Page images

When the attendance of any other officer of the gaol is required for such purpose in any court, not being within the county, riding, town, borough, or other jurisdiction in which the gaol of which he is such officer is situate, I do authorize the payment to him of a sum not to exceed 3s. 6d. per day, and if detained all night, the same sum in addi. tion as that allowed to other witnesses.

I do authorize payment to the officer of a gaol, whose duties require his attendance in the court where the prosecution takes place, for giving evidence of a former conviction, a sum not to exceed 38. 6d.

And further, also, that in lieu of the words, “And whereas it may become necessary,

&c., &c., &c.,” there shall be inserted the following words:

“And whereas it may become necessary in certain cases that persons unacquainted with the facts to be given in evidence upon the prosecution may be required to attend as witnesses, in order to state their opinion on matters as to which such opinion is admissible in evidence; and it is reasonable in such cases that the foregoing rates of allowance should be departed from, I hereby direct that the allowances to be made to such persons shall be subject to the decision of the court before which such persons may be examined, which may direct such allowances as to such court may appear reasonable.”

Finally, I do direct that the foregoing altered regulations shall take effect and be in force in all places where the regulations made by me on the 9th day of February, 1858, now are (or hereafter shall be) in force.

Given under my hand at Whitehall, this fourteenth day of February, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three.





READILY DETECTED BY THE UNPRACTISED Eye (a). (Horses) Glanders.—A yellowish white discharge, of a sticky tena. cious character, comes from the nostril, usually from one only, and most frequently the left. A hard swelling between the jaws, on the side of the discharge, about the size of a walnut. There is a cough and general unhealthy appearance. On looking into the nostril small holes or ulcers may generally be seen. The discharge from the nostrils in glanders does not smell badly, as is generally supposed.

(a) From notes by Mr. H. Olver, F.R.C.V.S., President of the British National Veterinary Association.

Farcy.-Several small enlargements may be seen up the legs, in a nearly straight line, or along the hollow of the neck, or about the breast. These enlargements burst. They discharge a little blood-coloured matter, and look red. They increase in number, and are always in a line with each other. They are known as farcy buds. The animal has a general unhealthy appearance, and staring coat. The disease is sometimes accompanied with a discharge from the nose, &c., as in glanders.

(Cattle) Cattle Plague.—This disease is of a virulent character, and cannot be decided on by an unqualified person. There are no special symptoms which would enable an ordinary observer to distinguish it from other diseases.

Pleuro Pneumonia.-An animal suffering from this disease usually separates itself from the rest of the herd, early in the morning or at night, when the air is cold or foggy, returning to the herd in apparent health in the middle of the day. Subsequently the breathing quickens, and the animal becomes feverish and shows signs of pain, with frequent coughing.

Foot and Mouth Disease.—A discharge of saliva (slobber) from the mouth, with a peculiar smack of the lips, is almost sufficient to detect this disease. The animal frequently kicks out one heel as if trying to get rid of some offensive matter. On examining the mouth, large white spots may be seen on the lips and tongue.

(Sheep) Small Pox.-Sheep attacked with this disease are feverish, sore, and apparently in pain. "On examining the inside of the thigbs and fore-legs where there is no wool, red patches and pustules will be found similar to small pox in man.

Scab in Sheep.-Sheep affected with this disease, if watched when grazing, will be seen to continually turn round and bite at the sides or back, and rub against any post or rail. A closer inspection shows the wool to be loose and torn, while portions of wool will probably be found entangled in the sheep's teeth, and the skin would be scabby, dry, and unhealthy. If you rub the affected part, the animal gives evident signs of pleasure.

Foot and Mouth Disease. This disease does not often materially affect the mouth of sheep, but they are exceedingly lame; the feet become hot and painful, breaking out between the claws and on the coronet, running a thin liquid, and soon degenerating into a bad form of ordinary foot rot, with which disease this is easily confounded.

(Pigs) Swine Fever.-—This disease, commonly called the “ Purples," “ Red Soldier,” &c., is distinguishable by the red or purple appearance of the skin, apparent just before, and still more so, after death. These appearances are more particularly noticeable on the belly and those parts of the body where the skin is thin, especially the ears. In dark coloured pigs the change of colour is not seen, but eruptions are usually found on the inside of the thighs; there will be loss of appetite, a general tuckedup appearance, either constipation or diarrhea, and a cough.

Foot and Mouth Disease affects pigs very much in the same way as sheep; they become very lame.


In cases of accidents or illness in the streets, &c., the police should afford all the assistance in their power. The following rules should be attended to in giving first aid to the injured.

Give air, and prevent persons crowding round the sufferer.
Undo clothing around neck.
Put the body in an upright position, with the head raised.
Do not annoy or excite the sufferer by asking idle ques-

Prevent any broken limb from hanging down.
Reassure the sufferer, and move as carefully as possible.
When animation is suspended, endeavour to restore


The following extracts are taken from a handbook entitled Handbook describing Aids for Cases of Injuries or Sudden Illness. By Peter Shepherd, M.D. Published by the St. John's Ambulance Association (price 1s., post free ls. 1d.), St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, London, E.C.

The following conditions are of such frequent occurrence that their symptoms and treatment should be clearly understood and remembered. APOPLEXY.—Cause-Effusion of blood producing pressure on the


Symptoms-Patient becomes suddenly insensible.

Face flushed or very pale.
Pulse full.
Breathing stertorous (loud snoring).

Treatment—Place body in lying down position, with the head

raised. Undo clothing around neck. Apply iced or cold water to head. Not to give the patient anything by mouth.

EPILEPSY.- Cause-Disease or disorder of brain.

Foaming at mouth.
Biting tongue.
Partial insensibility.
Breathing laboured, pulse normal.

Face livid.
Treatment-Prevent patient injuring himself.

Raise the head.

SYNCOPE OR FAINTING.—Causes—Debility or mental shock.

Face and lips pallid.
Pulse almost imperceptible,

Cold sweat over skin.
Treatment—Cold douche to head and face.

A little weak stimulant.

CONCUSSION OF BRAIN.—Causes—Blows or falls on head.
Symptoms External bruises, &c.

In slight cases, patient lies motionless, and in

sensible. If roused, answers hastily and then relapses. After a time becomes restless, and vomits, and


In severe cases, patient is profoundly insensible ;

surface pale and cold; pulse feeble; breathing

slow and sighing. Treatment—Place patient on his back, with head slightly

raised, in a dark, quiet room-apply warmth to surface of body and extremities.


1. Reduce the fractured ends or portions to their natural position. 2. Retain them immovably in their proper places till nature has

effected a permanent cure. Splints are appliances used in treating fractures for supporting the bones in their natural position till a cure be effected.

There is no urgency about treating a broken limb, provided no attempt is made to move the person; but if it is im tive that the patient be moved in the absence of a surgeon, it is an absolute necessity to secure the safety of the limb by putting it in splints before removal.

A stretcher is the only safe means of conveyance for cases of fracture.

Unskilful handling may cause either serious mischief or even loss of life; the dangers are pressing the sharp ends through the skin, and thus making the fracture compound, or through blood vessels, nerves, or into some internal organ, such as the lungs.

Treatment of Burns-Apply a mixture of oil and lime-water,

olive oil, castor oil; and wrap up the part in

cotton wool, wool, or flannel. Treatment of Scalds-Apply a strongly alkaline solution

made with the carbonate of soda, lime, or magnesia ; and enclose the limb, or part, in cotton wool, excluding air as far as possible.

FROST-BITE.— Frost-bite is the result of exposure to severe cold.

The vitality of the part is reduced to a very low point, the part
loses its natural colour, and becomes blue or purple.
Treatment—Bring about reaction gradually by friction.

Place the patient in a without a fire, and
avoid heat. Rub the part with snow or other
cold application, and administer brandy and
water carefully in small quantities.

Treatment-If there be great pain, a hot bath and fomenta-

tions, with complete rest; later on embroca-
tions, friction, cold and warm douches, and
passive movements are requisite according to
the severity of the accident.

Treatment—Cold should be applied to the head, which should

be kept well raised. Tight clothing should be
removed from the neck and chest. Stimulants
should be avoided.

Treatment-If possible, immediately apply a ligature on the

side nearest the heart; bathe the wound with warm water, so as to encourage bleeding; scarify around it to the depth of a quarter of an inch; use caustics, such as nitrate of silver

or carbolic acid. The internal use of brandy and ammonia is necessary.

« EelmineJätka »