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work are rendered and dried on the premises during After the rendering-tanks are filled, the openings the same day, and while they are yet perfectly fresh are closed and the contents cooked by steam. After and untainted.

suficient cooking, the contents are dropped out of the It has for a long time been the custom of the tanks by openings at the bottom of them in the third Brighton butchers to have, in connection with their story. Here the fat is separated from the watery slaughter-houses, a cooling-room or refrigerator, in part, and from the scrap or tankings, which latter which the meat is kept at a temperature of 40. F. portion is put into the driers. The blood from the for several days before sending it to market. These slaughter-houses is also here put into the driers. The conditions required

water is evaporated by steam-heat, and the residuum · First, That the slaughtering should be done upon comes out as dry animal matter, This is passed a raised floor, over a basement story, for conveni. | through a mill and ground to powder. From the ence of handling the blood and offal.

mill the powder drops into barrels, and is packed for Second, That "cool-rooms," with ice-chambers over market. them, should be provided for each slaughter-house. By an ingenious system of pipes the steam and By reference to the plan and section (figs. 95, 96) offensive gases from the rendering - tanks and of one of the beef slaughter-houses, it will be seen driers are passed through a condensing apparatus, that each covers a space 38 feet wide by 30 long, or where the steam becomes water, and the remain1140 square feet. Out of this space a room 20 feet ing gases are then mixed with common air, and, square is taken, with double walls (2 feet thick) by means of a blower, are forced down and under packed with fine shavings, for a cool-room, in the fires of the steam boilers. After being thus which the meat is hung for several days before being purified by fire they are finally discharged through sent to market. The temperature is maintained in a chimney 160 feet high. The rendering process warm weather by the cold air from an ice-box of 15 thus conducted gives no odour. There is nothing to 20 tons capacity, built over the cool-room and offensive about the fertiliser, and what slight odour connected with it. The circulation of air between it possesses is wholly imperceptible after it is the cool-room and the ice-box is regulated by packed. means of valves in the air-ducts. The remaining The boiler and engine house, of brick, stand quite space, 15 feet wide, is used for slaughtering the near the rendering-house, and around the central cattle, The floor is of double plank, calked water. smoke-flue are constructed four large flues or shafts tight like the deck of a ship, and laid upon iron for ventilating the various rooms of the renderingbeams, with a slope to an iron gutter which catches house. The boiler-house is planned for ten boilers ; the blood and conveys it below. There are several the engine-room for two fifty-horse-power engines. trap-doors in this floor, through which the hides, there is also a powerful steam-pump for throwing olal, &c., are dropped into separate iron tanks on wheels in the basement. The slaughtering-place The six months which have passed since the ab. opens to the rear upon the close pen, the cattle yards attoir was opened have fully proved, that it is posand sheds; and in front is the loading-shed, where sible to carry on a great slaughtering and rendering the meat is put into the waggons. The cool-rooms establishment without its being offensive either to are 12 feet 6 inches high. The slaughtering-places the workmen in it or to the community around it. have the whole height of the building up into the roof, and are lighted by windows above the roofs of

For the purposes of the Public Health the sheds. By means of pulleys and shafting from (England) Act, 1875, the word “slaughterthe rendering-house the cattle are hoisted for dress. house” includes the buildings and places coming, and the ice is lifted to the ice-chambers, Hot monly called slaughter-houses and knackers' and cold water is supplied to each slaughter-house. yards, and any building or place used for

The basement story under the slaughter-houses is slaughtering cattle, horses, or animals of of brick walls, with a concrete floor, and has ample drainage. It extends, without partition, 380 feet any description for sale.

Any urban authority may, if they think fit, from one end of the block to the other. In this story, under the trap-doors, are the iron tanks (on provide slaughter-houses, and they are to wheels) to receive the hides, heads, feet, tallow, make bylaws with respect to the management tripe, blood, and offal. When filled, the tanks are and charges for the use of any slaughterwheeled into the rendering-house and their contents houses 'so provided ; and for the purpose of distributed-the hides being left in the basement, enabling any urban authority to regulate and the blood and offal taken to the rendering-tanks slaughter-houses within their district, the proand driers by means of elevators. The sheep slaughter-houses are similarly arranged Act, 1847, with respect to slaughter-houses

visions of the Towns Improvement Clauses with cool-room, slaughtering-place, &c.

The rendering-house, which forms the centre of are incorporated with the Public Health Act. the whole group of the abattoir, is 200 feet by 80 feet, But the rights, powers, and privileges of any and four stories high, including a brick basement, persons under any local Act passed before the which has a concrete floor like the basements of the

Public Health Act, 1848, with regard to the slaughter-houses. The accompanying section draw; working, &c., of slaughter-houses, are not to ings (fig. 97) show the rendering-tanks in the third

be affected.—(P. H., s. 169.) story suspended from the fourth floor. These tanks open at the top, on the level of the floor of the fourth

The owner or occupier of any slaughterstory, where the offal is emptied into them from the house licensed or registered under the Public small "tanks on wheels" coming from the slaughter- Health Act, must within one month after the houses.

licensing or registration of the premises, affix,

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Fig. 97.

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and keep undefaced and legible on some con- Putting, then, on one side, the question of spicuous place on the premises, a notice with pouring slops into watercourses and canals, the words “Licensed slaughter-house," or there are several ways of dealing with them. " Registered slaughter-house,” as the case (1) In places where there is a system of promay be.

perly-flushed sewers, the slops are naturally Any person who makes default in this re- thrown into the drains and go with the sewage; spect, or neglects or refuses to affix or renew but where there is a dry system of disposal, such notice after requisition in writing from and no drains, this cannot be done, and other the urban authority, is liable to a penalty not means must be adopted, one of the best of exceeding five pounds for every such offence, which is (2) to have a Roger Field's tank (see and of ten shillings for every day during which SEWAGE, Tanks, &c.) and pipes leading from such offence continues after conviction.-(P. thence into a field, beneath the soil. But this H., s. 170.)

of course can only be done under certain cirThere are special Acts applying to the cumstances, for there are cases in which both of metropolis with regard to the slaughtering of the foregoing remedies are impossible: in such cattle. New slaughter-houses cannot be estab- cases, either (3) a properly-constructed tank lished without the sanction of the local autho- must be made, or some simple apparatus conrity; they are to be regulated by bylaws, and structed, like Dr. Bond's slop-tub, and the to be duly licensed (37 & 38 Vict. c. 37, &c.) slops deodorised. See Food, MEAT, &c.

Dr. Bond's slop-tub is a common wooden

barrel of from 40 to 60 gallong capacity. On Slops-By slop-water is usually meant the top of the barrel is a loose metallic sieve the ordinary liquid refuse of a household, to prevent superfluous solids—such as scrubexcluding fæcal matter. Ordinarily speaking, bing-brushes, potato-peelings, &c.- from findit is composed of urine, soapy matters, fatty ing their way into the barrel. At the bottom substances, and various organic matters in of the sieve is a conical receiver for collecting suspension and solution : it is indeed un- the precipitate, with a vent-hole for running doubted sewage, but although it is actually sew- it off. A floating strainer attached to an age, there appears a doubt whether in a legal indiarubber tube, which communicates with sense it comes under that name; for the legal a tap placed at the lower portion of the barrel, advisers of the Local Government Board, bas- completes the apparatus. To use it, some dising their opinion upon the case of Kindersley, infectant-such as a mixture of ferrous and V. C., in Sutton v. Mayor of Norwich, 31 L. T. aluminic sulphates—is added from time to 380, state that “it appears to them that mere time, and the tub allowed to get full. When slop-water, without fæcal matter, is not sew

full it must stand a little time, and then a age within the strict meaning of that term.” perfectly clear liquid can be drawn off, leav-(Letter from the Local Government Board | ing a fatty sediment, which if mixed with to Dr. Cornelius Fox, Public Health, No. 28, meal is said to be a good food for pigs. Dr. vol. ii.)

Bond, however, very wisely does not recomThe letter even goes the length of stating mend urine to be mixed with ordinary slops, that the Local Government Board would not but treated separately, or, after being first consider “it illegal under ordinary circum- acidified, thrown into some suitable place. stances to convey slop - water into a canal It is difficult to imagine places so situated communicating with a river, or with the sea,

as not to allow one of the three methods of if the volume of the slop-water is but small slop disposal given to be adopted. as compared with that of the water in the canal ;” and further, that “it might not be Smallpox (Variola)-Smallpox is an inillegal to convey the slop-water, whether de- fectious fever, attended with a marked and odorised or not, into a watercourse, but in peculiar eruption. such a case there might be a breach of private History.-Without doubt, smallpox is one of rights.”(Op. cit.)

the most ancient, as it is one of the most frightThere can be little doubt that to act upon ful diseases which ever afflicted humanity. this opinion would cause great danger to the Ancient Chinese and Brahmin manuscripts public health, for allowing that it is possible 3366 years old are said to refer distinctly to to be sure that the slop-water contains no epidemics of smallpox. The Chinese call fæcal matter, there is no evidence to show but it the “bean disease,” and trace it to the that the urine may propagate disease—e.g., | reign of the first emperor of the (Eastern) every person suffering from scarlet fever casts Han dynasty, Kwang Wu, who reigned off from his kidneys thousands of epithelial A.D. 25-28. It is said to have been imported cells, which in all human probability are cap- from some portion of Central Asia, or able of conveying contagion.

from some part of South-Western China, by some Chinese troops returning from a foreign At the same time it must be remembered campaign.

that inoculation propagated smallpos, and The earliest Chinese work on smallpox is a that many instances occurred in which the treatise called “ Wan-jin-shi-tau-chin-lun," natural disease was caught by contact from published in 1323, from which it appears that an inoculated person, that inoculation was far they have practised inoculation more than a from being altogether safe, and that disfigurethousand years.

ment and blindness often came from inoculaAllowing that it entered Europe from the tion as well as from the ordinary kind. It East, the exact date of its introduction is must also be observed that during the whole unknown, but it is certain that the Arabian eighty years 1721–1802, fatal epidemies of army was attacked by it at the siege of Mecca smallpox were very frequent, the London in A.D. 569, and that in 570 it was both in Bills of Mortality showing 9827 deaths from France and Italy. In the eighth century all this cause alone during the last five years of Europe was infected with it, the virus having the eighteenth century. been in many instances disseminated by the In 1801 Dr. Jenner's discovery of the proSaracens; and in the same century it was phylactic properties of vaccination (see Vacprobably introduced into England, where it CINATION) began to be widely known (Facci: soon became naturalised.

nation was actually introduced in 1797, and The history of smallpox in England natu- Jenner published the results of bis experirally divides itself into three parts-viz., the ments in 1798), but it was not practised to first period, from the eleventh 'and twelfth anything like a general extent for a few years. centuries to 1721, in which period it was The actual numbers of the vaccinated in 1&1 altogether unchecked; the second epoch, are said to have been about 6000; but its from 1721 to 1802, during which it was pal. marvellous power was soon felt, and is imliated by inoculation ; and the last, from 1802 perishable in the records of humanity. Dividup to the present time, during which it has ing the last forty unvaccinated Fears of been partly prevented by vaccination. The the eighteenth century into four decades, first period was one of the utmost severity; and taking six decades of the vaccinate? it raged from time to time throughout England nineteenth century, up to 1860, by calculatin a horrible manner, the most fatal of all ing out the ratio of deaths from smallpos contagious disorders. Sir Gilbert Blane esti- to deaths from all causes, we get the fol. mated that smallpox destroyed a hundred for lowing remarkable series: For the four unevery one that perished by the plague ; and vaccinated decades, 108, 98, 87, 88; for Dr. Black estimated the annual mortality the six vaccinated decades, 64, 42, 32, 23, from smallpox during this period, in Europe, 16, 11. to be 494,000.

These figures alone show what vaccination In the second period, inoculation was intro- can do. That vaccination properly carried out duced from Constantinople by Lady Wortley all over the world would actually extinguish Mon ague (1721). This operation bad, as we the disease there can be little doubt; bat on have mentioned, been practised from a very the other hand, that vaccination sloveniy remote period by the Chinese, who inserted performed (and that only once) imperfectly a smallpox crust or scab in the nose. It had protects a nation, is proved by the recent epialso been practised one hundred years before demic, lasting no less than a year and a half, this date in Wales, the method there being which has swept over our own isles, Europe, known as that of "buying the smallpox." and America. The effect of inoculation was to induce a

The following figures are compiled by Dr. milder disease, the mortality from natural Farr from the Bills of Mortality, and show smallpox in those times being one in five; in the same fact in a somewhat different war. inoculated smallpox, first one in fifty, and The figures relate to London alone, and are then when greater care was taken and more

ratios of average annual deaths from smallskilful operators possible, one in five hundred. pox and from all causes to 100,000 of the Its value as a sanitary measure in those times population in six groups of years :was great, and this Dr. Guy proves by taking the ratios of deaths reduced to the common

Smallpok All Cakes standard of a million for three decades-one

1629-35

180

417 ending 1719, in which no inoculation was practised ; a second decade ending 1749, of

1801-10 partial inoculation ; a third ending 1799, of general inoculation. For the first the figures are 31,416; for the second, 28,282; and for the The following table is still more ennet, as third, 22,863.

registration commenced in 1838:

Years.

1660-79
1728-57
1771-80

496
509

1831-35

83

Year.

Deaths from

634

1840 1841 1842

1944 1845 1846

43
12
43

21

48

1854

1858 1859

6 9 42 32 8

Periods.

Average Annual

Denths per Deaths.

2

1862 1863

1867

9

869 1870

Deaths per 100,000 living. I 7876; Portsmouth, 39; Norwich, 245; Bris

Sinallpos, Smallpox. All Causes. tol, 45; Wolverhampton, 284 ; Birmingham, 1838

3517 208 2876 1839

34 2428

61; Leicester, 11; Nottingham, 144; Liver1235

65 2498 pool, 1919; Manchester, 267 ; Salford, 227 ; 1053 54 2404

Bradford, 5; Leeds, 43; Sheffield, 406; Hull, 360

18 2352 1843

438

22 24.6 57 ; Sunderland, 850; Newcastle-on-Tyne, 695. 1804 87 2500

This epidemic has been cited by the anti909

2319

vaccinators as an argument on their side; 257

2330 1847 955

2695 yet the following table, showing the duration 1848

1617

72 2582 and the absolute and relative fatality of the 1849

518

23 3014 1850 498

2104

smallpox epidemics which prevailed in London 1851

1066

45 2338 since the Registration Act came into opera1852 1166

2261

tion, proves that smallpox has prevailed 1833 217

2441
676
27 2943

epidemically in twenty-one and a half years 1855 1024 40 2431

only, or 61 per cent., of the whole thirty-five, 1856

522
26 2209

1837-71-a striking difference when compared 1857 154

2241 247

2390

with the former tables :-
1156
2269

Duration of
1860
877
2249

Total

Epidemic. 1861 215 2318

Years.

100,000 living. 345 12 2356 1837-39

5061 138 2012 69 2447 1840-41

65

11 2220 1884

537
18 2653
1844-45

2531

80 1865

22

1847-49

2456 646

2

56

2831 1866

1388
46 2648

1850-52

2
2349

49
1854-56
1332

43
2301

2148

31 1868

19

1858-60

2
606
2360

2077

98 273

1862-68 2463

57 6574

38 1870-71 958 30 2412

8617 176 1871

7876
242 2465

Nature of Smallpox.-- The disease is essentiAlthough this table terminates with the ally an infectious one. The contagion is conenormous mortality of over 7000, yet it shows veyed in minute particles of living matter very conclusively that vaccination prevented taken from a pustule. If this substance is smallpox from making any great ravages- inserted into the skin, or breathed so as to until, in fact, immunity produced careless- enter the circulation of an unprotected subDess, and, practically speaking, vaccination ject, this living matter, which may be so came to be but imperfectly performed in the minute as scarcely to be seen with the naked first instance, while secondary vaccination eye, divides and multiplies within the body, was entirely omitted. The scarred and and shows its effects by high fever, followed seamed faces, the blind and deaf, had faded by the breaking forth, the erupting, of little from the memory of the present generation; pimples, each of a peculiar oval shape, with a the effects of the disease before Jenner's dis- central depression. If these pimples are soli. covery only lived in history, in prints, cari. tary, each with a space around it, it is called catures, and lampoons. Many an old country discrete ; if the pustules are so thick that surgeon had scarcely seen half-a-dozen cases they stand close together so that there is no of smallpox in his life, and those of a mild space between, and they appear to, and and discrete type, when suddenly in the actually do, run into one another, it is then latter part of 1870 smallpox began to increase, called confluent. and in the years 1871 and 1872 attained most General Course of the Discase.—Whether alarming proportions. There was not a town the smallpox be distinct or confluent, inof any size in all England which did not oculated or natural, its course may be divided suffer; nor was it confined to this country. into-(1) the period of incubation ; (2) the It raged in Paris, Vienna, Holland, America, febrile stage; (3) the exudative stage ; (4) and other places. But 'in all countries, and the suppurative stage. The first and second in all places, observant men noticed that the periods are probably non-infectious, the third thoroughly vaccinated took the disease lightly and fourth are most certainly infectious. or not at all, while the worst and most fatal The periods of incubation of all zymotic discases were those on whose arms the autograph eases have a practical sanitary importance, of Jenner was absent. The maximum mor- especially as regards quarantine, isolation, &c. tality in London was attained in May 1871, This period in ordinary smallpox is between and it then gradually declined and faded thirteen and fourteen days, so that persons away towards the middle of the year 1872. coming from an infected district cannot be

The deaths from smallpox in the principal pronounced safe until about eighteen days large cities in 1871 were as follows: Londuit, I have elapsed. On the other hand, in the

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