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or by lengthening the root and strengthening the vowel phain; (2.) the attenuation or precession of oi to e; as, economy from oic; (3.) the attenuation or precession of ou to u; as, music from mous.

XI. In words derived from the Hebrew, no new phonetic principle is exhibited.

Hebrew or Phenician words which have come to us through the Greek and Latin, fall under the class of Greek and Latin derivatives.

Words derived immediately from the Hebrew as an ancient ecclesias

tical language, have by common consent been subjected to the same general principles as Greek and Latin derivatives. Thus (1.) a in an accented open syllable suffers attenuation, or is changed from ah to eh; as, Nabal; (2.) e in an open syllable, accented or unaccented, suffers attenuation, or is changed from eh to ih; as, Sheba, Medeba; (3.) i in an accented or final open syllable suffers vriddhi, or is changed from ih to ai (the English diphthong i;) as, Ziba, Levi.


Elements of Algebra; being an Abridgment of Day's Algebra, adapted to the capacities of the young, and the method of instruction in schools and academies. By JAMES B. THOMSON, A. M. New Haven, Durrie & Peck. 12mo. pp. 252.

Nearly thirty years have elapsed since President Day (then professor of mathematics and natural philosophy) first published his "Introduction to Algebra." It excelled all other treatises known to our colleges and academies, in the clearness and precision of its definitions and rules, in the happy choice of examples and illustrations, and in the exposition of such principles as are not only important in themselves, but have an additional value in their relation to the higher branches of mathematics. This work being specially "adapted to the method of instruction in the American colleges," it was a good idea to reduce it to such a form, as would render it suitable for scholars of the primary schools, and the ordinary classes in academies.

The editor, Mr. Thomson, was well fitted for the undertaking, both by his taste for mathematical studies, and by much experience in teaching the elements of algebra to young learners. We have no doubt that all teachers who desire a treatise on this useful and interesting subject, more concise and simple than "Day's Algebra," will find in this publication a book exactly adapted to their wants.

The Family Sabbath-Day Miscel lany; comprising over three hundred religious tales and anecdotes, original and select, with occasional reflections, adapted to the use of families on the Lord's day. By CHARLES A. GOODRICH. Published by Daniel Fanshaw, 601 Broadway, New York.

This work having been previously published by the author and extensively circulated, must be well known to most of our readers; to whom it can need no recommenda. tion from us.



In the first number of this work, will be found some account of a special meeting of the American Education Society; and of the appointment of a committee to revise the rules and regulations. This committee reported at the meeting in Boston, May 28th, a series of resolutions, which, after a single amend ment, were unanimously adopted, as follows:

Resolved, 1. That no aid be given to any candidate for assistance, before the commencement of the college course, or before the candidate has completed two years of classical study.

2. That aid be given only to those students who, being in other respects qualified, are proved by the testimony of their instructors, to be making good proficiency in their studies.

3. That aid given to each student be proportioned to his wants, the average not to exceed eighty dollars annually, and the maximum not to exceed one hundred dollars, annually.

4. That it be discretionary with the local committees, in consultation with the beneficiaries, to determine whether in each case, the aid afforded be in the form of gratuity or loan; that the sums gratuitously given shall be considered as an encouragement, and an expression of the interest of Christian friends, and that loans be made on condition of payment before settlement in the ministry.

5. That each recipient of aid shall subscribe an obligation, to refund to the society whatever he may receive from its treasury, if he shall voluntarily fail to enter upon the work of the ministry.

6. That the immediate supervis

ion of those students in each college, who are aided by the society, and the distribution among them of the funds voted by the directors for their use, be entrusted to a commit. tee at or near the college or theological institution, who shall be appointed by the directors.

7. That the appropriating com. mittee, at or near each college or institution, be the examining committee.

8. That the appropriating com mittee, at or near each college or institution, before recommending a candidate for the patronage of the society, shall satisfy themselves, both by personal examination and personal testimony, respecting his need, his piety, his proficiency in his studies, and his promise of usefulness generally, and shall report the particulars, and make return of the testimony to the directors, upon whom in all cases shall devolve the responsibility of making the ap pointments.

9. That the appropriating com mittee, for each institution, shall renew their inquiries respecting each individual, before each successive appropriation, and shall par ticularly ascertain from his teacher, his diligence and proficiency as a scholar, and his unexceptionable deportment.

10. That the directors be reques» ted to inquire whether the expenses of conducting the business of the society may not be materially reduced.

It will be seen, that hereafter the patronage of the society is to be confined to students in the colleges and theological seminaries; that the aid is to be wholly gratuitous to those who desire it; and that the selection and oversight of the beneficiaries is to be entrusted to a committee of gentlemen at or near

the several institutions of learning. These are the most important features of the new arrangement; and it is hoped, that they will remove most of those objections to the society, which have for some years past embarrassed it.

No change has taken place in the oganization of the other national religious societies; but some improvement is manifest in their financial condition, and the most encouraging prospects of usefulness cheer them onward to still greater exertions. The income of the Seamen's Friend Society, twelve thousand, nine hundred and ninety two dollars and seventy cents, exceeds that of the last year, but still falls short of the expenditures by about eight hun dred dollars. The Foreign Evangelical Society has received its whole income from twelve of our cities and large towns, to the amount of ten thousand six hundred and seven dollars, exceeding the disbursements nearly nine hundred dollars. The American Tract Society, has received the noble sum of ninety six thousand two hundred and forty dollars, and fifty three cents, exceed ing the income of last year, and leaving a balance in the treasury of two hundred and ninety dollars. The American Home Missionary Society, we regret to add, has overdrawn its treasury seven thousand and eighteen dollars and thirty eight cents. The receipts were ninety nine thousand eight hundred and twelve dollars, and eighty four cents. This is seven thousand three hundred and forty nine dollars and twenty cents, more than the total receipts of the preceding year. This institution, being emphatically the hope of our country, ought to have a more liberal patronagenot less than that extended to the cause of foreign missions. With such an income, the society might employ two thousand ministers, instead of eight hundred and forty eight, the present number. Vol. I.


A new society, entitled, "The American Philo-Italian Society," was organized December 12th, 1842, in New York; the object of which, is to promote the diffusion of useful and religious knowledge among the Italians. Theodore Dwight, Jr. is the corresponding secretary. The address of the executive committee to the American public, is an interesting document. The door, we are informed, is open for the diffusion of useful and religious knowledge among the Italians. They may be divided into three classes, papists, Catholics, infidels. The first sympathize with the pope in all his secular and spiritual tyranny-with a spirit of servility towards man, not of sincerity towards God-selfish men, who have an interest in supporting the established religion. The second are Catholics, but not papists; that is, they abhor the dominion of the pope, while they are prejudiced against Protestants, as infidels. They are a class between the Protestants and papists-men of conscience, who desire the knowledge of the truth, but have had no proper means of gaining it. The third constitutes a large class in almost all papal countries-men who have received their ideas of Christianity, solely from the superstitions and vices of a corrupt priesthood. These two last classes among the Italians may easily be reached and influenced, particularly by the agency of intelligent natives, who are ready to engage in the work of propagating the Gospel among their countrymen. It is the plan of the society to prosecute its work in Italy, by the exclusive agency of Italians.


The reports of the Congregational associations of the several states, come to hand too late for notice in the present number. We can only say, that our January report of the

state of religion the year preceding, presents a less gratifying view than that which a gracious Providence has since spread out before us. The last six months have been distinguished above any equal period for several years by the refreshing in fluences of the Spirit.

The reports on the state of religion presented to the two General Assemblies of the Presbyterian church, contain definite and most encouraging statements respecting the prosperity of the cause of truth, within their respective bounds and fields of labor. To one of these

bodies, the Old School, not less than fifty new churches have been added, and most of the old churches have been enlarged. The number of members in the churches at. tached to the New School General Assembly, has in many presbyteries been doubled; in others, trebled; and in nearly all the churches revivals of religion have been enjoyed. Perhaps in no previous year, since the colonization of the country, have the Presbyterian churches been so generally blessed with the effusions of the Holy Spirit.



view the thoughtless girl met her

FOR THE MURDER OF MAHLON pretended lover again and again;


THE recent tragedy in Philadelphia, is worthy of a more attentive consideration than is commonly given to scenes of vice and crime. Its details have already been spread before the public, with a disgusting minuteness, and are read by all classes with an eagerness which shocks every sentiment of delicacy. We shall allude to them no farther than is necessary in order to review the legal proceedings in the case, and to exhibit the tone of moral feeling in the community in which the event occurred. Early in January, Mahlon H. Heberton, a notorious libertine, formed the acquaintance of Sarah G. Mercer, a mere girl of sixteen, the daughter of respectable and pious parents, residing in Southwark. The acquaintance began improperly; Heberton accosting Miss Mercer in the street, without an introduction, and she consenting to walk with him, under the impression that he was a Spanish gentleman whom she had before seen at her sister's house. After this inter

sometimes by accident; frequently by appointment; always away from her father's house, and without the knowledge of her friends. At length being completely taken in his toils, she became the victim of his lust. Her ruin accomplished, her seducer continued to deceive her with the promise of marriage, till her intimacy with him became known to her friends, and she fled from the house of her father to one of those haunts of vice to which she had been previously introduced by Heberton. As he, however, was now ready to discard her, she was soon restored to her mourning parents, but only to increase their anguish by confessing her shame. The ter rible disclosure overwhelmed all her friends with indignation and sorrow; but its effect on the mind of her brother, (a young man of twenty,) was alarming. In the frenzy of

* Efforts were made by Mr. Mercer, to induce Heberton to marry his daughter, but the proposal was rejected by Heberton with insolence. This circumstance excited the indignation of Singleton to the highest pitch.

his passion, he attempted first to take the life of his sister; then he took an oath that he would kill her seducer, and with this end in view, he watched his movements for two days, without food or sleep. He berton probably being suspicious of his danger, at first secreted himself; but on the 10th of February he attempted to leave Philadelphia, to visit a friend in New Jersey. Mer cer followed him to the boat, unseen; kept himself concealed during the passage across the river; but just as the boat touched the wharf at Camden, he suddenly appeared and discharged four pistol balls into the carriage in which He berton was sitting, one of which wounded him fatally. Mercer was instantly arrested, and was soon after indicted for murder. His trial commenced on the 28th of March, before the Court of Oyer and Terminer of Gloucester County, New Jersey, and continued till the 6th of April, when it resulted in the ac quittal of the prisoner. This result was what we had anticipated. The prosecution was conducted feebly, in respect to argument, and insolently, in respect to the examination of witnesses; the defense was specious and eloquent; the trial took place in a community strongly prejudiced against the infliction of capital punishment, and therefore averse to the conviction of the prisoner. There was a strong sympa. thy in behalf of Mercer, which plainly affected the court and the jury; they were fathers and broth ers, they had the feelings of virtu

An argument in favor of the abolition of capital punishment, is sometimes drawn from the fact that juries will often acquit a criminal, rather than expose him to the penalty of death. We should arque from this fact, the necessity of enlightening the public mind upon the subject of law and its sanctions. But the case of Mercer furnishes us with a strong argument against the abolition of punishment by death. We are told that Mercer took the life of Heberton, because he

ous men, and those feelings had been outraged by the crime of He berton; it was impossible for them to divest themselves of sympathy for the accused, and to act with stern impartiality. Yet we are not satisfied with the verdict; in fact, we apprehend from it the most serious consequences. We are not prepared to say that the prisoner should have been found guilty of murder in the first degree. The nature of the provocation, the fact that the law afforded no means of redress for the injury received, the possibility that the strong excitement of the prisoner had produced a temporary insanity; all these were mitigating circumstances, which might well reduce the crime to the grade of manslaughter. But neither counsel, court, nor jury took this ground, nor would popular feeling have sanctioned it. Acquitted the prisoner must be ; acquitted in toto; and that not even on the pretext of insanity, so adroitly urged, but (such was the popular opinion,) on the ground that the homicide was justifiable, in view of the provocation. The decision was remarkable. We believe that, in some respects, it is without a parallel; but as it may soon become an acknowledged precedent, it deserves a careful scrutiny. Let us glance briefly at the trial.

On the afternoon of the 28th of March, the court house at Woodbury was thronged with anxious and excited spectators. A youth was to be put on trial for his life. That life he had hazarded to avenge a sister's wrongs; his hands were stained with the blood of her rav

had no redress by law. So if the only proper penalty for murder is abolished, the friends of the murdered, feeling that they have no adequate means of redress afforded them by law, will take vengeance into their own hands; each indi vidual will become an executioner; and society will be resolved into its original elements.

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