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the supreme Deity the soul finds her wished for end and repose; which that philosopher calls awaking out of his body into himself.
359. In the tenth book of the arcane, or divine wisdom of the Ægyptians, we are taught that the supreme being is not the cause of any created thing; but that he produced or made the word; and that all created beings were made by the word, which is accordingly styled the cause of all causes; and that this was also the doctrine of the Chaldæans. Plato, likewise, in his letter to Hermias, Eraftus, and Coriscus, speaks of God the ruler and cause of all things, as having a father: And in his Epinomis, he exprelly teacheth that the word or róza made the world. Accordingly saint Augustine in his commentary on the beginning of saint John's Gospel, having declared that Christ is the wisdom of God by which all things were made, observes that this doctrine was also found in the writings of philofophers, who taught that God had an only begotten Son, by whom are all things.
360. Now, though Plato had joined with an imagination the most splendid and magnificent, an intellect not less deep and clear; yet it is not to be fupposed, that either he or any other philosophers of Greece or the East, had by the light of nature attained an adequate notion of the Holy Trinity, nor even that their imperfect notion, so far as it went, was exactly juft; nor perhaps that those sublime hints, which dart forth like flashes of light in the midst of a profound darkness, were originally struck from the hard rock of human reason; but rather derived, at least in part, by a divine tradition (a) from the author of all things. It seems a remarkable confirma. tion of this, what Plotinus observes in his fifth Ennead, that this doctrine of a Trinity, father, mind, and soul, was no late invention, but an ancient tenet. (a) 298, 301,
361. Certain it is, that the notion of a Trinity is to be found in the writings of many old heathen philosophers, that is to say, a notion of three divine hypostafes. Authority, light, and life did, to the eye of reason, plainly appear to support, pervade, and animate the mundane fyftem or macrocosm. The same appeared in the microcosm, preserving soul and body, enlightening the mind, and moving the affecțions. And these were conceived to be necessary, universal principles, co-existing and co-operating in such sort, as never to exist asunder, but on the contrary to conftitute one Sovereign of all things. And, indeed, how could power or authority avail or subsist without knowledge? or either without life and action?
362, In' the administration of all things there is authority to establish, law to direct, and justice to execute. There is first the source of all perfection, or fons deitatis, secondly the supreme Reason, order, or nóg G, and lastly the Spirit, which quickens and inspires. We are sprung from the father, irradiated or enlightened by the fon, and moved by the spirit. Certainly, that there is father, son, and spirit; that these bear analogy to the sun, light, and heat; and are otherwise expressed by the terms, principle, mind, and soul; by one, or to èv, intellect, and life; by good, word, and love; and that generation was not attributed to the second hypostasis, the vas or abyo, in respect of time (8), but only in respect of origine and order, as an eternal neceffary emanation; these are the express tenets of Platonists, Pythagoreans, Ægyptians, and Chaldæans.
363. Though it may be well presumed there is nothing to be found on that sublime subject in human writings, which doth not bear the sure signatures of humanity; yet it cannot be denied, that several fathers of the church have thought fit to illustrate the christian doctrine of the Holy
Trinity by simi, (8) 352.
litudes and expressions borrowed from the most eminent heathens, whom they conceived to have been no strangers to that mystery; as hath been plainly proved by Beffarion, Eugubinus, and Doctor Cudworth.
364. Therefore, how unphilosophical soever that dočtrine may seem to many of the present age, yet it is certain, the men of greatest fame and learning among the ancient philosophers held a Trinity in the Godhead. It must be owned, that upon this point some later Platonists of the Gentile world seem to have bewilder'd themselves (as many Christians have also done) while they pursued the hints derived from their predecessors, with too much curiosity.
365. But Plato himself considered that doctrine as a venerable mystery, not to be lightly treated of or rafhly divulged. Wherefore in a letter to Dionyfius he writes (as he himself profeffeth) ænigmatically and briefly in the following terms, which he giveth for a fummary of his notion concerning the supreme being, and which being capable of divers senses, I leave to be decyphered by the learned reader: περί: στον πάντων βασιλέα πάντ' έσι, και εκείνα ένεκα σανία, και εκείνο αίτιον απάντων των καλών, δεύτερον δε περί τα δεύτερα, και τρίτον περί τα apita. Plato enjoins Dionysius over and over, with great earneftness, not to suffer what he communicates concerning the mystery of the divine nature, to fall into illiterate or vulgar hands; giving it withal as a reason for this caution, that nothing would feem more ridiculous or absurd to the common run of mankind. He adds, that in regard writings might miscarry, the prudent way was to write nothing at all on those matters, but to teach and learn them by word of mouth: for which reason, faith he, I have never wrote any thing thereon; nor is there, nor shall there ever be any thing of Plato's extant on that subject. He farther adds, as for what hath been now faid, it belongs all to Socrates.
366. And, indeed, what this philosopher in his Phædrus speaketh of the super-celestial region, and the divinity resident therein, is of a strain not to be relished or comprehended by vulgar minds; to wit, essence really exiftent, object of intellect alone, without colour, without figure, without any tangible quality. He might very justly conceive that such a defcription mult seem ridiculous to sensual men.
367. As for the perfect intuition of divine things, that he supposeth to be the lot of pure souls, behold. ing by a pure light, initiated, happy, free, and unftained from those bodies, wherein we are now imprisoned like oysters. But in this mortal state, we must be satisfied to make the best of those glympfes (b) within our reach. It is Plato's remark in his Theætetus, that while we fit still we are never the wifer, but going into the river and moving up and down, is the way to discover its depths and Thallows. If we exercise and beftir ourselves, we may even here discover fomething.
368. The eye by long use comes to see even in the darkest cavern: and there is no subject fo obscure, but we may discern some glympse of truth by long poring on it. Truth is the cry of all, but the game few. Certainly where it is the chief passion, it doth not give way to vulgar cares and views; nor is it contented with a little ardour in the early time of life, active perhaps to pursue, but not fo fit to weigh and revise. He that would make a real progress in knowledge, must dedicate his age as well as youth, the later growth as well as first fruits, at the altar of truth. Cujusvis est errare, nullius nisi infipientis in errore perseverare. Cic.
(6) 335, 337
CO N T E N T S.
AR-WATER,how made, ting of goats, and other inju.
9. 11. III
against the small-pox, 2 Tar mixt with honey, a cure for
74 a cough,
7 Scotch firs what, and how they
proprietatis, Stoughton's drops, Pine and fir, different species of
In fevers, 75–77, 114 Tar-water, by what means, and
88, 89 they bid fair for universal me-
quors, 103. 106-108 depend on light as much as
colours, 40. 162. 214, 5
gums, 114 Analogy between the specific
117 119 guishing principle of all vege-
volatile salts, 8. 123 What the principle of vegetation,