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person as to the supply of sewage and as to such inspector, the Local Goverument Board works to be made for the purpose of such may make an order disallowing or allowing supply, they may contribute to the expense with such modifications (if any) as they deem of carrying into execution by such person all necessary the intended work.-(P. H., s. 34.) or any of the purposes of such agreement, and Entry upon Lands.- Whenever it becomes may become shareholders in any company necessary for a local authority or any of their with which any agreement in relation to the officers to enter, examine, or lay open any matters aforesaid has been or may hereafter lands or premises for the purpose of making be entered into by such local authority, or to plans, surveying, measuring, taking levels, or in which the benefits and obligations of making, keeping in repair, or examining such agreement may have been or may be works, ascertaining the course of sewers or transferred or vested.—(P. H., s. 30.) drains, or ascertaining or fixing boundaries,

The making of works of distribution and and the owner or occupier of such lands or service for the supply of sewage to lands for premises refuses to permit the same to be agricultural purposes is to be deemed an entered upon, examined, or laid open for the “improvement of land" authorised by “The purposes aforesaid or any of them, the local Improvement of Land Act, 1864," and the authority may, after written notice to such provisions of that Act apply accordingly.- owner or occupier, apply to a court of summary (P. H. s. 31.)

jurisdiction for an order authorising the local Sewage Works without the District.-A local authority to enter, examine, and lay open the authority must, three months at least before said lands and premises, &c. commencing the construction or extension of If no sufficient cause is shown against the any sewage or other work for sewage purposes application, the court may make an order without their district, give notice of the in accordingly, and on such order being made the tended work by advertisement in one or more local authority or any of their officers may, at of the local newspapers circulated within the all reasonable times between the hours of nine district where the work is to be made. in the forenoon and six in the afternoon,

Such notice must describe the nature of the enter, examine, or lay open the lands or preintended work, and state the intended termini mises mentioned in such order, for such of the thereof, the names of the parishes, the turn- said purposes as are therein specified, without pike roads and streets, and other lands (if any) being subject to any action or molestation for through, across, under, or on which the work so doing : provided that, except in case of is to be made, and must name a place where emergency, no entry shall be made or works a plan of the intended work is open for in- commenced unless at least twenty-four hours' spection at all reasonable hours; and a copy notice of the intended entry, and of the object of such notice is to be served on the owners thereof, be given to the occupier of the preor reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees, mises intended to be entered.-(P. H., s. 315.) and occupiers of the said lands, and on the Special Drainage District.-Rural authooverseers of such parishes, and on the trustees, rities from time to time may find it necessary surveyors of highways, or other persons having to constitute a portion of their area a special the care of such roads or streets.—(P. H., s. drainage district, in order to charge upon it 32.)

exclusively the works of sewerage, waterIf any such owner, lessee, occupier, over- supply, &c. This can be done by a resolution seer, trustee, surveyor, or other person as of the authority, but the resolution must be aforesaid, or any other owner, lessee, or occu- approved of by the Local Government Board pier who would be affected by the intended Any place formed into a special drainage diswork, objects to such work, and serves notice trict becomes a separate contributory place. in writing of such objection on the local au- (P. H., s. 277.) thority at any time within the said three Districts may be combined for the purposes months, the intended work shall not be com- of sewerage.—(P. H., s. 279.) Sec ARBITRAmenced without the sanction of the Local TION ; BUILDINGS ; LANDS, PURCHASE OP; Government Board after such inquiry as LOANS; NUISANCES ; PENALTIES ; SANITAET hereinafter mentioned, unless such objection | AUTHORITIES ; WORKS; &c. is withdrawn.-(P. H., s. 33.) The Local Government Board may, on ap

Shellfish — Nearly all descriptions of plication of the local authority, appoint an shellfish are difficult of digestion, and should inspector to make inquiry on the spot into be avoided by people with delicate stomachs the propriety of the intended work and into Perhaps the least objectionable is the oyster, the objections thereto, and to report on the particularly if eaten raw, for when cooked it matters with respect to which such inquiry becomes hard and tough. The crab, crayfish, was directed; and on receiving the report of I lobster, mussel, prawn, periwinkle, whelk,

and shrimp should be eaten with the great- | private slaughter-houses so decidedly objecest moderation, especially in hot weather. tionable in large towns, or indeed in towns of Poisonous, indeed fatal symptoms, have been any size. induced by partaking too freely of these With the ancients, the slaughter-house and varieties of shellfish. See LOBSTER, MUSSEL, the place of sale were separate. In ancient OYSTERS, &c.

Rome there were formed for the purchase

and sale of oxen, companies or colleges of Sherry (Vinum Xericum)— The only wine butchers, who confided to their substitutes ordered in the British pharmacopeias. See the care of slaughtering the animals and WINE.

preparing them for the use of the public. Ship Fever-See FEVER, TYPHUS. These butchers, at first spread over different

parts of the town, were afterwards collected Ships-See HYGIÈNE, NAVAL.

in one quarter, where other provisions were Shoddy-Old, used, and worked-up wool sold. Under the reign of Nero, the great and cloth made into a fabric.

market or butchery was one of the most

magnificent ornaments of the city, and the Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris) — The shrimp is memory of it has been transmitted to posa favourite article of food with all classes, and terity by a medal. The police of the Romans although not easy of digestion, it is not so extended to Gaul, and particularly to Paris, likely to prove injurious to weak stomach where from time immemorial there existed a as the lobster or crab. Essence of shrimps company, composed of a certain number of frequently contains Armenian bole as a col families, charged with the purchase of beasts ouring matter.

and the sale of their meat. There is a Sickness, Returns of - See BIRTHS, regular system of public slaughter-houses in DEATHS, AND SICKNESS RETURNS.

large towns on the Continent at the present

time, and our neighbours in this matter Siderosis-See TRADES, INJURIOUS. appear rather in advance of ourselves. A Sieges-See WAR.

summary of the regulations in force in several

of the principal Continental towns is as Slaughter-Houses—There is, perhaps, follows :no trade which requires more constant super- 1. All markets are under strict supervision. vision than that of the butcher. Thirty years 2. Cattle sent to the public markets, and ago, sanitary reformers arrived at the convic. to the public slaughter-houses, are scrupution that the slaughtering of animals ought lously examined by the inspectors or officers not to be carried on in the midst of crowded appointed for that purpose. populations. Parliament endorsed this view; 3. Diseased cattle are carefully kept from but in consideration of vested interests, the healthy animals, and are either destroyed or system was allowed to proceed for a period of disposed of in such a way as to prevent their thirty years. Last year, therefore (1874), there communicating disease to other cattle or should have come into force the prohibitory being sold for human food. clauses of the Metropolis Building Act of 4. In all large cities the slaughtering of 1844, by which the carrying on of certain animals is either conducted in public trades and occupations in London is inter- slaughter-houses, or is so regulated as to dicted, except under special conditions, which ensure the condemnation of diseased meat. in the vast majority of cases are unattainable. 5. To guard the public against the mischief Among these trades was the slaughtering of which arises from the use or consumption of cattle. If this Act had taken its course, at unwholesome meat, the animals destined for least 19,000 private London slaughter-houses food are examined not only before they are would have been suppressed. The Legislature killed, but afterwards. has, however, merely prohibited the forma- There can be little difference of opinion as tion of any new businesses or establishments to the wisdom and sagacity of the above (37 & 38 Vict. c. 67). This is truly a retro- regulations. The scope of this article does grade step, for even as early as Henry VII. not permit us to enter into all the details butchering was forbidden in walled towns. relative to foreign abattoirs ; we will, how

It is not, indeed, the mere act of slaughter- ever, describe those of Paris, and one lately ing which is a nuisance, but the details of introduced at Brighton, United States. disposal of the offal, of the blood, of the fat, An order of Charles IX., dated February the catgut-spinning, the driving of animals 15, 1567, first promulgated the principle of through the streets, the ease with which un- | the Paris abattoirs; but, notwithstanding this sound meat may be introduced, and other and proposals made as early as the year 1689 obvious attendant circumstances which render by the provost of the merchants and aldermen of Paris, and the officers of Sieur Chandoré in the most tempting and nourishing food. After 1691, abattoirs were not definitely established slaughtering in the yard of the abattoir, the until 1810. In that year five general abat- animal is drawn up by the pulleys before toirs were instituted-three on the right, two mentioned, and the butchers “blow up the on the left, bank of the Seine.

carcase—that is, blow air into the subcutaneous Besides buildings in which are situated the cellular tissue--a practice common enough in apartments of the officers, &c., each abattoir all countries, but one to be reprehended; the consists of the following departments : (1) the real purpose being to make the meat look stables in which the animals to be killed are fuller, plumper, and heavier than it would kept; (2) the abattoir, properly so called, with in its natural condition. The butcher, how. its accessories ; (3) the place in which the offal ever, excuses the practice by saying that be is prepared ; and (4) a building in which the can by means of it remove the skin better and fat and grease are rendered.

without injury to the flesh. The blood is The days on which the animals arrive in carefully saved from every animal. It is Paris are seldom those on which they are principally used by the dyers, and is so valukilled; it is therefore necessary to have able that it is said to pay the expenses of accommodation for their reception. These slaughtering. In England the butchers do buildings, of the most simple form and con- not appear to find a ready market for this struction, are about 29 feet 3 inches in width commodity, at all events there is great waste. on the inside. Large stone arches supply the Some is utilised in certain articles of diet, place of girders, and support the joists of the such as black • puddings, and some in the flooring of the upper rooms. A second range country is given to pigs, but much is wasted of arches supplies the place of principals for and allowed to decompose. The fat used to the roof, and receives the purlines. The be rendered in the melting-houses before upper floor is partitioned into as many divi- mentioned'; some of it is still utilised there, sions as there are slaughter-rooms, that each but the greater portion is put into sacks, butcher may receive his own forage, and each and carted away daily by the candlemakers building is supplied with a very large cistern. and perfumers, who work it up in their own

The abattoir, properly speaking, or, as it is manufactories. sometimes called, échaudoir, has several courts, “There is no speck of the flesh of any all of which are paved so as to lead liquids to animal that is not utilised, but particularly a sink placed beneath the level of the pave- is this true of those meats that pass through ment. The joints both of the stone walls and this abattoir. The meats are graded not only of the paving are carefully stopped up with a at the wholesale market, but in their progress mastic of iron filings, so that no offensive to the consumer. A constant separation of matter can lodge in the interstices. The the qualities is being made until the dog and courts are well supplied with water-taps. cat meat is reached, and even after they are The buildings are divided into a certain supplied, there is a residuum, which goes to number of slaughter-rooms, called cases d'abat; the growth of worms, which in turn feed the floors all paved and provided with a' tank the fish of the aquarium.”—(Letter of Mr. for the blood, and with a system of blocks and SCHULTZ, Fifth Annual Report of the State pulleys for raising the carcases. The length Board of Health, Massachusetts.) of the slaughter-rooms is about 32 feet 6 The model abattoir erected at Brighton, inches; the breadth, 16 feet inches. They United States, is thus described in the report are divided one from the other by partition above cited :walls of freestone.

The following description of the Brighton abattou The carcases of the oxen are hung upon a is furnished by the architect, Mr. A. C. Martin :frame furnished with movable rails, those of

The abattoir now building at Brighton is rell the calves and sheep are suspended from iron placed on the bank of the Charles river, in the most brackets. The ceilings are whitewashed, and westerly suburb of Boston, and about 4 miles

from the centre of the city. The grounds are sbuat the roofs project 9 feet 9 inches beyond the

50 acres in extent, bounded on the longest side by exterior walls, thus affording the double ad

the river, and conveniently situated with reference vantage of protecting the slaughter - rooms to the Watertown and Brighton cattle market, the from the heat of the sun, and the butchers Boston and Albany Railroad, and the Waterton from the weather while working in the court. branch of the Filchburgh Railroad (see fig. 94). yard beneath. Arrangements for ventilation

Building operations were commenced in the spring are also made, and answer the purpose well.

of 1872, by the butchers of Brighton, under a charter The cattle on arrival in the sheds are taken templates a central building, called the readerins

granted by the Legislature. The original plan cothe greatest care of. Their bodies are first house, 200 feet by 80, and four stories bigh, avand washed in a large granite bath, they are which are to be grouped ten or more Hocks el littered down with clean straw, and fed with slaughter-houses, with the necessary cattle-sets,

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yards, stables, tripe-works, engine and boiler house, The rendering-house, with the boiler and engine &c. At the present time a block of ten beef slaughter- house, has also been finished, and the necessary houses and another block of five sheep slaughter. machinery and steam apparatus put into the buildhouses, with the requisite cattle-sheds, yards, and ings. stables, have been built, and are now occupied. Our abattoir differs from those in various countries Several other beef slaughter-houses are in progress ; of Europe in many respects. Foreign abattoirs have one of these will be ready for use in a few weeks. been built at public expense, and are under the

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Fig. 96. immediate charge of government officers. Ours ment. No provision is made for cooling the best has been built by private enterprise and at private before it is sent to market, and the blood and el cost, its sanitary arrangements being controlled by are carted away from the premises. At Brightes the the State Board of Health. In the foreign abattoirs buildings are all of wood, and are planned with the slaughter-houses are all built of masonry, and ference to the individual interests of the batchers

one story high, without basements. The and their special modes of doing business. slaughtering is done upon stone or asphalt pave. The ofal and the blood coming from each day's


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