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transactions, and travels. The only thing then, it appears to us, since the Syrian affair is settled, that the different powers are called upon to do is, to protect the efforts of the viceroy, to aid him in the regeneration of the countries submitted to his rule. Who would dare, indeed, in contempt of all generous ideas and ennobling views, aud in spite of the most evident interests of Christendom, to wish to cause a retrograde movement in Egyptian reformation? To endanger the germs of that civilization which have just taken root in Egypt, would be to recal the anarchy so happily banished by the viceroy. It would be to destroy the scientific and philanthropic establishments of the land, and in all probability the civilizing movement might not be resumed for centuries. Everywhere a violent re-action would cause the removal of Europeans now so highly honoured by the viceroy. Everywhere Christians would have to pay dear for the audacity of such an emancipation.

But the moral change which the Pasha has wrought among his subjects, though not so immediately palpable, perhaps, as those we have been considering, is much more extraordinary in itself than all his military, political, commercial, agricultural and other improvements. He has attacked bigotry and fanaticism at their very source: and by letting in per force the lights of knowledge upon his subjects, he has done more to overturn the empire of a creed essentially adverse to human amelioration than all its declared enemies put together. This moral improvement will doubtless, in its consequences, if allowed to proceed, be productive of results still more important to the cause of civilization. "Mahommedanism," says Wolfgang Menzel,* "has outlived itself. The overthrow of the now decrepit realms of Saladin must eventually take place." May we hope that the progressive advancement of reforms, physical and moral, now so happily and successfully commenced, urged on by an increasing friendly intercourse between Mahometan and Christian nations, will eventually bring about such a state of things as that this demolition shall be the natural and necessary consequence of peacefully co-operating but inevitable circumstances, rather than the questionable issue of a warlike struggle, entered into for the purpose of temporal aggrandizement by the nations of the West.

* See his "Europa in Jahr 1840.”

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ART. VII. Die christliche Glaubenslehre in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung und im Kampfe mit der modernen Wissenschaft dargestellt von Dr. David Friedrich Strauss. (The Christian Doctrines illustrated in their Historical Development and in Opposition with Modern Science. By Dr. D. F. Strauss.) Tübingen, Osiander. 1840.

AMID the numerous works with which the inventive faculty of our German brethren has enriched us, none partakes of more singular features than the present production. It is the most untranslatable book that has yet appeared in that untranslatable language. We are not sorry for the circumstance, but possessing an instinctive horror of infidelity in any shape, rather rejoice in the circumstance, though it has increased our personal toil. Some notion of the difficulty of the work may be formed from the circumstance that one passage was shown to three distinguished native professors, all university men, and all declared their inefficiency to explain it. The work before us may be said to contain subtleties fully worthy of the reputation of the Society of the Jesuits, Spinoza's absurdest vagaries and speculations, with all the beautiful dreaminess of mystification, the heir-room of the author's land, a little heightened by every thing that the Sophists and Platonists could lend to make light darkness, and the intelligible obscure. In it the author has at once and boldly thrown off the mask, and from the deist, which the Leben Jesu demonstrated him to be, he has by an easy mutation passed into the atheist. Still do we deeply regret that a mind of unquestionable power, an "esprit fort," in two senses, assuredly widely different from most of his class, to whom the term "esprit foible" is more applicable, should be induced to propagate the desolating dogmas of his book. This book, of course, is framed on the supposition that human reason is adequate to discover any thing, that man does not need any exterior aid, expressly denies any such communication, and is consequently opposed to all revelation, all systems of faith, all the world's hope in God. To divest all of this reliance, and to infuse into all his principles, is, of course, the author's design, and in it he has ruthlessly violated all that earth yet has ennobling and divine. We shall give an analysis of his work, and then proceed to a closer battle with him on particular sections, which we shall select to show the fallacy of his reasoning, his absurd trust in the extent of it, the inadequacy of this power in the discussion of the very questions which it is assumed competent to investigate, and trust that the issue of the whole will clearly advantage not the advocate of human reason but of divine

revelation. It is not a matter of deep difficulty to meet the rationalists on their own ground, since reason in her noblest exercise confirms revelation; but it were attempting too much with this weak weapon, were we to trust the whole issue of the question to it. It will do to use over a portion, but like the warrior's lance must give way in close combat to the keen and trenchant sword that divides asunder the joints and marrow, and pierces to the deep intensity of physical and mental union. The work of our author, of which we subjoin the table of contents, is ingeniously arranged in the concatenation of causes as they arise from the subject-matter.


1. Changeable Position of Philosophy with respect to Religion in Modern Time.

2. Derivation of the various Forms of Philosophy to Religion from the various Apprehension of both.

3. The various Modes of Conception of Christianity collated with Modern Philosophy.

4. The principal Epochs of Christianity and the Christian Doctrine. 5. The most remarkable Developments of Modern Philosophy in rela

tion to Christianity.

6. System of Doctrines in our Time. Plan of the Work.


7. Biblical Revelation.


8. Biblical Doctrines of Miracles and Prophecies as Evidences of the Truth of the Revelation.

9. Development of the Church Doctrines.

10. The Church Doctrines of Miracles and Prophecies.

11. Tradition and Scripture as the Medium of the Transmission of Revelation.

12. The Infallibility of the Church and the Inspiration of Scripture. 13. Exposition of the Holy Scriptures.

14. Analysis of the Doctrines for the Inspiration of Scripture.

15. Analysis of the Orthodox Notions of the Canon and Word of God. 16. Analysis of the Orthodox Notions of Prophecy as a mean of Proof

for Revelation.

17. Analysis of the Notions of Miracles.

18. The Perfectibility of Revealed Religion.

19. Analysis of the Church Notions of Revelation.

20. Faith and Feeling.

21. Faith and Knowledge.

22. Conclusion of Apology.


23. General Review.



The Absolute as a Subject of Abstract Conception or as a Divine Being in the Element of Time.

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30. The Biblical Commencement of the Doctrine of the Trinity. 31. The Church Development of the Doctrine.

32. Analysis and various Expositions of the Church Doctrine of the Trinity.

33. Of the Personality of God.

3d Article. Of the Attributes of God.

34. General Review.

35. Knowledge of God. Notion and Introduction of the Attributes. 36. Attributes of God's Being and Essence generally. Omnipresence

and Eternity, &c.

37. Attributes of God's Mind. 38. Attributes of God's Will. 39. Love and Beatitude.



Omnipotence. Holiness and Justice.

40. Essay of a Speculative Construction of the Divine Attributes. 41. Transition.


The Absolute as the Object to the Empirical Conceptions, or as Divine Production in the Elements of Time.

42. Arrangement.

Sect. I. The Temporary Appearance of God as Divine History. 43. General Review.

1st Article. On Creation.

44. Prefatory Observations.

I. The Creation as a Divine Fact.

45. The Mosaic History of Creation and its different Conception. 46. Creation out of nothing.

47. Reason and Aim of the Creation.

48. Temporal or Eternal Creation.

II. Productions of the Divine Creative Activity--Principal Creatures and their Primitive Conditions.

49. The Angels.

50. The First Created Pair.

51 The Original Perfection of the First Men. Biblical and Ancient Dogmas.

52. Catholic and Protestant Doctrine on the Primitive ConditionsSocinian, Rationalist and Speculative Strictures on the same.

Having enabled our readers to embrace the scope of the author in his yet unfinished work, we shall proceed to grapple with his notions. As a writer he makes great use of the cumulative process of argument, and we shall therefore take him up on the latter part of his book, and begin with "the Creation as a Divine Fact."

Our author makes an ingenious but futile attempt to show the Mosaic history as inconsistent with itself. The account of creation in Genesis we are quite prepared to take in our author's words; namely, "that God produced of the waste and formless primitive matter, by a series of separations and developments, which were executed at his command, the actual world, in the multiplicity of its creatures and order of its laws." As for allegorical interpretations of creation, they are worth nothing, and we have nothing at the present period to do with any other interpretations of Scripture than our own; we are not bound to the dicta of the Fathers, though sound in many notions in which they differ absolutely from Dr. Strauss. We perfectly concede to him, that man divides his work into tasks, from the reaction of the matter against him; but what has this to do with God? If the fact of continuous creation implied labour or toil against the rebel matter, then would God not be, as He is, exhaustless yet, but would long since have exhibited failure of power. Has the Great Motor Agent of the planetary system waned one particle in His might since the hour of creation? Does Moses describe God as labouring under fatigue? "Let there be light, and there was light." Does that look like weariness or labour to produce a desired end? Why even Longinus could teach superior deductions to this! The human race consists of a series of developments of creative agency over thousands of years. Does not this evidence that God produces over protracted periods His work? We allow it might, had God willed it, have burst into one development; but we can see no good reason why it should have been so produced, and can show abundant arguments to the contrary, in the earth requiring tillage to sustain such a population, the gradual increase of her sustentative power and active energy bringing in her deserts to blossom as the rose, and every waste and solitary spot to exult in the fertility given to it by God to meet the increased demand. We can trace nothing of inconsistency in the first and second chapter of Genesis. If Augustin or Dr. Strauss infer any inconsistency between the chapters, they are both in error.

If Origen also understood Gen. ii. 4, as contradicting the first chapter, he is equally in error, and we will show proof of the error of them all. "Augustin was surprised that the herbs, trees,

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