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fear not, is the first lesson taught him by those great and good men, who founded the patron Society and framed its rules. However alarming and oppressive the idea of being in debt may be at first, the burthen by being long borne and gradually accumulated, sits easy on his conscience. This is not the right way to train a man for the ministry. To be in debt is a dangerous thing for a man's moral sensibilities and moral habits. He who is habitually in debt, is always in danger of thinking lightly of his obligations to his creditors. For more than one reason, the rule of the Methodists, requiring every candidate who applies for admission to the body of their itinerating and ruling clergy, to declare that he is not in debt, is worthy of commendation. directors of the Education Society have a pretty good security that their beneficiaries will not turn Methodists.
ministry, what is his position? Under a load of debt, and long instructed to expect that the profits of his profession will soon enable him to pay the debts which have been ac cumulating for six or eight years, he looks around to see where those profits are to be realized. What is he then? A free minister of Jesus Christ, ready to go wherever he may do good, and able to rise above all secular considerations? No. He is compelled, in conscience, to be a parish-seeker-an inquirer after desirable vacancies. The question with him is, not simply, Where can I do good? but Where can I get a salary large enough to pay my debts? How embarrassing must it be to stand in such a position. How unfavorable to the development of that free, enterprising, self-consecrating spirit, which ought always to characterize the ministry of Christ, and most of all in such a country and such times as ours.
We are told, however, that this loan is of a peculiar character; it is "a paternal loan," and payment is not to be sternly enforced, if the beneficiary is in a situation in which he cannot pay without being distressed. For this very reason it is the worst kind of a loan, in its moral effect on the feelings and habits of the debtor. Debts which are not to be paid, unless it shall be convenient to pay them, are of all debts most likely to eat out a man's in tegrity. If the benefaction is to be called a loan, let it be a loan in good faith, and let the borrower un derstand clearly that when the pay day comes, payment will be exact ed to the last cent, so long as there is law to compel payment; and the debtor may feel from be ginning to end a salutary dread. But this growing debt which is yet no debt, weakens his sense of the obligation of all debts.
And when at last the beneficiary, having completed his preparation, comes forth as a candidate for the Vol. I. 18
We know there is a pledge that if the beneficiary will go on a mis sion either to foreign lands, or to the remote and destitute parts of our own country, his obligations to the society shall be cancelled. But is this a good argument to employ with men to make missionaries of them? Does it represent the missionary work in the most attractive and inspiring light? Who wants men to go on missions, as defaulters run to Texas, to get rid of their liabilities? Besides, what shall the man who contemplates the acceptance of this offer, do for the satisfaction of his other creditors? The doctrine of running in debt for an education, taken in connection with the scantiness of the loans made by the soci ety-which are but little more than half enough to support a young man at his studies-has led him to contract other debts in the expectation of being able to pay all out of his salary as a minister. Thus in addition to the five hundred dollars or more which he owes to the society,
he owes another five hundred dollars or less to other friends; and those other friends cannot afford to release him on the single condition of his emigrating. Like Peter, in the prison, he is "bound with two chains," and the offer that one shall be loosed if he will first break the other, can hardly be expected to operate like the summons of the angel-"Arise up, quickly"-to the chained apostle. "The chains" will not "fall off his hands" at such a word.
the spirit of disinterested benevolence, by an Old School Presbyterian elder. Here, too, is Abbott's Young Christian, and the Life of Harriet Newell, but they belong to the family in which he is a lodger, and have strayed into his room from the parlor below. Where is Dwight's Theology? Where are the Works of Emmons and of either Edwards? How is it that his mind is to be quickened and enlarged by habitual communion with the mighty minds of other days? How is his mind to keep pace with the progress of theological studies? How is he to know what is said and done in the great world? Does he take the Biblical Repository? No. Does he take the Edinburgh Review, or the North American, or the American Eclectic? Nothing of the kind. He has heard of the New Englander, and his heart has ached to subscribe for it; but no, he is in debt, and he must buy no books till his debts are paid. He takes a newspaper, and the Missionary Herald; sundry pamphlets are sent to him by mail, the postage of which is more than the price of them would have been at a bookstore; and this is all his intellectual aliment. Is this the way in which the pastor of a New England congregation ought to begin his ministry? Why, in a year or two, long before that fatal debt is paid, his mind comes to a dead halt; his habits of study, and his sympathies with the intellectual world, are destroyed; his sermons are commonplace iterations of the ideas which he picked up in the theological lecture-room; his people are disappointed in him, and begin to complain; he begins to be discouraged, and to look about for a better place. So much for the necessity of saving out of a small salary, to pay debts.
Sometimes it is said, let such a minister remain unmarried a few years; and the salary which his people give for the support of a
But let him obtain a settlement in a good New England parish. Now he must begin to save from his salary in order to pay his debts. But how is this saving to be made? Go into his study, and you may see. Where are his books? You look around for shelves. Ah! his library can be accommodated without shelves. Here lie his books upon the table. What are they? First, the Bible, in our good old English version. Well, the Bible is the best of books. What next? What helps has he-what apparatus for the critical study of that sacred book which it is his profession and his official duty to interpret and expound? Here is the old Greek Testament which he studied in the grammar school; Robinson's Lexicon he had once, but he sold it when he left the Seminary, hoping to buy another after he had ceased to be a candidate, and he wears the proceeds in the form of a shirt. Meanwhile if he looks into his Greek Testament and cannot remember the meaning of a word, he ascertains its meaning by reverting to the translation. Now for his commentaries. Has he Scott, Henry, or the Comprehensive? Has he Kuinoel, Rosenmueller, or Calvin? None of these. But he has two volumes of Barnes' Notes on the Gospel, which he bought when he was a Sabbath school teacher, and one volume of Hodge on the Romans, in the abridged form, which was given to him, in
family will enable him to throw off his load. But where is the parish that wants its minister to remain unmarried, an object for village coquettes and desponding spinsters to set their caps at? And is such advice likely to be followed? He who has not bound himself by an irrevocable vow of celibacy, is very apt to be persuaded, as soon as he has a home and an income, that his usefulness as well as his happiness will be promoted by his entering into the family state; and, if his choice is a wise one, we will let others dispute the soundness of his conclusion. But suppose that the subject of matrimony comes into his mind in close connection with the thought of paying his debts, how natural will it be for him to look about him far and near, and perhaps to perform some adventurous journeys, for the sake of finding-not a wife, whose piety and affection and plain good sense, whose kindness and gentleness towards all, and whose habits of industry and thrift, shall make his lowly home the brightest and happiest in the parish, a model household-but a wife, whose portion shall relieve him from his embarrassments. What then? We write not for him who needs to ask such questions.
Let us be allowed to hope, then, that in this particular, the rules of the American Education Society will be reformed. Let the beneficiaries hereafter be taught in every practicable way, that a debt is a dreadful thing for him who would serve Christ in the ministry of the Gospel; and if it be possible, let them come forth to their work free from all secular embarrassment. The effect on the spirit and character of the ministry generally, would be invaluable. Let it henceforth be a first principle with us, to educate, if possible, those who
shall "owe no man any thing but love."
It has always been deemed a noble charity to aid the efforts of a youthful mind, striving in the face of poverty, to cultivate its powers and to raise itself into the highest walks of usefulness. This is the charity of the Education Society. John Newton had in his congregation an unfriended young Scotchman, who, having found peace in believing, was moved by a desire to qualify himself for the ministry of peace. The good pastor approving and nurturing that desire, introduced the aspirant after usefulness to John Thornton, and that more than princely merchant sent the young Scotchman, at his own expense, to the University of Cambridge. Suppose now that this were the end of the story. Was it not a generous charity on the part of Newton and Thornton ? Had not they a reward in the consciousness of having acted kindly and generously? Might they not read with humble joy, the words of their Savior, "Forasmuch as ye have done it to one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it to me." But who was the beneficiary in that instance? CLAUDIUS BUCHANANwhose name India, converted to Christ, will hold in thankful remembrance, when the names of Clive and Hastings are effaced from her monuments. Could the reader look into the cheerless apartment of many a young man in our colleges, he might see there a spirit kindred to that of Buchanan, struggling perhaps with discouragements which Buchanan never knew. Could he peruse the catalogue of those whom the Education Society has counted as its sons, he might read there names which the churches and the nations are already learning to pronounce with something of the reverence due to greatness and to goodness.
RESEMBLANCE OF CERTAIN LANGUAGES TO THE LATIN.
THERE is no closer test of the proximity of two kindred languages, than an attempt by one who is familiarly acquainted with each, to write a paragraph which shall read equally well in either language. Some attempts of this kind have been made in reference to languages cognate with the Latin, which may be regarded as philological curiosities.
Te saluto, alma Dea, Dea
Tu benigna; tu salva, ama, conserva.
There is also the following well known invocation to the Virgin Mary, the lines of which, besides the
1. Italian and Latin. The great etymological affinity between Italian and Latin, is illustrated by the following lines addressed to Venice, by a citizen of that republic before its fall, which read equally in both languages. It is of course a constrained composition, and serves merely to show the pos sibility of the thing.
In mare irato, in subita procella,
Matthews, (Diary of an Invalid, c. 10,) adds these verses:
2. Spanish and Latin.
The Spanish language has a similar resemblance to the Latin. But we are unable to exemplify it.
Vivo in acerba pena, in mesto orrore,
3. Portuguese and Latin. The following verses which may
words being in both languages, retain the poetical measure in both.
be read indifferently as Portuguese or as Latin, evidently prove the very great analogy which these two languages bear to each other. It is a hymn to Saint Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins.
Canto tulas palmas, famosos | canto triumphos,
Devotos cantando hymnos, vos invoco sanctas;
4. French and Latin. The French has less resemblance to the Latin than the Italian or Portuguese has.
Tota Gallia est divisa in tres partes. Translated into French, it would read thus:
5. Sanscrit and Latin.
The learned French philologist, F. G. Eichhoff, in his Parallele des Langues de l'Europe et de l'Inde, Paris, 1836, fol., has illustrated the resemblance between Sanscrit and Latin, by the following sentence composed in these two languages.
Toute la Gaule est divisée in trois parties.
THIS grammar is called Noehden's on the cover; but as the accomplished German scholar who has edited it informs us, is indebted for its most important parts to the grammatical works of Dr. Becker. The truth is, that Noehden was far behind the present race of philologists in his attainments, and that since he first published his grammar, a new light has been thrown upon the German language by the study of the ancient dialects with which it has affinity. The results of these new investigations, Becker, who is we believe a physician, residing near Frankfort on the Maine, has embodied in his grammatical works; and has added to them some very acute and original observations on syntax. Others have followed in his train, and applied
The following sentence is taken from Caesar, a Latin writer, slightly altered:
Noehden's German Grammar, with alterations and large additions, by Rev. B. SEARS, D. D., President of the Newton Theological Institution. Andover, 1842.
NOEHDEN'S GERMAN GRAMMAR.*
Sanscrit: Rájam Pâlâçvan Râjnîm Amalân Yuva-Râjam Bhrâtârn Svasárç-ca Tâyatám Mahâ-daivas.
Latin: Regem Philippum Reginam Amaliam Juvenem Regium Fratres Sororesque tueatur Mag. nus Deus.
the same syntactical divisions to the Greek and Latin grammar. The extensive works of Grotefend on Latin, and of Kühner on Greek grammar, are modified according to his principles; and it now seems likely, that the next age will have grammatical terms and an analysis of propositions, unknown to their fathers. The old works must of course suffer the fate of being put up on a high shelf and being forgotten, if, as seems likely, the new system can maintain its ground. It is not however received with universal favor the older scholars object to its application to the Greek and Latin; and at one of the late meetings of the union of German philologists, a number of voices, if we are not misinformed, were lifted up against it.
So far as we know, Becker's views have never been exhibited in English, except in his "Grammar of the German language," published at London in 1830, and written ap.