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ness and richness of our sylva,

– deciduous mingled with the ever: the numerous internal lakes, with green, the glossy with the furred their bordering detritus of lacustrine leaf; terrace and parapet must lead plants,—the bold cliffs of our east- away by insensible gradations from ern states, harboring in their clefts, the architectural beauty of the dwellfrom long gone centuries, marine ing to the artistical* beauty of the exuviæ to nourish the fir and the grounds ; turf must be shaven, walks mountain brush-wood,—the wide swept, and hedges clipped, to show bending, savannas of the west, rich that art is busy with her broom and in all that makes the land-owner shears ;-for it would be highly un. prosperous—these are the features fashionable that a walk should seem which will perpetuate a correct ru- to be formed by the mere foot pas. ral taste.

sengers, or, in the neighborhood of Landscape gardening in its pre- the mansion, that a tree should seem sent acceptation, we understand to to grow because it belonged to the be a thing of comparatively recent soil and climate. date. True, the umbrosa vallis, the To all this we see no objection; frigida Tempe, have been figures of tasteful art is most lovable, but taste. luxury in every age; and the first less art is proportionately hateful; blessed beauty of Eden, was remem- and we anticipate, under present bered with a regret that made it the views of the matter, the operation image of lost happiness. Vine-clad of much more of the latter to ofCanaan was the object of long che- fend, than of the former to please. rished hopes, not unmingled with We by no means impugn Mr. D.'s fears, to a nation; and there were taste; but we do apprehend that the doubtless those in days of old, who very minutiæ of his details will lead “digged a ditch and planted a to great stiffness of execution, with hedge,” as well to beautify as pro- those who take their first and last tect. Still in general the unimpair. lessons of taste from his writings. ed richness of the country, superse. We do fear, perhaps needlessly, that ded the necessity of creating anew. this scientific grouping, this Newto. Mount Olivet lay nigh unto Jerusa- nian analysis of the lights and shades lem, and was a garden alike to its upon a landscape, this making a se. savans and slaves. Like all other rious matter of what we conceive arts, too, it has had its changes, and to be a simple one, bodes no suc.

natural style” has its cess to the efforts of our landhold. origin assigned by our author to ers in general.

Not that taste of quite a recent date. The rectangu. the highest kind is not requisite for larities of the old English garden, effective arrangement of grounds; now most discarded by them, are but taste is simple, and is guided by still retained by the Dutch, as suited most simple laws. It is as if an ex• (and they are right) to their fiats, pert angler should seek out some and water-roads, and national ha. theory, by which to regulate every bits, which would never choose a motion of the rod and reel and gut circuitous path, could there be one for a successful 66 cast,” when in direct. Mr. Downing, our present fact, though it is the most delicate expositor, says that true taste now-a- manual operation in the world, no. days is not to imitate nature exactly thing would so surely destroy its efin our grounds, but to associate na

ficiency.

In the one case as in the ture's extremes ; therein will be the "recognition of art.” Paths must be run in every possible direction; right

apprehension of this term. It is a

* We are not sure that we have the all angles discarded ; trees are to be

new word to us, though used so freely in set in groups of largest outline; the the volumes before us.

the present

other, time, place and circumstance thian column, or prospect arbors. are every thing. Bring the land. This understanding, such will hardholder back to the most entire sim. ly derive from the books before us ; plicity, and his acts will almost all the congruity of natural charms with show forth the truest principles of the every-day life of the laborer, is the art we are considering. If he not so pointedly set forth in them as set his hedge without a chain and we could desire. compass, it will run riot; if he If the books of Mr. Downing were drive his team from his door to the compiled as the mere text-books of highway by the easiest track, avoid the wealthy citizen, or the farmer, ing rock and tree and hillock, the whose prosperity rated at a given path will have grace; if he build income, they have very well accomwithout a square, his cottage will plished their intent; but if, as their have picturesqueness; if he throw titles imply, they were intended to out a rude porch to protect his door beautify the cottage residences of from storms, it will have beauty ; if America, and to make glad her he set his chimney-flues where most landscape, then are we justified in needed, they will break out from testing as we have done, the vol. the roof in striking irregularity; if umes, and in declaring that they he cut windows where easiest done, are “found wanting.' Emulation, it and for the best light, they will have may be expected, will do, much; Gothic grotesqueness. We by no but not, by any means, so much as in means propose the adoption of our the old world. Equality at the polls suggestions, but only make them to is a rare salvo for inequalities elseshow where the danger lies, and where. Again, the small farmer where least it is to be apprehended. could take few lessons of heathful The Maltese vase and China temple taste, from the grounds entered by may appear well by a gravel path a gate-lodge and graveled road, and shaven terrace, for aught we

swept with exotics, and flanked know; but a little wicket swinging with graven images. Such speciupon an oak, and disclosing a foot- mens of the art rural, can not be worn path to an embowered cottage, executed upon a small scale; they with white-washed walls and nicely can never be reconciled with that sanded floor, would be infinitely superlative essential of beauty-fitmore to our taste. A clump of al- ness. But let the man of humble ders, to shield a favorite resort from means be taught, that the simplest the eastern winds, is to us more forms are most beautiful, and that beautiful (by far more rural) than if he will be simple he can hardly tesselated panel-work inwrought with miss of it; and moreover, that beauty ivory. We wish that the plain far. is worth the having; that God has mers scattered over the country, and purposely robed the hills in its man. holding in their grasp the great fea- tle, and hung its curtain out upon tures which make up the aspect of the sky; that a nice perception of American landscape, better under- it will gratify the highest instincts stood that they can retain every el- of his nature, opening to him a new ement of beauty around their home- revelation, strengthening his relistead, and yet rear their crops with gion; that his children will grow the same regularity and success as up with warmer affections under its without. We wish they understood daily contemplation, and love more that they can successfully compete their home, dearer by so many tieswith their nabob neighbor, with the let this be shown him, and the cotmeans God has put in their hands - tage, whether Swiss or Tudor, with that the essentials of the art consist its honeysuckle flowers and embow. not in terrace, or exotic, or Corinered yard, will spring up all over Vol. I.

27

the land. He will become content with wild vines, a rural gate, and to live in his own home, to gather foot-worn path leading under the up his desires within that little cir- green hemlock, and branching to cle of enjoyment, to lavish his in the spring in the meadow. Addicreasing stores in new efforts for tional resources may set the dia. making that home a paradise ; more mond pane in the oriel window, and than all, he will be content that his wreath the porch with woodbine dwelling should be the expositor of and flowering creeper. The easthis wealth and taste, content to be ern and northeastern winds, are in poor, if beauty adorns his poverty. this climate subjects of importance

But our sympathy with those lit- to landsmen as well as seamen; tle, neglected, charming spots, along and however well entrances may our New England highways, which be guarded by double and trebled break on the eye at every turn, is doors, there is something exceedcarrying us, we scarce know where. ingly like comfort in a situation To be a little more definitive, we sheltered by nature. The side of propose to occupy our few remain

a gentle hill, that throws up its col. ing pages with practical suggestions umn of defense toward the offen. -mostly our own, partly from the sive quarter, sloping southward, is books before us—for making the a very agreeable companion in the country home what it ought to be, months of November and March; both as regards its architecture and and if tufted with rich foliage, is grounds. And we shall endeavor highly picturesque. The farmer in to seize upon those essentials of particular, will wish a spot for the the art, which are as familiar and sun to beam warmly in by his door, accessible to the man of humble and it will rejoice his heart in the means, as to the most affluent. spring, to welcome the green grass

As much taste is requisite in the at his step, while the fields are hoarselection of a proper site for a white. The hillside that shelters dwelling, as in any one considera. his homestead, will be a convenient tion about it. It must be a site con- pasture-ground, and the group that venient of access, particularly to shades his herd, may be so placed, the bustling farmer. It is desira- as to throw the white of his cottage ble to secure good views of the into elegant relief. The agricul. dwelling from prominent points of turist, as we have remarked, finds observation; and as far as com- it a matter of convenience to be patible with other objects, to open near the public road; still every rich landscape views from the house position affords opportunity for a itself. The man of limited means constantly developing taste. The should rather look for a position of twined columbine of the porch is convenience, central to his farm, thus brought more nearly into view, yet near the highway, and a situa. and the undershadowed bed of roses tion of agreeable shelter, than one waste not their sweetness.' Econcalculated alone to arrest attention. omy has, in our view, more to do It is the discovery oftentimes of a with choice of materials than taste. cottage in some hidden nook, that of styles, there must of necessity breaks on the mind with a happier be many, to offer a pleasing variety; force, than a long kept view of the but none strikes us so favorably for most commanding site. In how- general adoption, as that termed the ever humble a spot a cottage may English cottage style. The Swiss be placed, there may be opened in may appear well in many situations; time, from the little lattice, enchant- but the Grecian is too precise, too ing scenes, though no more than classical, perhaps, for an ordinary the rude paling of a garden overrun country homestead, and a fortiori the Roman ; the Moorish mode is with the finishing of doors, and cup. much too fantastic for a sober mind. boards, and windows, gives opportued man, and the Italian, beautiful nity for a most varied display of taste. as it is, seems to us adapted more The study of cottages, both in to a life of luxury and ease, than to style and disposition in finished the active, bustling habits of our landscape paintings, will greatly falandholders. None of these objec. cilitate the formation of a correct tions obtain, when we consider the taste on this subject. True, the peaked roof, the crow-foot gable, styles may lack definitiveness, and the mullioned windows, and stacked may possibly be a little outré; but chimneys of the cottage style. Yet we have, we must confess, less reare all these objects of very con- gard for all the directions of the siderable beauty in themselves, as Academy of Design,' than has Mr. well as of no questionable economy. Downing. And if this new discov. The style is adapted to every variety ery of electrotype* shall succeed in of country, glen, river bank, plain, placing copies of the best masters or cliff. Its character is highly suit. in every family, and if our system ed to agricultural pursuits. The of education shall nourish a little slope of the roof disposes rapidly more a regard for beauty, we shall of falling moisture; the projecting have little fear for our cottage eaves guard the sides ; rural repairs residences.' are little noticed upon its varied ex- We come now to speak of the terior; the addition of a wing or chief charm and object of the artan ell, far from destroying its unity, the proper disposition of trees upon will the more confirm its character; a landscape. Herein is a means the carriage of the chimneys sep. for developing a correct taste, which arately to the top, while it favors is at the hands of the humblest tiller their picturesque union above the of the ground. None so poor, or ridge, ensures a constant draft. And so circumscribed in their limits, that none who have seen such a speci- they can not plant a tree. cimen of architecture, will deny its group of half a dozen of our nageneral beauty. The outlines we tive forest trees, may embrace all have given may be varied in a hun. the delightful shades of coloring, dred ways, with equal effect. Dor. as fully as the park of a thousand mar windows, with topping finial

For the neglect of this syl. and crockets; bay windows, with van beauty there is no apology, but side tracery, and diamond pane, with a wrong education. Points are al. almost every variety of porch, may ways accessible, where the shade vary the outline. Much might be will not in the least injure the crops said of interior arrangements, but of the farm, and the timber ultiwe have space only for a word. mately obtained by judicious thin. The ceiling of lime and sand has ning, to say nothing of increased come to be so generally used, and is beauty, will surely repay the inconupon the whole so well adapted to siderable labor of transplanting. We its purposes, it were perhaps bet- will suppose a small cottage, such ter to suggest no change. Still, an we have recommended, situaoaken ceiling laid directly upon

the floor above, exposing the octagonated forms of the beams, is exceed- of copper from a chemical solution, by

* Consisting essentially of a deposition ingly durable, accords well with the galvanic agency, upon engraved plates ; 'exterior of a rural cottage, and bet. by which a mold in relief is offered for ter than all, offers no shelter for subsequent deposition, that has the life vermin. The fireplace, (for it has have published Thomson's Seasons, illus

The Etching Club'

of the original. not yet gone by in the country,) trated by this method.

And a

acres.

as

ted near a slight elevation, upon a ular picturesque avenue, broken here small farm of gently undulating sur- and there by the intervention of face. Immediately around, perhaps shrubs, and again left wholly open. a space of the area of an acre, is a The whole border of the farm may yard devoted to domestic purposes. be more or less wooded ; care beThis is serviceable for no agricul. ing taken to throw the morning tural object, and may be decorated shade upon the less available soil

. at a very slight expense, with the In the instance we have supposed richest gems of the forest. Shrubs, of an undulating surface, the paseither exotic or indigenous, may be ture, which will be best disposed set around the dwelling, or if desi. upon the more elevated portions, rable, form the entire hedge of the must have its perquisite of shade for yard. Trees of widely different cattle. A thousand circumstances character

may be grouped upon this will direct the proper arrangement surface with very little art, to afford of this. The wood-lot for the sup. a most pleasing effect. The foli- ply of fires, is a subject of much age will serve as a most delightful concern to landholders; but as in awning through the summer months, most instances there are vestiges of and such of it as is evergreen, may the original growth, sufficient for be so disposed, as to ward off the the purpose, it will be needless to fiercest blasts of winter. Such remark upon it. One thing we will groups can rarely affect injuriously observe-wood is fast becoming the adjoining land, or detract from more valuable for timber material, the richness of the soil ; since they than for fuel, and by far the best would be fully nourished by the fer. timber is grown in open situations ; tilizing materials always abundant the inference is obviously favorable in a farm-yard. They can be set to the views of the tasteful agrifar enough from the roof, to secure culturist. We have spoken of an it from harmful damp. The kind undulating surface, because most of tree for this home group, the difficult to supply with wooded style of building, the soil, the cli- graces,' in connection with strict mate, the situation will direct. Only economy. The farm of rocks and let there be variety, and thrift, and cliffs on the other hand, may be irregularity, and there will be beau. rendered as beautiful as the wealth ty. The wild vines are not to be of Cræsus could make it, by the forgotten, but should mantle here extremest frugality, if guided by and there a tree, and stretch their taste. There is much land on every tendrils over window and lintel, such domain, which nothing but the climbing high upon the roof. The hand of industry, directed by corgrape may shade the porch, and rect observation, can reach. The bind with its clasps the unhewn col. shelving bank, the green tuft of the umn; the sweet briar bloom around, ledge, the rich deposit on the jutand the lilac bush serve for the hab- ting edge of the precipice-these itation of robin and sparrow. points, which are generally left to

The next available point of deco- the rank grass and stinted shrub, ration will be along the approach may bloom with beauty, under the road, if the cottage be at any dis. hands of an intelligent proprietor. tance from the highway. If this The fir, the pine, the cedar,

will traverse mowing or cultivated land, find a foothold, and sufficient noura low hedge skirting its margin ir. ishment upon many a spot unfit for regularly, will be all that economy pasturage ; and the rich green shrub will allow; but if pasture land, the may tuft every cleft, while the wild hedge may be dispensed with, and violet and anemone spring up bethe trees be multiplied into an irreg. neath them. The steep slopes wher

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