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nineteen years afterwards. In 1781 the first form, as you see, a descending series—20,544 slop-ships (a kind of floating baths and wash- in 1797 ; 15,713 in 1798; 14,608 in 1799 ; 8083 houses) were established. The separation of in 1805; 7662 in 1806. Or take a similar comthe sick, proper cleansing and disinfection, parison, where the numbers voted were in the use of distilled water, and many other each year 100,000. The years 1782, 1795, and practical sanitary measures now carried out, 1804, the figures for the sick are 22,909, have met with much stolid opposition in their 20,579, 7650. These figures speak for themday, and it was only at the beginning of the selves. They are very eloquent.”—(Dr. Guy, present century that our navy was really Public Health.) brought into its present state of sanitary ex- What sanitary measures and general mancellence. We were taught naval hygiène by agement can effect is seen in the returns of the terrible experience. For example
health of our navy for 1871. The total force "In 1779, 70,000 men were voted for the then amounted to 47,460, and the death-rate service of the navy; of these, 28,592 were sent from disease was only 6:3 per 1000. sick to hospital, and 1658 died. In 1813, out From the same report we also learn that out of just twice the number (140,000), 13,071 of the whole force of 47,460 men, there were were sent to hospital, and 977 died. In 1779, only four cases of scurvy in the year, a triumph therefore, the sick were more than 2 in every of sanitation. 5, and the deaths 1 in every 42; while in 1813 There are, however, still reforms and imthe sick were about 2 in 21, and the deaths 1 provements required in the dietaries and mein 143—the sickness reduced to a fourth, the dical service of the navy, as well as in the deaths to little more than a third !
ventilation of the vessels. The following "I will give you one other numerical state is a brief account of the dietaries of the difment. I extraet from one of Sir Gilbert ferent navies, with practical suggestions with Blane's tables all those years in which the respect to our own, taken from an excelnumber of seamen and marines voted by Par- lent paper by Dr. John Hunter (Observaliament was the same-namely, 120.000-—and tions on the Dietaries of British and Foreign I give you the sick for those years. They · Navies) :
TABLE I.-WEEKLY RATIONS of the BRITISH Navy in 1720 (in Ounces).
A note to the foregoing table says that when there men, out of a complement of between four and five is no dried fish (fired or sized fish) oatmeal is given, hundred, during the months of April, May, and Jane which was usually made into “burgoo."
1741 ; and on arriving at Juan Fernandez on June It will be observed, that on certain days no meat 9th, there were only ten foremast men in a watch, was issued. These were the "banian” or “banyan" all the others being helpless, or dying from scurvy. days, and are referred to by Smollett in his "Rode- About eighty died during the last ten days, and the rick Random," Six pounds of meat were issued condition of the survivors was most horrible. Weekly, being a pound for every day but Friday, It is interesting to trace the gradual changes that which was a day of limited supply.
have taken place in the scale of diet of the British The great deficiencies of this scale are obvious, and Navy since the year 1720 up to the present time, are quite sufficient to explain the terrible mortality which Dr. Hunter has been able to do by the aid of from scurvy that occurred during protracted voyages the admirable library at Haslar Hospital, about this period. The Centurion, the celebrated The table-beer allowed by the scale of 1720 was flag-ship of Admiral Anson, lost about two hundred never carried in sufficient quantity to last above six or seven weeks (LIND), and half a pint of spirits was tain proportion. This was the first issue of tea; and issued in its place. In 1740, the time of the disas. the ration of spirits substituted for the gallon of beer trous Carthagena expedition, Admiral Vernon ordered was reduced from half a pint to one gill; and the spirit to be mixed with water when served out, from two shillings and sixpence to three shillings and through him the mixture received the name of and sixpence a month was added to the pay of the “grog," said to be so named from the “
"grogram men, breeches which the admiral usually wore.
It is curious to note, that though, according to In 1761, Dr. Lind, .R.N., discovered that fresh the circulars, " banyan days were abolished, yet the water could be distilled from sea-water, but little amount of salt meat a week was reduced by three practical use was made of this important discovery quarters of a pound. till very many years afterwards, when it was applied In 1850 the following scale was introduced, in to the cooking galleys of troop and emigrant ships, which the spirit ration was again reduced one-half, and to the boilers of steam-vessels.
and the salt-meat ration raised to one pound daily:In 1795, owing to the representations of Drs. Lind, Biscuit, one pound; spirits, half a gill ; fresh meat Trotter, and other naval medical officers, lemon- one pound; vegetables, one pound; sugar, one and juice was regularly issued to the crews of sea-going three-quarter ounces; chocolate, one ounce; tea, men-of-war.
quarter of an ounce, daily. At this time the usual breakfast of the men was Oatmeal, quarter pint; mustard, half an ounce; oatmeal boiled in water, and sweetened with mol- pepper, quarter ounce; vinegar, quarter pict, asses, when procurable.
weekly. Cocoa was now used by vessels on the West India “When fresh meat cannot be procured, there station, and soon afterwards came into general use shall be substituted, salt pork, one pound; peas, for breakfast throughout the navy, in place of the half-pint every alternate day; and salt beel, one much disliked · burgoo."
pound, with flour three-quarters of a pound; or preIn 1824 a great change took place in the scale of served meat, three-quarters of a pound; and prediet. Banyan days were abolished, and the following served potatoes or rice, quarter of a pound on every scale introduced :
alternate non-salt-pork day.” Suet and raisins as Daily-Biscuit, one pound,
before. The preserved meat was so often found to be Beer, one gallon.
either offal or putrid, that it was soon discontinued. Cocoa, one ounce.
In 1856 split peas were issued instead of whole Sugar, one and half ounce,
peas. Fresh meat, one pound.
In April 1859 the ration of biscuit was increased Vegetables, half a pound.
to one and a quarter pounds, and sugar to (50 Tea, quarter of an ounce.
ounces. Weekly-Oatmeal, half-pint.
Leave was also given to occasionally issue an extra Vinegar, half-pint.
ration of beef, an ounce of cocoa, and half an ounce “When fresh meat and vegetables are not pro- of sugar. In 1865 a superior kind of preserved meas curable, there shall be allowed in lieu thereof, salt was issued, and is still in regular use. beef, three-quarters of a pound; and flour, three- It would be more esteemed in the tropics if it were quarters of a pound: or, salt pork, three-quarters of sometimes eaten cold, instead of being warmed first. a pound; and peas, half a pint." Raisins and suet Table No. II, is the scale of diet of the presetit were allowed for an equal weight of flour, in a cer
TABLE II.-WEEKLY RATIONS of the BRITISH Navy for 1871 (in Ounces).
39-25 44 45 50:50 44.45 39.25 44.45 50-50 312.85) 38.58 230-22
One ounce of sugar and 5 of lime-juice daily, after fourteen days at sea.
TABLE III.-PROPOSED SCALE of WEEKLY RATions for the BRITISH Navy, 1871 (in Ounces).
Titaalides cluding} 39-25 45:45 55:50 45:45 39-25 45*45 55-50 325-85 39:61 234-79
One ounce of sugar and half an ounce of lime-juice, after seven days at sea.
These three tables refer to the diet of the men when so much by salting as beef does, therefore it is issued at sea, as in harbour one pound of fresh meat and thrice a week, and beef only twice. one pound of vegetables are issued daily in place of Four ounces of preserved potatoes are added to the the salt or preserved meat. The officers provide rations on one salt-beef day, and a soup of two ounces their own food, and usually carry a sufficiency of live of compressed vegetables and two ounces of pearl stock and preserved provisions, though they are en- barley on the other. One ounce of pickles is issued titled to draw the whole or a portion of the daily on every salt-meat day, as besides their antiscorbutic rations if they choose.
value, they aid the digestion of salt meat, and thus Table III. is slightly deficient in nitrogenous food, enable the system to extract more nutriment from and the excess of carbonaceous is derived chiefly it. The best and cheapest pickles are red cabbage from the biscuit and salt pork, to get the full value and onions. from which requires excellent teeth and great capa- This table could be still further improved by sub. bility of digesting fat. The result of a great number / stituting one quart of porter for the half-gill of rum, of observations that Dr. Hunter has made is, that but the difficulty of stowage is the great objection to seamen are generally deficient in the number of their this; by making water an article of the ration, the teeth, many having lost four molar teeth before minimum in the tropics being fixed at one gallon a arriving at thirty years of age.
day for each person, for there can be no doubt that it Table II, is also deficient in antiscorbutic food, the is simply cruel, as well as hurtful, to limit to the inill-effects of whose absence is only partially obviated adequate quantity of half a gallon each person, the by the use of lime-juice.
amount of water supplied to men who are living on la Table III., which Dr. Hunter has drawn up as a salted meat and going through active exercise in the proposed improvement upon the present scale, an heats of the tropics. The allowance in the Prussian endeavour has been made to better the diet, while as Navy is 37 quarts daily to each person. few changes as possible have been introduced.
The men take dinner at noon, and about half-past Preserved meat is still restricted to twice a week, four they have tea, which is called supper. There because the heat to which it is exposed during the can be no doubt that it is much too long, particularly process of preserving (226") develops a kind of flavour for men who work during the night, to go without akia to that of baked meat, which flavour quickly any food, except biscuit and milkless tea, from noon palls on the palates of most persons, and causes a till breakfast next morning at seven, a period of ninepositive dislike to arise if the meat is frequently teen bours. Any one who doubts this may easily used.
satisfy his mind, though not his body, by making the If by any process, such as boiling in vacuo, or at experiment. Tea is believed to have the power of a great height, where the boiling point is low, the retarding the waste of tissue, but the black-boiled meat could be preserved as simple boiled meat, and milkless decoction that the men drink is chiefly a not overcooked as it is at present, then it could be solution of tannin, and cannot have much other effect substituted for the salt beef with very great advan- than causing constipation. The lime which the captage, for pickling renders the fibrine of beef indiges- tains of the hold will insist upon throwing into the tible.
tanks "to keep the water sweet," will also, as well Pork, from containing so much fat, does not lose as the boiling, prevent the tea from being what it should be. It would be an improvement for the men purchase for themselves from the boats that come to take their mess-kettles to the galley to be filled ' alongside with fruit and vegetables for sale. with boiling water, upon which the tea should be thrown. This is the Australian mode of tea-making. Tables IV., V., VI., and VII. are those of foreign
Sometimes the men are able to save a portion navies of their dinner for supper, and with certain im- The French and Dutch Navies appear to rely provements in the quality or kinds of the meat, principally on peas, and bring their scale up to the this might be oftener done, but seamen are frequently proper standard as regards amount, met with who never touch their salt beef at all, Sameness of dlet, a great evil, appears to be the but dine on biscuit and their allowance of grog. In chief objection to their systems. some vessels an allowance of chocolate is issued to The United States Navy relies on pickles and prethe middle and morning watches, with very beneficial served vegetables as antiscorbutics, and boasts that effects.
it does not require lime-juice ; indeed, " lime-juicer" The change required in a tropical climate is suffi- is an uncomplimentary epithet applied by American ciently made by the addition of fruit, which the men to British merchant-seamen..
TABLE IV.-WEEKLY RATIONS of the UNITED STATES NAVY, 1871 (in Ounces).
The allowance of biscuit is not sufficient; but as the men purchase soft bread for themselves when in harbour (which they are well able to do, an A.B.'s pay being £4, 10s. per month), and allow the biscuit to accumulate till they go to sea again, the allowance is practically unlimited, and is much nearer twenty ounces than fourteen. On some stations, two ounces of preserved potatoes are issued in place of the four ounces of preserved tomatoes, These preserved potatoes are little used, as the men of the United States Navy appear to be upacquainted with the fact, that long-continued cooking remores all the disagreeable earthy flavour, and that frying in the fat of the preserved beef makes them really delicious.
TABLE V.-WEEKLY RATIONS of the FRENCH NAVY at SEA, 1871 (in Ounces).
TABLE VI.-WEEKLY Rations of the DUTCH | tor, which has been fitted up with satisfactory Navy in EUROPE, 1871 (in Ounces). results in her Majesty's ships Vigilant, Thetis,
and Osborne. The invention is extremely Total
ingenious. Two tanks (see fig. 50), A and B,
are placed opposite each other on each side of Biscuit
70-04 10.98 54.59 the vessel, four in all. Each pair is connected Barley for breakfast, 105 X 7 73.50 4.63
by a transverse pipe-one pipe, E, containing
59.09 Salt beef
1.59 1.43 water, the other, F, mercury ; therefore the Smoked pork 33 50 3.28 40.95
two opposite tanks, A A, may be called the Cheese
8.80 2.49 6.84 Peas
95 54 21.97 59.85 water-tanks, B B the mercury-tanks. A A Butter
8.80 0.00 18.26 have each a long pipe, c, leading into the Cotice 4.90
hold, or wherever ventilation is required. Sugar
3.70 0.00 3.51 Pickles 7.00 0.31 0.56
The tanks B B have also a tube furnished Gin (1232)
with valves opening inwards, G G, and leadVinegar (9.80)
ing down to the neighbourhood of the keelson. Total 326.78 45.25 245.08 The pipes D D communicate with the open
air, and have valves opening outwards. It Lime-juice and sugar are also issued. is perfectly automatic; the least roll of the
vessel causes a vacuum in either the front or TABLE VII. – WEEKLY_RATIONS of the starboard tanks, and the water from the bilge DUTCH NAVY in the EAST INDIES, 1871
rushes up one of the G pipes, the air up one (in Ounces).
of the C pipes into the respective tanks, the Total.
Carbon- next roll forcing this water and air out of the
pipes D. Biscuit 70-04 10 98
Many vessels have spaces open on the shelf
54.59 Rice for breakfast
112.70 7.10 9176 pieces, the consequence being that a direct Salt beef
381 3.55 communication with the bilge-air is ensured, Smoked pork
1'87 23:27 Batter
which of course is fundamentally wrong. 8.80
18.26 Peas, 420; calavanches,
Others trust entirely to hatchways, ports, 52-9:94-9(by measure)
80.76 18.55 50:53 Onions
scuttles, and windsails, most of which cannot 400
0.40 0.64 Coffee 7.40
be used at all in rough weather. Sagar
17.60 0.00 16.72 It will probably be found that Thiers’ autoTea
matic ventilator is the best to fit up a new 10'60 Chillies
0.35 Pepper, salt
$ 0.50 Gin
Ventilation of Ships. The ship is a habitation of a special character. In ordinary dwellings, a continual interchange of air takes place, not only through fissures and cracks in doors, windows, chimneys, or through special openings made for the purpose of ventilation, but also from the ground beneath, and through the walls themselves, which are by no means impervious to air. In a vessel, however, the ground-air is replaced by what I would call the bilge-air. The wooden or iron walls, as the case may be, are not at all permeable, and special means have to be used both for bring. ing fresh air into the ship and getting rid of it when impure, especially in rough weather, or when, as in action, the hatchways and ports are closed. On the other hand, advantage may be taken of the fact that a vessel at sea
Fig. 49, is in constant motion, and therefore there vessel with, but there are also several simple are continual currents of air around the sides, means of ventilation which may be adapted to about the deck, &c. This continual motion any class ship. Tubes may be led from the of the vessel is utilised in Thiers' ship ventila- spar deck to the lower deck with cowled