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Hæmorrhage, or bleeding, is the result of the opening of a blood vessel by a wound or otherwise. It may be external or internal.

Hæmorrhage is divided into-1. Arterial, where the blood dom in jets in great force, and is of a bright red colour. 2. Perush where it flows slowly-wells out—and is of a dark, purple hoc 3. Capillary, where there is a general oozing of red blood fra surface. Treatment—If the blood is dark coloured, lift the Founded

limb to a level higher than the rest of the body after removing all bandages. If the blood is bright scarlet and flows out in jest, press one or more fingers firmly over the plane from whence the blood flows.

Treatment—1. Wash the part carefully with water.

2. Arrest the hæmorrhage.
3. Adjust the edges and fix in a natural positive
4. Place patient in an easy position, so as

avoid straining the parts. In wounds of
throat, sand-bags are good supports for fixing

head and neck. 5. Apply cold water dressing, or strips of adhesive

plaster. INCISED WOUNDS, WITH PROTRUSION OF INTERNAL ORGANS. Treatment—Wash the parts carefully with warm water, sed

return, unless they are much injured, and place

patient in a thorough state of rest. In incised wounds about the face it is very important to replace the wounded portions with as little delay as possible. CONTUSED AND LACERATFD WOUNDS are more dangerous and

troublesome to heal, besides being liable to erysipelas, gata

grene, &c.


Arrest hæmorrhage.
Replace parts in their natural position.
Apply cold water dressings, and never allow the

to get dry.


HANGING, &c. (a). 1.—DROWNING.–Send immediately for medical assistance, blankets, and dry clothing, but proceed to treat the patient instantly, securing as much fresh air as possible.

The points to be aimed at are-first, and immediately, the restoration of breathing; and secondly, after breathing is restored, the promotion of warmth and circulation.

The efforts to restore life must be persevered in until the arrival of medical assistance, or until the pulse and breathing have ceased for at least an hour.


Rule 1.—To maintain a Free Entrance of Air into the Windpipe

Cleanse the mouth and nostrils; open the mouth; draw forward the patient's tongue, and keep it forward; an elastic band over the tongue and under the chin will answer this purpose. Remove

all tight clothing from about the neck and chest. Rule 2.- To adjust the Patient's Position-Place the patient on his

back on a flat surface, inclined a little from the feet upwards; raise and support the head and shoulders on a small firm cushion

or folded article of dress placed under the shoulder-blades. Rule 3.-To imitate the Movements of Breathing-Grasp the

patient's arm just above the elbow, and draw the arms gently and steadily upwards, until they meet above the head (this is for the purpose of drawing air into the lungs); and keep the arms in that position for two seconds. Then turn down the patient's arms, and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest (this is with the object of pressing air out of the lungs.

Pressure on the breast-bone will aid this). Repeat these measures alternately, deliberately, and perseveringly,

fifteen times in a minute, until a spontaneous effort to respire is perceived, immediately upon which cease to imitate the movements of breathing, and proceed to induce circulation and warmth. Should a warm bath be procurable, the body may be placed in it up

to the neck, continuing to imitate the movements of breathing. Raise the body for 20 seconds in a sitting position, dash cold water against the chest and face, and pass ammonia under the nose. The patient should not be kept in the warm bath longer than five or six minutes.

(a) The above directions are chiefly Dr. H. R. Silvester's method of restoring the apparently dead or drowned, and have been approved by the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society.

Rule 4.—To excite Inspiration-During the employment of the

above method excite the nostrils with snuff or smelling salts, or tickle the throat with a feather. Rab the chest and face briskly, and dash cold and hot water alternately on them.

TREATMENT AFTER NATURAL BREATHING HAS BEEN RESTORED. Rule 5.—To induce Circulation and Warmth-Wrap the patient in

dry blankets and commence rubbing the limbs upwards, firmly and energetically. The friction must be continued under the blankets

or over the dry clothing. Promote the warmth of the body by the application of hot flannels,

bottles or bladders of hot water, heated bricks, &c., to the pit of the stomach, the armpits, between the thighs, and to the soles of the feet. Warm clothing may generally be obtained from by

standers. On the restoration of life, when the power of swallowing has re

turned, a teaspoonful of warm water, small quantities of wine, warm brandy and water, or coffee should be given. The patient should be kept in bed, and a disposition to sleep encouraged. During reaction large mustard plasters to the chest and below the shoulders will greatly relieve the distressed breathing.


Poisons are substances capable of destroying life.
ACIDS AND ALKALIES form antidotes to each other.

The acids suitable for the purpose are vinegar, lime juice, and orange juice mixed with water.

The alkalies are soda, potash, lime, and magnesia diluted with

water. ALBUMEN AND Oils will protect the gullet and walls of the stomach

in poisoning by irritants. White of egg, milk, flour and water,

salad oil, and castor oil may be used. EMETICS are remedies used for the purpose of causing vomiting.

The safest and readiest are-irritating back of throat with the finger or a feather, a tablespoonful or less of made mustard in a tumblerful of tepid water, salt half-ounce to one ounce in water, or two tablespoons of ipecacuanha wine in water.



Antidotes. ARSENIO

Emetic of mustard at once, unless vomiting is

already present. Sickness must be promoted by administering white of egg, barley water, milk, gruel, or give equal parts of oil and lime water. Two to four tablespoonfuls of castor oil may be

given to carry off poison from intestines. ALCOHOL (Drun- Give a tablespoonful of made mustard in a tumblerful kenness)

of warm water; then dash cold water in face and give sal volatile, strong coffee. Afterwards pro

mote warmth. CANTHARIDES or Excite vomiting. Give gruel, linseed tea freely, and

Spanish Fly warm bath. Avoid oil.

(Hair Washes) CAUSTIC or Silver Common salt.

Nitrate CHARCOAL fumes Remove at once to pure air. Dash cold water on

-Gas (poison- head and neck. Rub chest with stimulating appliing by escape

cations. Artificial respiration. of) CREOSOTE-Mer. Give raw eggs freely.

curial Plate Powder, Blue Vitriol, Verdigris, and other

Salts of Copper DEADLY NIGHT- Give emetics promptly; then castor oil, and then SHADE-Hem.

brandy. lock, Tobacco GOULARD'S Ex. Epsom salts and vinegar mixed.

TRACT–Sugar of Lead, White

Lead HARTSHORN AND Vinegar and water, followed by orange or lemon juice

OIL Wash- in water. ing Soda, Car.

bonate of Soda HEMLOCK

See Deadly Nightshade, &c. HYDROCHLORIO Chalk, whiting, soap and water, or the plaster of ACID

the apartment beaten up with water. Olive oil, SPIRITS

linseed tea, barley water, milk gruel, may be given SALT-Nitric freely, either alone, or with the above. Acid, Sulphuric Acid, or Oil of Vitriol


one ounce.


Antidotes. LEAD, SUGAR OF See Goulard's Extract. LEAD, WHITE... See Goulard's Extract. MUSHROOMS, Prompt emetic; then dose of castor oil; then

POISONOUS brandy. MORPHIA Give a mustard emetic. Keep patient awake by Opium

walking him quickly about. Beat legs with wet Laudanum

towels, &c. Give strong coffee. NITRIC ACID See Hydrochloric Acid. OPIUM ... See Morphia. OXALIC ACID... Chalk, whiting, or magnesia in water. If necessary,

vomiting should be excited. PRUSSIC ACID... No antidote can be relied on. Dash cold water at

once over head and neck; repeat at intervals. After recovery, excite vomiting, and then give

strong coffee with brandy. PHOSPHORUS Treatment at once. Oil of turpentine, dose up to

Battle's Ver. min Powder,


Give an emetic at once. NITRE STRYCININE Emetics at once, and repeat tillfree vomiting. If

spasms have not begun, give oil (olive, melted lard, &c.) freely. Keep every one around as quiet as possible, as even a breath of cold air may bring

on a spasm.
SODA, WASHING See Hartshorn and Oil.

See Hartshorn and Oil.

See Deadly Nightshade.
VERMIN POWDER See Phosphorus.
VERDIGRIS See Creosote.
VITRIGL, BLUE See Creosote.
VITRIOL, OIL OF See Hydrochloric Acid.
VITRIOL, GREEN, Magnesia in milk freely.

or Copperas

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