression is much the same as granting. See Granting.
Arguing requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand. It differs from teaching (see Teaching) in that the look of authority is not wanted in arguing.
Dismissing, with approbation, is done with a kind aspect and tone of voice ; the right hand open, gently zaved toward the person : with displeasure, besides the look and tone of voice which suit displeasure, the hand is hastly thrown out toward the person dismissed, the back part toward him, the countenance at the same time turned away from him.
Refusing, when accompanied with displeasure, is expresed nearly in the same way. Without displeasure, it is done with a visible reluctance, which occasions the bringing out the words slowly, with such a shake of the head, and shrug of the shoulders, as is natural upon hearing of somewhat, which gives us concern.
Granting, when done with unreserved good-will, is accompanied with a benevolent aspect, and tone of voice; the right hand pressed to the left breast, to signify how heartily the favour is granted, and the benefactor's joy in cona ferring it.
Dependence. See Modesty.
Veneration, or worshipping, comprehends several artieles, as ascription, confession, remorse, intercession, thanksgiving, deprecation, petition, &c. Ascription of honour and praise to the peerless and supreme Majesty of heaven, and confession and deprecation, are to be uttered with all that humility of looks and gesture, which can exhibit the most profound self-abasement and annihilation, before One, whose superiority is infinite. The head is a little raised, but with the most apparent timidity, and dread ; the eye is lifted, but iinmediately cast down again, or closed for a moment; the eyebrows are drawn down in the inost respectful manner; the features, and the whole body and limbs, are all composed to the most profound gravity ; one posture continuing, without considerable change, during the whole performance of the duty. The knees bended, or the whole body prostrate ; or if the posture be standing, which scripture* does not disallow, bending forward , as ready to prostrate itself. The arms spread out, but modestly, as high as the breast; the the hands open. The tone of the voice will be submissive timid, equal, trembling, weak, suppliant. The words will be brought out with a visible anxiety and diffidence approaching to hesitation; fer, and slow ; nothing of vain repetition, † haranguing, flowers of rhetoric, or affected figures of speech; all simplicity, humility, and lowliness, such as becomes a reptile of the dust, when presuming to address Him whose greatness is tremendous beyond all created conception. In intercession for our fellow-creatures, which is prescribed in the scriptures, & and in thanksgiving, the countenance will naturally assume a small degree of cheerfulness, beyond what it was clothed with in confession of sin and deprecation of punishment. But alloaffected ornament of speech or gesture in devotion, deserves the severest censure, as being somewhat much worse than absurd.
Respect for a superior, puts on the look and gesture of modesty. See Modesty.
Hope brightens the countenance ; arches the eyebrows : gives the eyes an eager, wishful look ; opens the mouth to
* Mark xi. 25. † Matth. vi. 7. Matth. v. 44. Luke vi. 28.
half a smile ; bends the body a little forward, the feet equal; spreads the arms, with the hands open, as to receive the object of its longings. The tone of the voice is eager and unevenly inclining to that of joy; but curbed by a degree of doubt and anxiety. Desire differs froin hope, as to expression, in this particular, that there are more appearance of doubt and anxiety in the former, than the latter. For it is one thing to desire what is agreeable, and another to have a prospect of actually obtaining it.
Desire expresses itself by bending the body forward, and stretching the arms toward the object, as to grasp it. The countenance smiling and wishful; the eyes wide open, and eyebrows raised ; the mouth open ; the tone of voice suppliant, but lively and cheerful, unles there be distress as well as desire : the expressions fluent and copious ; if no words are used, sighs instead of them ; but this is chiefly in distress.
Love (successful) lights up the countenance into smiles. T'he forehead is smoothed and enlarged ; the eyebrows are arched ; the mouth a little open, and smiling ; the eyes, languishing and half-shut, dote upon the beloved object. The countenance assumes the eager and wishful look of desire (see Desire above) but mixed with an air of satisfaction and repose.
The accents arc sort and winning ; the tone of voice persilasive, flattering, pathetic, various, milsical, rapturous, as in joy. (See Joy.) The attitade much the saine with that of desire. Sometimes both hands pressed eagerly to the bosom. Love, unsuccessful, adds an air of anxiety and melancholy. (See Perpiexity and Melancholy.)
Giving, inviting, soliciting, and such like actions, which suppose soine degree of affection, real or pretended, are accompanied with inuch the same looks and gestures as express
but moderate. Wonder, or amazeinent (without any other interesting passion, as love, esteem, &c.) opens the eyes, and makes them appear very prominent ; sometimes raises them to the skies; but oftener, and more expressively, fixes then on the object, if the cause of the passion be a present and visible object, with the look, all except the wildness, of fear. (See Fear.) If the hands hold any thing, at the