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that these words are meant as an admonition to those who are too prone to think highly of themselves, but such will exactly be the result of these same popular journals, which by fictitious tales, purposely selected to pervert the people's minds, seem to insinuate that virtue only resides among the lowest orders; that equity, disinterestedness and magnanimity are the characteristics of the labourer and poor, whilst oppression, injustice and hardness of heart are the appanage of the higher classes.' "What say you," continues our correspondent, "to this archiepiscopal promulgator of the Gospel?" and then, as a contrast to the gloomy prospects of the war that the friends of education are likely to endure, he subjoins a few words from another of his associates on the state of the Tuscan Maremma, a wild district scarcely issuing from utmost desolation and barbarism.
"I have hardly yet visited one-third of the Tuscan marches, and have already organized five societies for the institution of infant asylums, numbering nine hundred members and contributing an annual revenue of 20,000 lire. Words can not express how ardently my words have been received, and what a spirit of true charity and patriotism prevails among this population, so little known and so often abused. I have seen the townspeople meeting by hundreds to draw up the regulations for these charitable institutions on the most liberal plans, and bishops and parsons vieing with the laity in zealously promoting the interests of education, &c.
"We are," concludes our friend, "neither deterred by the episcopal threats at Turin, nor elated by the adhesion of priests and prelates in Tuscany; but since we are to fight on this ground, I am glad to perceive a division among our adversaries, which gives us fair chances of victory."
Certainly as long as government does not openly declare against them, the friends of education are sure of success, at least in Tuscany, where, were it only as charitable institutions, schools and asylums might always rely on the support and favour of that benevolent population. It must not be forgotten that the north of Italy, and especially Lombardy and Tuscany, have always taken the lead, and are even now unsurpassed in Europe for their true Christian charity and beneficence; and that nowhere are
injunctions are to exercise a due humility in the wielding of even the miraculous powers, or any other gift or grace. It has nothing to do with the subject to which the archbishop has misapplied it. Where are the chances of a super-fetation of knowledge for Italy? When will even her archbishops comply with the Catholic injunction "Give attention to reading," and get rid of their present deplorable ignorance, "understanding neither what they say nor whereof they affirm." How different is the expression of Dante's ardent gratitude to Ser Brunetto compared to what the Italian child must feel to these darkeners of knowledge.
"In la mente m'è fitta ed or m' accora
La cara buona imagine paterna
Di voi, quando nel mondo ad ora
hospitals, poor houses, and orphan asylums, objects of a more assiduous and inexhaustible liberality.
As houses of charity, those educational establishments will be aided by the co-operation even of those who might be less sanguine as to the moral results attainable from a diffusion of knowledge among the lowest classes, and less disposed to lay too implicit a belief in the indefinite perfectibility of their fellowbeings. Whoever visited the infant asylums at Florence or Venice, and saw, as Von Raumer relates, "those Italian children, whom he was accustomed to behold in the streets, dirty, ragged and crawling with vermin, now clean in their persons and tidily attired in their airy and spacious school-houses," however sceptically inclined as to the future prospects of the rising Italian generation, will, at least, applaud the immediate, palpable advantages resulting from those truly maternal establishments.
We have ourselves witnessed the gratifying spectacle last year in Florence, and as we surveyed the little innocent creatures, the children of sin and misery, but recently rescued from the squalor and wretchedness of their parental roofs, still bearing on their haggard and emaciated features and on their ricketty limbs the prints of hereditary disease and deformity, we bethought ourselves of Alfieri, and wondered what curse of heaven could thus have nipped and blasted the "plant man" in that most genial soil; and offered our prayers to God that he would smile on the efforts of the new cultivators, and bear them up against the hatred and malignity of their opponents.
But what shall we say, when, foremost in the ranks of their adversaries, we meet the vicar of Christ, the servant of the servants of God, Pope Gregory XVI. himself, not only opposing reasons to arguments, sermons and homilies to pamphlets and journals, but, as a last resource, betaking himself to excommunications, and banishments, and throwing schoolmasters into the dungeons of the Castle St. Angelo?
We have already expressed our belief that there may be precipitation and imprudence among the champions of popular instruction, and we may, to a certain extent, chime in with the opinions of the Archbishop of Turin, that there may be systems of education far from being conducive to the happiness and contentment of individuals, or favourable to the preservation of social order. But would it not be the duty of the pastors, who are, at the same time, the legitimate instructors of their flocks, to counteract the evil tendencies of a premature culture by the peaceful insinuation of sound moral principles, rather than by unholy diatribes and insane persecutions? Is God's own truth so afraid of broad day-light as to have no chance to prevail but in the ob
scurity of a prison? Can the arrest of Enrico Mayer,* or of any other individual, put a stop to the rapid progress of opinion, any more than all the scaffolds and burning-piles of Paul IV. and Pius V. prevailed against Protestantism? The schoolmaster in prison! out upon thee, Antichrist!
Meanwhile the promoters of education are not to be easily discouraged by these first outbursts of pontifical wrath. The books which we have placed at the head of this article, selecting them from among a vast number of penny magazines, cyclopædias, and other popular publications, edited in imitation of our English works in the same style, are sufficient to prove that public'suffrage is openly in favour of the institutions which such works are intended to advocate, and that the weight of opinion is more than sufficient to frustrate the evil ascendency of power.
* Though we have already alluded to the arrest of Signor Enrico Mayer in our article on Copyright in Italy," (see FOREIGN QUARTERLY REVIEW, NO. LII., p. 300,) yet we think that a few particulars of that event may serve to give an idea of the police regulations of the Italian states, and show how far the right of inviolability of person is respected in that country.
Early in the month of May, 1840, Signor Mayer applied for, and obtained from, his native Tuscan government, a passport for Naples and Sicily, the only part of Italy that the pedagogical traveller had never visited. In that epoch, it will be remembered, the differences between his Sicilian majesty and Great Britain had created an universal ferment in Italy; for such is the state of that unhappy country, that every prospect of hostilities, every anticipation of anxieties and difficulties, in which their governments may be involved, is hailed as an object of rejoicing, as a chance of resurrection on the part of the people. Mors tua, vita mea, is there the mutual bond of union and love between the two opposite elements of social order, power and opinion. Consequently, the Neapolitan consul at Leghorn refused to sanction, by his signature, the passport of M. Mayer. This gentleman was therefore compelled to undertake an unnecessary journey to Florence, where he obtained from the Neapolitan minister what he had in vain applied for to his Excellency's subaltern. Provided thus with a passport in due form, M. Mayer started, by land, towards the south, and by a direct road proceeded to Rome. Here another Neapolitan ambassador countermanded the order of his colleague at Florence, and M. Mayer was once more stopped short in his journey. He humbly and resignedly protested against this abuse of power, and prolonged his stay in Rome, hoping by his remonstrances to soften the unjust rigour of the ambassador. One morning as he, according to his wont, applied to the Post Office for his letters, he was attacked by the sbirri of his Holiness, and thrown into prison, while his domicile underwent the most severe and minute investigation. For more than four months he was kept in the closest confinement; he and his friends were left in a state of utter incertitude as to his fate. But the clamour raised by so arbitrary a measure, against so popular and irreprehensible a personage, was so very loud and incessant, that even the Pope's inflexibility was not proof against it. The dark and mysterious proceedings were broken short, and the prisoner was, at the request of the GrandDuke, sent back, under an armed escort, to the Tuscan confines; sentence of perpetual banishment from the ecclesiastical states was, however, issued against him, and enforced by threats of hard imprisonment and the galleys:-all this before he could receive the slightest information as to the crime he stood accused of. His guilt, however, it is well known, was only that of having by every effort promoted the institution of infant asylums, and other primary schools, against which the Pope has declared a most insane and relentless war, and having travelled through Switzerland, England and Germany to inspect the state of popular instruction in those countries, and give an account of it in several numbers of the " Guida dell' Educatore."
The oldest and most deserving of these periodical works is the "Guida dell' Educatore," conducted by the Abate Raffaello Lambruschini, an evangelical, as well as a Catholic, priest. The first manifesto of the journal was published in September, 1835, and the first number appeared in January of the following year. It has ever since continued to appear in monthly numbers, and is now in the highest plenitude of success and popularity. At first the editor had to struggle hard against the difficulties of his isolated situation; but he soon found valiant fellow-labourers in Florence and elsewhere, and now there is scarcely a literary man in Italy that does not take the most lively interest in the progress of his noble undertaking. Among the most distinguished writers we notice the names of Pietro Thouar, Niccolo Tommaseo, and Enrico Mayer, whose Fragments of a Pedagogical Journey are intended to give a very satisfactory account of the state of popular education in every country of Europe, particularly in Switzerland, Germany and Britain. These articles were the principal guilt that called upon the author's head the papal resentment, to which he owed his confinement at Rome, and which have rendered it either utterly impossible or unsafe for him to stir an inch beyond the confines of his native state of Tuscany.
The last of these valuable, though, to the Roman see, obnoxious papers, refers to the state of education in England, and ought to prove an object of uncommon attraction to our readers, as the extensive connections and the long residence of M. Mayer in this country, and his indefatigable diligence and perseverance, enabled him to obtain the fairest insight into our political, religious and educational institutions.
It will be easily perceived that that essay is written in accordance with the democratic views warmly espoused by M. Mayer, and almost universally prevailing in his country, but which, owing to the political organization of our free and happy island, are yet, we think, far from having thrown deep roots among our people. Apart, however, from all party spirit, M. Mayer deserves the highest credit as an intelligent, fair, and conscientious observer.
To every number of the "Guida" are annexed a few pages of "Letture pei fanciulli," consisting of tales, dialogues, biographical or historical essays, &c., calculated to the capacity of a juvenile understanding: these, together with the "Letture Popolari" published at Turin, to which we have alluded above, and theRacconti ad uso dei Giovanetti" by Pietro Thouar, will furnish every school-house in Italy with an useful and entertaining, economical library.
Meanwhile, as a proof of the universal encouragement that such works obtain from the Italian nation at large, we shall con
clude this article by quoting the words of honest exultation with which the worthy Abate Lambruschini announces to his readers the reduction in the price of annual subscription, occasioned by a more extensive circulation and sale of his work.
"La Ruche, a French journal, edited by two excellent promoters of education, Mesdames Belloc and Mongolfier, has fallen in France. L'Education pratique, conducted by the clever M. Michel, also came to its end: whilst books and journals, tending either to amuse the readers with idle inanities, or to corrupt them with immoral and lubric works of fiction, are sold and republished with unabated success-while the "Guida dell' Educatore," after five years, proceeds with redoubled vigour, thanks to the persevering indulgence of the readers, and the all-absorbing importance of its subject. Were any other than myself the editor, I think I might venture to say-SUCH IS ITALY!"
ART. V.-History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent. By George Bancroft. Boston. 1839-1840.
THERE are few things more interesting in history than to trace the gradual formation and developement of a great nation, especially where its government has been formed on principles widely differing from those of the old world; where the sceptre and purple robe have never appeared at the head of its councils, and where the poorest man in it may, by the universal suffrages of his fellow-countrymen, be raised to that position in which he is the chief voice of a great people, and holds communication with the kings and princes of other countries. In contemplating a democracy like the American, we have yet to learn, as time rolls on, whether the laws which govern that nation are so framed as to hold together a people which may at one time or another become too numerous a family to remain under the same roof.
The mighty continent of the new world, teeming with luxuriant vegetation, attracted the early fathers of democracy to its shores. Quitting their own country with the avowed object of seeking higher religious freedom than they conceived themselves to enjoy in it, they sought a land where they might unmolested govern themselves by their own laws, and carry out their own political and religious sentiments. From these men sprung a people, remarkable for their adherence to their early form of government, and for the prominent position they now hold amongst the nations of the earth, both in commerce and manufactures.
One result from the peculiar opinions which induced these small bands to adventure their lives and fortunes in an unknown