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incarnation, death and mediation of struck as to assist. in editing the the Son of God, and to the expiation Dial. Many there are who having which he has made for sin; and common sense enough to attend to those which relate to the process of ordinary business, are the conducthe soul's renovation and actual re- tors through which this influence is conciliation to God by the work of diffusing itself among the uninitiathe Holy Spirit-take away that re- ted. The infidelity of the last age ve led way of salvation for sinners, was, for the most part, the infidelity that new and living way," that of materialism, which knew nothing manifestation of God as just and and believed nothing but what is reyet justifying the sinner that believ. ported by the outward senses. The eth, which makes Christianity a infidelity with which the coming age Gospel; and the intellectual instinct is threatened, is the infidelity of a that demands congruity, will feel, self-styled spiritualism, which besooner or later, that to contend for lieves nothing that is true and subthe miracles by which Christianity stantial, for the reason that, under is supposed to be authenticated, is the pretense of seeing through this like contending for the shell when outward show of things, it believes the kernel is gone, or like keeping every thing that is unsubstantial, un up a smoke and roar of artillery true, and absurd. That this mystiover the outworks, after the citadel cal infidelity is likely to be in any has been surrendered. The fact way less fanatical or mischievous then that such a work as the Chris. than that which in France adored tian Examiner, with so many claims the goddess of Reason, no man, acto attention, is published at the me. quainted with history or with human tropolis of New England, is in every nature, will easily admit. point of view a reason, why the A few years ago, the Christian evangelical faith of New England Spectator, published at New Haven, should find for itself fit organs of the Literary and Theological Recommunication with the reading and view, published at New York, but inquiring public.

designed chiefly for New England, Shall we say any thing here of the and the American Quarterly ObserDial?—the Dial, with the mystic ver, published at Boston, were in the symbols on its face, looking up not field at once, each with its peculiar to the sun, but to the everlasting fog aim and merits, and each offering in which it has its being? Who itself as an organ through which reads the Dial for any other purpose New England men of the evangelithan to laugh at its baby poetry or cal faith were uttering their opinat the solemn fooleries of its misty ions. The Quarterly Observer, afprose? Yet the Dial is worth ad. ter the issue of a short series of volverting to in this connection, not be. umes, was merged in the Biblical cause of any influence which it is Repository, the editorship of that actually exerting, or which it is elder and more widely circulated likely to exert, but because it is work having been transferred to the itself one of the symptoms or man

editor of the Observer. The conifestations of a morbid influence ductors of the Christian Spectator, widely diffused, which may by and judging that the discussions with by manifest itself with greater pow. which that work was identified had er and with disastrous results. Who been pursued far enough to answer does not see in the literature of the their purpose, advised the proprietor day many traces of such an influ. to accept the proposals which the ence? Not all the worshippers of proprietor of the Repository had Goethe-not all those who bow made for the purchase of the estabdown before Carlyle, are so moon- lishment. The Literary and Theo

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logical Review, which during the he can do good by purchasing anoadministration of its first editor at ther copy for some home missionary tained a high reputation, underwent in the West, or for some poor minis. a change after it passed into other ter or schoolmaster or student, let hands; and in the end its subscri- him do it, and we will do likewise bers were served with the Biblical so far as we are able ; but let him Repertory. Thus, where there

Thus, where there not therefore suppose that he is our were three quarterly magazines for Mecenas, or a “life director" of our religious and general literature, we enterprise. now find none. Admitting that The conductors of the New Eng. there was not room enough for lander, we have said, will express three-admitting even that they their own opinions at their own discrowded each other from the field cretion. They do not propose to be -it does not follow that in the ab- at the expense of publishing for othsence of them all, there is not room er people who may have a disposifor our undertaking. The New tion, however laudable, to contradict Englander does not offer itself as them and dispute with them. Of the successor of all the periodicals course it is not to be expected that which have been named, or of any among so many individuals, there one of them. It cannot expect to will be in every thing a perfect idenplease all of all parties. It does tity of opinion. On questions of not pledge itself to please any party. taste, of political science, of historiIts conductors will utter their own cal inquiry, of philosophy, not eveopinions at their own discretion. ry writer of our company is to be And if the circulation of the work, held responsible for the opinions of conducted on such principles, does every other writer. One of us may not show that there is a demand for say to another, “I am not so sanit on the part of the public, the un- guine a democrat as you are,'—or, dertaking will of course be aban- "you are more zealous for Congredoned. Neither our pride of au- gationalism than I can be,'—or, 'I thorship, nor our estimation of the have less faith in the doctrines of value of our lucubrations to the political economy than you have.' community, will induce us to make One may hold in philosophy with pecuniary sacrifices for the support Locke, another with Brown, and anof a work which cannot support other may have a philosophy of his itself. And to speak plain truth, own. If therefore some diversity we have no money to expend in that of opinion as well as of style shall kind of charity. What we are able appear on our pages, let it be underto give for public uses, we will give stood that to the extent of that diin some other way, rather than in sup- versity we have among ourselves porting a periodical which the pub- agreed to differ. Still the influence lic will not buy. Nor have we any of the New Englander will be found party resources on which to fall steadily setting in one direction. It back when our own resources fail. will be found on the side of order, The work must be supported by of freedom, of progress, of simple finding a sufficient number of pure and spiritual Christianity, and of the chasers, or it will not be supported Bible as the infallible, sufficient and at all. If any individual after pur- only authority in religion. chasing a copy for himself, thinks


1843.) The Post-Office System, as an Element of Modern Civilization.




The power of holding communi- paper and seal it, and nobody can cation with those at a distance with see what is in it. My messenger carwhom we are connected in relations ries the paper, and if he knows not of business or friendship, and of what message he carries, no matter. making such communications as ex. My friend opens the paper, and aet, infallible, and direct, as the na- there my words are, just as I wrote ture of human language will adınit, them.” is, to a savage, one of the most But the mere power of writing wonderful of all the mysterious letters is of course worth little, unpowers of civilized man. Wben less there be given the power of Captain John Smith, the founder of sending what is written to the perVirginia, a prisoner for the time son for whom it is designed. In among the Indians, sent by the an uncivilized or partially civilized hands of one of his captors, a writ- country-in all countries save those ten message to Jamestown, and the which partake in the civilization message, without a word from the of modern Christendom—the only messenger that bore it, was accu- means of epistolary communication rately complied with, the exactness are special messengers and acciof that silent communication seemed dental opportunities. No ancient to the wild men of the woods the government, even of the most culoperation of some supernatural tivated or powerful nations, had any power. “The paper,” they said, such thing as what we call a post“could talk.” In our own time, a office department. Neither Egypt Sandwich Island chief who had when her Pharaohs built the pyralearned from American missionaries mids, or when her Ptolemies made the art of writing, expressed himself Alexandria the emporium of the to this effect—“Formerly, when I world-nor Greece when her artwanted to send words to a chief on

ists adorned her hills with strucanother island, I told my words to tures and statues which to this day a messenger. One half, perhaps, all kindred genius only seeks to imihe would forget. The other half tate, or faintly bopes to rival-nor perhaps he would misunderstand. Rome when her arch of empire Now, I put my words on a paper- overshadowed every nation-had just what I mean. I shut up the any such thing as a mail for the ac.

commodation of the public. The * Third Report from the Select Com

era of the first propagation of Chrismittee on Postage. Ordered by the tianity—the era of the New TestaHouse of Commons to be printed, Au- ment Scriptures—was that of “the gust 18, 1838. , (Reprinted in Supple- most high and palmy state” of Roment to the London Spectator, March 9, 1839.)

man civilization; yet the Apostles Message of the President of the United and primitive missionaries, in their States to the two houses of Congress, at communications with each other and the commencement of the Second Session with their converts, never enjoyed of the twenty-sixth Congress. [With the accompanying documents.] Washing

the convenience of a post-office-a ton. 1840.

convenience which is only next to Message of the President of the United the printing-office among the essen. States to the two houses of Congress, at the commencement of the Second Session

tial things of modern civilization. of the twenty-seventh Congress. [With Thus, in almost every one of the the documents.] Washington, 184). Apostolic epistles, we find some Vol. I.


very natural reference, more or less a draft on Rome, or a certificate of explicit, to the messenger by whom deposite in a bank, to the amount of the epistle was to be conveyed to the contribution, and enclosing it in its destination. In the epistle to a letter, send it by mail more safely the Romans, for example, Paul for- and expeditiously than it could posmally introduces to his Roman sibly be sent by any single messenfriends (xvi: 1) Phebe, a servant of ger? The answer is that all these the church at Cenchrea, whom we conveniences-post-offices, mails, may therefore presume to have been bank-deposites, and bills of exthe bearer of the document. The change, were as unknown to Rofirst epistle to the Corinthians ap- man civilization, as newspapers, pears to have been forwarded by steamboats, and railroads. Stephanus, Fortunatus, and Achai- The earliest germ of a post-office cus, (xvi: 17, 18,) who had come system, which finds a place in writfrom Corinth to Paul as the bearers ten history, is the arrangement of a communication to him from the which was made by Darius I, king Corinthian church. The second to of Persia. That wise and energetic the Corinthians appears to have been monarch established a system of sent by the hands of Titus and ano- royal couriers, stationed at regular ther person not named, but described distances with horses always ready as “the brother whose praise is in for a start, to convey reports by exall the churches,” (viii : 6, 18.) In press from the provinces to the seat the epistle to the Ephesians, Tychi- of government, and of course to cus is named as the messenger, (vi: convey despatches in return from 21, 22.) The epistle to the Philip- the seat of government to the provpians was forwarded from Rome by inces. So under Augustus, a simiEpaphroditus, (ii : 25,) a messenger lar arrangement was established in whom Paul's friends at Philippi had the Roman empire. So when the sent to him for the purpose of bring. Spaniards discovered Peru, they ing their kind contributions for his found messengers stationed at short relief in his imprisonment, (iv: 18.) intervals upon the road from Cusco And Paul says (ii : 25–28) that he to Quito, for the purpose of consends him the earlier, because they veying with speed the orders of the had heard of his having been sick. sovereign. İndeed something of The illustration here is a copious this kind, more or less definitely one. Epaphroditus had been sick arranged, is essential to the action at Rome ; and to relieve the anxiety of a strong government over an exof his friends at Philippi, who bytended territory. Every centralized some accident had heard of his ill. government must have some means ness, Paul finds it necessary to send of conveying its will to distant funchim back sooner than he would oth- tionaries, and of receiving reports erwise have chosen to do. Why from them in return. This, howdid not Paul during the illness of ever, is a mere government arrangeEpaphroditus, drop a letter daily ment, maintained only for governinto the post-office at Rome, inform- ment purposes. ing the disciples at Philippi of the Another rudiment of what we unstate of their friend's health? Why derstand by a post-office system, did not Epaphroditus do this for began to exist a little more than six himself when he had recovered? hundred years ago. When comNay, why did the Philippian church merce had begun to revive in Eusend Epaphroditus at all? When rope, after the universal wreck in they had made up their contribution which the ancient civilization perfor the imprisoned Apostle, why did ished, the larger commercial cities, they not procure a bill of exchange, particularly in Germany, began to establish lines of communication ters from the students, and brought from one emporium to another, both back to the students from their by mounted messengers for the homes, letters and remittances of transmission of letters, and by car- money. The exigences of so large riages for the conveyance of travel a body of men, residing for a longer ers. This is the very idea of the or shorter period at such distances mail as we have it—a regular pub- from their various homes, could not lic conveyance of letters for the be answered by the lines of compublic accommodation. But it was munication which connected the only a rudiment, not a system ; it great commercial cities. A mail was confined to the routes that con- was needed which should carry letnected the principal centers of com- ters to and from each student's na. merce.

On other routes less fre- tive town or village. The fact that quented, and where the demand for such a system of university lettersuch a convenience was less urgent, carriers was needed, that a collecother arrangements of a more prim- tion of a thousand men or more in itive character were still in use. one of the first cities of Europe, Commerce had then its multitude of could be accommodated with even itinerant agents, as American com- so slow a transmission of their let. merce now has in some of our thinly ters, only by uniting and employing settled States, where Yankee vend- men to do this particular work for ers of clocks, dry goods, and tin them, shows how imperfect at that ware, get more renown for acute- time were those arrangements for ness than for integrity. And where the division of labor, by which every one of those itinerants of the mid- man is now made to feel at every dle ages was honest enough, and point his dependence not only upon had character enough, to travel from his immediate neighbors, but upon year to year over the same circuit, society as a whole. The academivisiting at known periods the same cal couriers of the university of Pacastles, the same villages and the ris were continued till the year same convents, and returning to the 1709, when the system was abolsame city, he became a sort of ished by the French government, “post-rider” to the people of his and a yearly revenue of 300,000 circuit, a vender of news and of no- francs was allowed to the university tions as well as of more material as an indemnity for the loss of the commodities ; and letters from one privilege. place to another on his route were Something analogous to the sys. naturally entrusted to him. Inter- tem adopted by the university of course of this kind being once be. Paris, would of course be adopted gun would be likely to increase, and by other universities. A body of to secure its own means of convey. scholars, wherever collected, would ance, as the living stream when it create for themselves, if not otheronce begins to run, wears for itself wise supplied, some means of regua channel.

lar communication with their distant At the period now referred to, friends. An arrangement of this the first and greatest university of kind existed in the English univerEurope was that of Paris. In that sities as late as two centuries ago; city, students were collected from and peradventure some traces of it all parts of Europe, to the number, may be still found there, for those it is said, of several thousands. venerable bodies are very slow to Early in the thirteenth century, it change. In the writings of Milton, appears that the university main- whose residence at Cambridge was tained pedestrian messengers who from 1624 to 1632, there are a couat certain times took charge of let- ple of trifling pieces, much in the

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