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conclude with the name of Carl Kunz, born at Manheim in 1770. His paintings of cattle and landscapes are justly admired; and from his own designs and others he executed some very clever engravings, particularly three large ones, after Henry Roos, Paul Potter, and A. Vandervelde.

Aquarilla engraving is the imitation of drawings washed in different colours. Like Le Blon's invention it requires as many plates as there are simple colours. The outlines of the figures, &c. are etched in, and the plate being cleaned is worked upon with roulettes, care being taken to make the grain very fine: the same process is observed in the other plates, the quality of the grain being proportioned to the quantity of colour to be impressed upon the paper. Great effect can be produced by this method, for not only do we have the abrupt tones of shade as in aquatinta, but also the beautiful and soft gradations of light which give the appearance of a finished drawing. Plates executed in this manner yield about two hundred copies. The invention is due to Pierre François Charpentier, an engraver of Paris, who was born at Blois in 1730, and first conceived the idea in 1762. The French artists kept it entirely to themselves for a long period. The most remarkable in this style were François Janinet, born at Paris in 1752, and his pupil Charles Melchior Descourtis.

We have now enumerated the various modes in which the graphic art is practised, both on wood and metal. The third and last material, which modern art has called into practice for the purpose of producing impressions, is that of stone, of which we shall give a short account. Lithography was accidentally discovered by Alois Senefelder, about the year 1792. He was the son of Peter Senefelder, an actor in the Theatre Royal of Munich. The father, wishing to bring up his son to the profession of the law, sent him to the university of Ingoldstadt. The strong partiality of young Alois for the stage showed itself in private theatricals. He composed a little comedy in 1789, entitled Die Mädchenkenner, which was very much approved of, and had a very good run. Upon his father's death he quitted the university and attached himself to the stage. Another play that he wrote was unfortunately too late for the Easter book-fair at Leipzig, and the consequence was, that the proceeds hardly paid for the printing. He passed much of his time at the printing office, anxiously trying to hasten the publication, and his attention was then first directed to the business of the pressman. In his work on Lithography he observes, "I thought it so easy that I wished for nothing more than to possess a small printing press, and thus to become the composer, printer, and publisher of my own productions." Being too poor to enter into the expenses of

publishing any more, he tried various methods of writing on copper, so that he might be enabled to print his own compositions. He soon found that a mixture of soap, wax and lamp-black was a very good material for writing, and would resist the action of the aquafortis when dry. As copper was too expensive a material to practise upon, he got some pieces of calcareous stone, which he polished, and which served his purpose very well. One day his mother desired him to write out a washing-bill immediately, and there being neither pens, ink nor paper at that moment in the house, he wrote out the list of the linen on a piece of this stone with his composition of wax and soap. A short time after this he was going to rub it out, when it occurred to him, that if he bit in the stone with aquafortis the letters would stand out in relief, and an impression might be taken from them. He tried the experiment and succeeded, and soon found that it was not necessary to lower the surface of the stone, and that simply wetting the surface was sufficient to prevent the ink from adhering to any parts except those touched by the composition. The result of this was the invention of Lithography. Notwithstanding Senefelder's unremitting attention he was unable to prosecute his invention from poverty, and he took the resolution of entering the service of the Elector (afterwards King) of Bavaria, as a private soldier in the artillery, for which he received a bounty of two hundred florins. With this small sum he boldly resolved to go on with his scheme, but met with many disappointments, until he became acquainted with Gleissner, a musician in the elector's band, who was about to publish some music. Senefelder induced him to try his method, and in less than a fortnight the twelve songs were published, and an hundred and twenty copies taken off at the expense of thirty florins, which were sold for one hundred florins. In 1799 a patent was granted to Senefelder, and soon afterwards he entered into partnership with M. Antoine André, an extensive music publisher. He proposed to take out patents in London, Paris, and Vienna. Senefelder visited London in 1802, and made but little progress. During the time he remained in town (about seven months) he applied himself to acquiring the fundamental principles of chemistry. A very few sketches after West and Fuseli were lithographed, but nothing more was done until its application to military purposes by Colonel Brown, theu quarter-master general, and in 1808 a lithographic press was put up in the Horse Guards, and the first map (a sketch of Bantry Bay) was produced by it. Senefelder, on his return from England, dissolved his partnership with André. He obtained at Vienna a patent throughout the Imperial States; but here he was again unfortunate, and to clear himself from his debts he sold his

patent in 1806 to M. Stein. After this he returned to Munich, where, in 1809, to his great satisfaction, he was appointed Lithographer to the Royal Commission of Customs. Being now placed beyond the difficulties and disappointments he had formerly undergone, he applied himself to various improvements in the art, and subsequently published a work on Lithography, in which he generously laid before the public every thing relating to his invention.

The stones most commonly used in lithography are those of a calcareous nature, which readily imbibe watery and oily fluids. The best kind of stone is that which is called the Kehlheim stone, and is used in Germany for floors of churches and courts of palaces. It is found in the district between Dietfurt and Pappenheim, and thence down the Danube towards the town of Kehlheim. These quarries are nearly exhausted, and fresh ones have been opened in the village of Solenholfen, about three or four leagues from the town of Neuburg, on the Danube. This kind of stone is composed of carbonate of lime, and a small portion of oxide of iron is mingled with it, which has a great affinity for grease. So necessary is it to have some portion of iron in the stone, that the French lithographers often use a solution of iron to wash the surface of the stone, which they call la preparation qui fait jaune, literally giving it a "yellow facing." In preparing the surface of the stone, two slabs having flat surfaces are laid together, and are rubbed backwards and forwards with some clean silver sand and water, and this operation is continued until the sand is crushed and worn with the surfaces of the stone, and until it assumes the form of a thick paste. This process is continued with fresh water and sand until the surfaces are perfectly smooth. They are then polished with pumice-stone or water of Ayr-stone. They are of different sizes, and about three inches thick. Lithographic ink is generally composed of tallow, virgin wax, shell lac, common soap, in equal parts of two ounces each, to which is added half an ounce of lamp-black. This is generally used for writing or pen-drawing; the other material is lithographic chalk, which is composed of the same materials, only in the following different proportions-common soap one and a quarter ounces, tallow two, virgin wax two and a half, shell lac one, and lamp-black a quarter of an ounce. This last compound is used for drawing. To obviate the tedious necessity of writing backwards on the slab, a transfer paper is prepared by a compound of French chalk, old plaster of Paris and starch, being ground together with gum tragacanth, glue and gamboge, and sufficient water being added to give it an oily consistency, is applied by a brush to thin sized paper. The writing or drawing

being then made on the prepared paper, it is wetted on the back and placed on the stone, which is previously warmed. After passing the slab three or four times under a press, the paper is removed by damping it, and the subject will be found to be transferred to the stone.

When the subject is not transferred, the usual way is to lightly draw the design on the stone with red chalk, which is afterwards traced over with the lithographic chalk. The greatest care must be taken by the artist not to touch the stone, nor to talk over it, as the smallest speck of saliva will prevent the chalk from taking effect. To prevent such accidents a bridge is placed across the stone during the operation of tracing. When the drawing is completed, it is what is termed etched in, which is pouring over the stone a solution of aqua fortis of one part to an hundred parts of water. This is done to remove any alkali remaining on the surface, after which it is washed and gum water is poured over, which prevents any of the lines from spreading.

Our limits will not permit us to describe the lithographic press, which, however, is very simple and may be very readily seen, which is better than any description we can give. The duties of the pressman require great care and attention in keeping the stone perfectly clean, and in a judicious application of the inkcare must be taken not to lay on too much, for otherwise it spreads and makes too dark an impression. The application of the dilute aquafortis and gum water is frequently repeated by the A careful selection of the proper paper is necessary, pressman. for if there should be any chalk or alum in it the stone will be injured.

Very beautiful effects are now produced in lithography by the introduction of lights and half-tints, to produce which a second stone must be employed. Zinc, having a very great affinity for grease, has been used with great success instead of stone: its portability is also a great recommendation, but there is an objection to it, which is, that the subject can neither be retouched nor can lights be effaced. Lithography is now making rapid progress throughout Europe. At home our improvement has been very great, and our forefathers would hardly suppose the plates of Nash's beautiful work of "The Old Halls of England" to be impressions from stone-and when we pore over the beauties of the Dresden Gallery, so easy of possession from their comparatively small expense, every bright and glorious touch of the great master is recalled to our memory by the fidelity and force with which they are executed.

We have now brought up the history of the various modes of simple and compound chalcography to the beginning of the nine

teenth century, and it only remains for us to mention those eminent masters who are still delighting the world with their inventive genius. We would willingly pause in our task, for there are very many in Europe whose talents place them in the first rank of their art, and many many pages might be filled in expatiating upon their merits.

In the Italian school of engraving we have but lately lost Raffaelle Morghan. The bright and life-like touches he has thrown into his engravings, together with the force and character of his figures, will make his name live amongst us as long as we have affection for the fine arts. His "White Horse" and "The Last Supper" are amongst the finest evidences of his superior genius. Longhi, Anderloni, and Tosschi are fully supporting the fame of their country. Few can forget Tosschi's splendid plate of Christ's Bearing the Cross. A companion to this, The Descent from the Cross, by the same eminent master, is very shortly to be published. In Germany many beautiful subjects are being given to the world, by artists whose talents and genius are a bright example for their youthful countrymen who are studying in the same schools. Schmutzer and Mandel have lately produced some very striking plates. The latter artist's Italianische Hirtenknabe, from the pencil of L. Pollack, is a beautiful specimen of modern compound chalcography. In France the art has been followed up with every success, and the names of Bevic, Tardieu, Desnoyers, Foster, Massard, Lignon and Leroux, will be handed down to posterity, and their well known works will be ever valuable to the collector.

Our own school has advanced with rapid strides. Many have been the improvements in the art during the last century. One of the greatest perhaps of late years was Mr. Perkins's well-known apparatus for the multiplication of engraved steel plates, which was simply engraving the subject on a softened steel plate, which was afterwards hardened. Upon the intaglio impression he revolved a roller of soft steel by immense pressure, and thus obtained the subject in relievo. This roller was afterwards hardened, from which any number of plates might be made. But from certain imperfections these plates were obliged to be retouched.

The English masters have raised the British school of engraving to a very high grade. In our present limits it would be impossible, even with the few eminent names that we give, to mention the beautiful works which they have sent forth to the world. Old John Landseer, the father of the great painters, has executed many exquisite landscapes. John Pye, Goodhall, Smith, have added many valuable plates to the portfolio of the collector in the same style. Then we have Burnet, Greatback, Engleheart,



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