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The news of the successful labours of the pious fathers awakened the liveliest interest and enthusiasm in France. Measures were taken for the establishment of a college in New France. The Duchesse d'Aiguillon, aided by her uncle, Richelieu, endowed a public hospital, and the nuns of the hospital of Dieppe were selected (the eldest only twenty-nine) to exercise their patient benevolence in attending to the wants of the sick and afflicted, and the doors of the hospital were thrown open, not only to the emigrants, but to the numerous tribes who might require assistance. We are compelled to pass over the interesting account of the various missions which were undertaken in the service of God. The adventures of La Salle and the fate of his companions will reward the reader who should peruse them. The history of the tribes of America and their character and natural endowments is too well known to need our dwelling upon them; to this, however, Mr. Bancroft has added a slight account of their language and dialects. We merely glance at the war between the French and Natchez in 1729. Loubois completed the destruction of this unhappy nation, and the Great Sun, with about four hundred prisoners, were sent to Hispaniola, and sold as slaves. In 1738 the progress of the Anglo-American colonies was very perceptible. During that year were built at Boston forty-one topsail vessels, their burden altogether amounting to about six thousand three hundred and twenty-four tons. The increase of the colonies caused great astonishment in England. At the peace of Utrecht, the Anglo-Americans amounted to about four hundred thousand, and before it was again broken, their numbers were doubled. Free schools and colleges were established, and to the excellent and liberal-hearted Berkeley was Rhode Island indebted for the endowment of a library, and New York for a college. The press began to put forth its mighty powers; on the fourth day of April, 1704, was published the first newspaper in the new world, entitled "The Boston NewsLetter." In 1740 the number had increased to eleven. The subject of newspapers leads Mr. Bancroft to expatiate upon the character of Franklin, upon whom he pronounces a just encomium, and whose writings and life are now exhibited in a complete form by the biographer of Washington, Mr. Jared Sparks. Not long after this period, the abrogation of the charters was menaced, but the bill was dropped, chiefly through the eloquent tongue of Jeremiah Dummer, a native of New England. No attempt was made by England to tax America, although urged at one time by Sir William Keith, formerly governor of Pennsylvania. He suggested to the king, that the duties on stamps and
parchments should be extended to America, but the commissioners of trade gave no heed to it. Sir Robert Walpole's policy was of a different nature.
"I will leave," said he, “the taxing of the British colonies for some of my successors, who may have more courage than I have, and be less a friend to commerce than I am. It has been a maxim with me, during my administration, to encourage the trade of the American colonies to the utmost latitude. Nay, it has been necessary to pass over some irregularities in their trade with Europe; for, by encouraging them in an extensive, growing foreign commerce, if they gain five hundred thousand pounds, I am convinced that in two years afterwards, full two hundred and fifty thousand pounds of this gain will be in his majesty's exchequer by the labour and produce of this kingdom, as immense quantities of every kind of our manufactures go thither; and as they increase in the foreign American trade, more of our produce will be wanted. This is taxing them more agreeably to their own constitution and laws.”—vol. iii. p. 383.
The result was that a tax was levied on America through its consumption. The law was exercised in the extreme point, and every form of competition in industry was discouraged. In 1719 the House of Commons declared "that erecting of manufactories in the colonies tended to lessen their dependance on Great Britain." Then succeeded the favouritism shown by England to the sugar colonies, which was followed by the tax on consumption. The consequence of this commercial dependence was that the colonies contracted a debt with the mother country, which increased in proportion to the rigour with which the law was enforced.
The colonial credit-system is well treated by the author, and it led to the collisions between the colonies and England which, our readers will remember, took place in the reign of Queen Anne; but the chief subject of dispute was in the mercantile system and its consequences.
The latter portion of the third volume again takes up the subject of the slave trade, in which England so earnestly sought a monopoly in the same reign. Our limits will only permit us to notice the interesting foundation of Georgia, the thirteenth colony. In the days of George the Second the crime of poverty yearly sent about four thousand unhappy men to prison. The subject earnestly engaged the attention of the philanthropic James Oglethorpe, a member of parliament, and a man whose energy of mind and nobleness of disposition enabled him to carry out his benevolent design. His plans were that a colony should be formed of the multitudes he rescued from the horrors of gaol, together with the persecuted Protestants of England. Many
sought to have a share in this excellent enterprise. A charter was obtained, dated the ninth day of June, 1732, placing the country between the Savannah and the Alatamaha under the guardianship of a corporation for twenty-one years. Their common seal, with a group of silk-worms on one side, and on the reverse the motto, " Non sibi, sed aliis," shows their disinterested purposes. They also expressly refused any grants of lands or emolument.
Oglethorpe devoted himself entirely to the fulfilment of his design, and in November, 1732, embarked with one hundred and fifty emigrants. Their voyage was favourable and they arrived in safety, and thus began the commonwealth of Georgia. The description of the emigration of the gentle Moravians for the Savannah is so agreeably written that we will give one more
"On the last day of October, 1733, the evangelical community," well supplied with Bibles and hymn-books, catechisms and books of devotion-conveying in one waggon their few chattels, in two other covered ones their feebler companions, and especially their little onesafter a discourse, and prayers, and benedictions, cheerfully, and in the name of God, began their pilgrimage. History need not stop to tell what charities cheered them on their journey, what towns were closed against them by Roman Catholic magistrates, or how they entered Frankfort on the Maine, two by two in solemn procession, and singing spiritual songs. As they floated down the Maine, and between the castled crags, the vineyards and the white-walled towns that adorn the banks of the Rhine, their conversation, amidst hymns and prayers, was of justification and of sanctification and of standing fast in the Lord. At Rotterdam they were joined by two preachers, Bolzius and Gronau, both disciplined in charity at the Orphan House in Halle. A passage of six days carried them from Rotterdam to Dover, where several of the trustees visited them and provided considerably for their wants. In January, 1734, they set sail for their new homes. The majesty of the ocean quickened their sense of God's omnipotence; and, as they lost sight of land, they broke out into a hymn to his glory. The setting sun, after a calm, so kindled the sea and sky, that words could not express their rapture, and they cried out How lovely the creation! how infinitely lovely the Creator! When the wind was adverse they prayed, and as it changed one opened his mind to the other on the power of prayer, even the prayer of a man subject to like passions as we are.' As the voyage excited weariness, a devout listener confessed himself to be an unconverted man; and they reminded him of the promise to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit and trembleth at the word. As they sailed pleasantly with a favouring breeze, at the hour of evening prayer they made a covenant with each other, like Jacob of old, and resolved, by the grace of Christ, to cast all the strange gods which were in their
hearts into the depths of the sea. A storm grew so high that not a sail could be set; and they raised their voices in prayer and song amidst the tempest; for to love the Lord Jesus as a brother gave consolation. At Charleston, Oglethorpe bade them welcome, and in five days more the wayfaring men, whose home was beyond the skies, pitched their tents near Savannah.”—vol. iii. pp. 423, 424.
The remaining portion of the third volume is occupied with the invasion of Florida by Oglethorpe, and that of Georgia by the Spaniards. The expedition against Louisburg by New England and the ill-success of the French fleets conclude the history of the colonization of the United States brought up to the period of the congress held at Aix-la-Chapelle, which was to restore tranquillity to the civilized world after the long war between England and France and the other powers of Europe. The tide of human events was to be changed by a youth at that time unknown and unheard of. George Washington, the son of a widow, born at Potomac, whose early life was passed in the forests, was destined to be the means of raising up a dependent people into a nation which, casting aside all the dignified position of a monarchy, took a firm hold upon it's soil with democracy as it's basis. At this point Mr. Bancroft pauses in his labours, and will recommence the subject with the Independence of the Colonies and the History of the American Revolution. We look forward with pleasure to the continuation of the work, which, if prosecuted with the same research and attention he has already evinced, will meet with general approbation, and form a valuable addition to Transatlantic history.
ART. VI.—Aperçu Général sur l'Egypte, par A. B. Clot-Bey. 2 tom. Paris. 1840.
THE author of these volumes is director-general of the medical establishments, civil and military, of Egypt; and has been for some time high in the estimation and confidence of the Pasha. He was originally, we believe, an apothecary's boy in the south of France, where he had the run of the hospitals, and picked up medical knowledge as he could, for he had no regular professional education. Being, however, a young man of great penetration, activity and talent, he became in a comparatively short period an expert operator, and a respectable practitioner. At the beginning of the year 1825, through the influence of an agent of the viceroy, being chosen physician and surgeon in chief of the Egyptian armies, he accepted the honour, and repaired immediately to his post. On his arrival, he found the medical department of the service in a very disorganised state, and instantly set about correcting its abuses; and, in order to avoid them for the future, established regulations, which should fix the duties and determine the authority of the entire staff. Unwilling, however, to take upon himself the whole responsibility of this measure, before assuming the direction of his office, he proposed to the minister of war the adoption of the French system of rules, and the creation of a council of health. The minister approved of the proposition, and in a short time a council was formed, composed of five members being physicians, surgeons or apothecaries, of which council Clot-Bey is the president. Having thus accomplished several reforms in the internal organization of the Egyptian army with respect to the grades and employments of the medical staff, as well as their treatment, clothing, and general administration, he was encouraged to project the institution of a medical school in Egypt, and communicated his views to the government. Mehemet Ali at once perceived the advantages that would result from the instruction of a number of Arabs in the healing art, and of their aggregation with the army in the capacity of a sanatory official body. But as soon as the project was known, it had to encounter the most violent opposition from other quarters. Its adversaries endeavoured, by every argument that could be devised, to persuade the viceroy of the impracticability of its realization. It needed only an ordinary degree of sagacity, however, to discover the true motives of these objections: the Pasha saw through them, and a school was founded in 1827. It was first situated at Abouzabel, but afterwards removed to Cairo, where our author resides, and superintends the whole establishment.