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104 0-22 2.72 0:44

Seeds

0:38 1:44 1.16

Pectose

85'14

Fine--rather

large.

Small. 2.736

0.898
0.832

1603 0-411 1

Pectous substances

In appeals against rates, the court has the Composition of Apples (FRESENIUS). same power of amending or quashing a rate Soluble Matterof assessment, and of awarding costs, as a

Sugar

7.58

Free acid (reduced to equivalent in malic court of Quarter Sessions has in appeals

acid) against poor-rates, and the costs may be re- Albuminous substance covered in the same manner: provided that,

Pectous substances, &c.

Ash potwithstanding the quashing of any rate Insoluble Matter appealed against, all moneys charged by such rate shall, if the court of appeal think fit so Skins to order, be levied as if no appeal had been

[Ash from insoluble matter included in made, and such moneys, when paid, shall be weights giren]

[013] taken as payment on account of the next

Water effective rate for the purposes in respect of

100.00 which the quashed rate was made. In the case of other appeals the court of

Appointment of Inspectors of Nui. appeal may adjourn the appeal, and on the

sances-See INSPECTORS OF NUISANCES. hearing thereof may confirm, reverse, or Appointment of Medical Officers of modify the decision of the court of summary Health-See MEDICAL OFFICERS OF HEALTH. jurisdiction, or remit the matter to the court of summary jurisdiction with the opinion of is a native of Armenia, and was introduced

Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca)-This fruit the court of appeal thereon, or make such into England in the time of Henry the Eighth. other order in the matter as the court thinks from the bitter kernels of the apricot, eau de just. The court of appeal may also make such order as to costs to be paid by either

noyaux is distilled. party as the court thinks just.

Composition of Apricots (FRESENIUS). The decision of the court of appeal shall be Soluble Matterbinding on all parties : provided that the

Sugar

1.140 court of appeal may, if such court thinks fit, Free acid (reduced to equivain the case of an appeal against the decision lent of malic acid) of a court of summary jurisdiction under the

Albuminous substances

5.929 5 562 provisions of P. H. relating to nuisances,

Ash.

0.723 state the facts specially for the determination Insoluble

Matierof the Court of Queen's Bench, in which case Seeds it shall be lawful to remove the proceed

Skins, &c.

0.967 1.248

0.148 0.750 ings by writ of certiorari or otherwise

[Ash from insoluble matter into the Court of Queen's Bench (P. H., included in weights given]. [0.071] [0 060) s. 269).

If any person feel himself aggrieved by the Arbitration-The matters directed by decision of a local authority in respect to the the Public Health Act, 1875, to be settled by summary recovery of expenses or in the de- arbitration areclaring of expenses as private improvement 1. Disputes between persons and the local expenses, he may, on giving notice, memo- authority in regard to amount of compensation rialise the Local Government Board, and the in case of damage done by the local authority order the Board makes is binding (P. H., by reason of the exercise of any of the powers s. 268).

of the Act. An owner or ratepayer disputing the vali- 2. Terms upon which water companies ought dity of a vote of owners and ratepayers, de- to furnish a proper and sufficient supply of claring that it is expedient a district should water for all reasonable purposes for which it be made a local government district, may is required. appeal within six weeks from the declaration 3. Whether the water which any company of the decision of the meeting to the Local is able and willing to supply is proper and Government Board, who may make, after sufficient for the purposes for which it is local inquiry, such order as is necessary (P. required. H., s. 274).

4. Whether the purposes for which it is re

quired are reasonable. Apples-Natural order Pomacec.

5. Disputes between local authorities as to Apples are of small nutritive value, contain the supply of water, in the case of an authoing not more than 13 per cent. of solid matter, rity supplying water to a neighbouring district. and this is of no more value than so much rice; 6. Disputes as to the amount of compensabut they have an agreeable flavour, and are tion to be paid by an urban authority, to the useful for their antiscorbutic properties. owner or other person interested, in the case

0.820

4-300

3-415

Pectose

Water

84.966

83 552

of houses or buildings which have been put made under the common seal on behalf of the backward or forward in order to regulate the local authority, and on behalf of any other line of buildings in the street.

party under his hand, or if such party be a 7. Disputes as to whether matters or things corporation, under their common seal. proposed to be done, injure or interfere with There are certain provisions in case of the canals, rivers, &c. See CANALS.

death of an arbitrator. 8. Differences of opinion with respect to the The time for making an award must not efficiency of substituted sewers, and with re- exceed three months. gard to the consequences resulting from inter- When there is more than one arbitrator, ferences with water rights.

they must appoint by writing under their 9. Terms on which sewers may be used by hands an umpire. If the umpire dies pending persons outside the district.

the arbitration, another must be appointed in 10. Disputes between the Universities of Ox- his stead. If the arbitrators neglect or refuse ford and Cambridge, and the urban authority to appoint an umpire within seven days when of those places respectively, as to the propor- requested to do so, the Quarter Sessions may tion and manner in which they shall contribute on application appoint one. towards any expenses under the Act.

Before any arbitrator or umpire can enter 11. By the 34 & 35 Vict. c. 41, s. 27, differ- upon any reference, he must make and subences relating to the supply of gas may be scribe the following declaration before a jussettled by arbitration. Amounts under £20 tice of the peace :may be settled in a court of summary juris- I, A. B., do solemnly and sincerely declare that diction. The court may invoke the advice I will faithfully and honestly, and to the best of my of a competent surveyor (not being the sur- skill and ability, hear and determine the matters veyor of the sanitary authority), and make referred to me under the Public Health Act, 1875. what order it thinks fit as to costs.

This declaration is to be annexed to the All questions referred to arbitration under award when made, and any arbitrator or um. the Public Health Act, when the amount in pire wilfully acting contrary to it is guilty of dispute is less than £20, may at the option of a misdemeanour. The arbitrators must be either party be determined before a court of unbiassed, and have no direct personal interest summary jurisdiction, which court may, if it in the matter, however remote. The decision thinks fit, require the aid and report of a com

of the arbitrator is binding (P. H., s. 179-181). petent surveyor on works, &c., in dispute, and

Areas, Sanitary - See SANITARY Disthe court may determine the amount of costs

TRICTS. incurred in that behalf, and by whom they are to be paid (P. H., s. 181).

Areometer-An instrument to take the

specific gravity of liquids. It is, however, Arbitrators-The word “arbitrators,” seldom exactly accurate, and there are other under the Public Health Act, 1875, includes methods which give better results. In this a single arbitrator; and the words “arbitra- country, the word is principally applied to the tors” and “arbitrator” include an umpire. areometers of Baumé, which are in general use The appointment of an arbitrator must be on the Continent, and are fairly accurate.

AREOMETER FOR LIQUIDS HEAVIER THAN WATER, Pèse-acide or Pèse-sirop.

[blocks in formation]

1.0000
1.0066
1.0133
1.0201
1.0270
1.0340
1.0411
1.0483
1.0556
1:0630
1.0704
1.0780
1.0857
1.0935
1.1014
1.1095

7 8

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

1.1176
1:1259
1.1343
1.1428
1.1515
1.1603
1:1692
1:1783
1.1875
1.1968
1.2063
1.2160
1.2258
1.2358
1.2459
1.2562

1.2667 1.2773 1.2881 1.2992 1.3103 1.3217 1.3333 1.3451 1.3571 1.3694 1:3818 1.3945 1.4074 1.4206 1.4339

1.4476
1:4615
1.4758
1:4902
1.5051
1:5200
1.5353
1.5510
1.5671
1.5833
1.6000
1.6170
1.6344
1.6522
1.6705

1-6889 1.7079 1.7273 17471 17674 1:7882 1.8095 1.8313 1.8537 1.8765 1.9000 1.9241 1.9487 1.9740 2.0000

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

10 11 12 13 14 15

40 41 42 43 44 45 46

27 28 29 30 31

56 57 58 59 60 61

CORRESPONDING SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AND DEGREES OF BAUMÉ'S AREOMETER FOR HEAVY LIQUIDS.

From the Batavian Pharmacopæia.

[blocks in formation]

CORRESPONDING DEGREES OF BAUMÉ'S AREOMETERS AND REAL SPECIFIC GRAVITIES.

Areometer for Liquids lighter than Water or Pèse-esprit. *

[blocks in formation]

These instruments are in France adjusted at 15° Cent., or 59° Fahr. ; those in England at 60° Fahr. Armenian Bole-See BOLE.

slight tinge similar to that of old hollands. Army, Hygiène of — See HYGIÈNE, The inferior qualities are more heating and MILITARY.

apt to disagree with the stomach than the

other commercial spirits. It is used in this Arrack-The ordinary arrack is a spirit country chiefly to make punch. See ALCOHOL distilled from fermented rice, but the finer and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. qualities are distilled from the fermented

Arrowroot-See STARCH. juice (toddy-palm wine) of the cocoanut-tree, palmyra-tree, and other palms. Batavian, Arsenic, or Arsenicum, was known in Madras, and China artack are the three vari- various stages of combination to mankind eties most esteemed. The pariah arrack is before the Christian era. This element pregenerally narcotic, very intoxicating, and un- sents many analogies with phosphorus and wholesome. It is often prepared from coarse with nitrogen, and several French writers jaggery, spoilt toddy, refuse rice, &c., and consider it as belonging to the non-metallic rendered more intoxicating by the addition of elements, notwithstanding that it conducts hemp leaves, poppy heads, juice of stramonium, electricity with facility, and possesses a high and other substances. The Hindoos, Malays, metallic lustre. It generally presents itself &c., take arrack largely. Arrack, like other as an alloy with some other metal, especially spirits, is colourless, or nearly so, but when with iron, or with cobalt, nickel, copper, or kept long in wood it gradually acquires a tin. Occasionally it is found in its native state, and it sometimes occurs united with The details of the operations are thus given oxygen and certain metals, constituting arseni- by Dr. Vernois :ates such as those of iron, copper, and lead.

These greens are formed either from arsenite of More rarely it is found united with sulphur, copper alone, or mixed in variable proportions with either as the red sulphide (As,S,) realgar, or acetate of copper (English green). Arsenical greens as the yellow sesquisulphide (As,S3) known are employed to colour different herbs, to tint the as orpiment. Th arsenic of commerce is fabric destined to prepare the leaves of artificial usually prepared from mispickel (FeAss), an

flowers, or they are painted directly on the leaves or arsenical sulphide of iron furnished abundantly petals of flowers worked on cloths of various texture.

For these various uses they buy the Schweinfurt or by Silesian mines ; and from the arsenides

the English green (vert Anglais), either in powder of nickel and cobalt, which yield arsenious

or in aqueous solution, and add to it, according to sesquioxide as a secondary product in the ordi. the effect desired, a certain quantity of Flanders nary process of working these ores.

glue, starch, gum, honey, or turpentine. Sometimes Arsenic, Effects of.--Arsenical vapour or

it is applied in the dry state, in order to sprinkle it dust diffused, in certain arts, through the

over the things already coloured by the arsenical atmosphere, seldom fails to exercise an in- green. They frequently also, in order to modify the

colour, mix with it a certain quantity of chromate of jurious influence on the health. Recent acci

lead or picric acid. dents observed to follow the employment of The preparation of herbs is carried on as follows : arsenical greens in the manufacture of leaves The workman plunges into a shallow vessel, containand artificial flowers, and of certain fabrics, ing a sufficiently liquid solution of Schweinfurt green, may now be added to facts formerly ascer- one or several stalks of natural plants, perfectly tained amongst workmen in painted paper.

dried, and agitates them quickly, seizing them by Dr. Blandet, in a memoir

on “Poisoning” their roots by a pair of forceps. This is the steeping.

This operation stains the fingers, the arms, the perby Schweinfurt green, showed that the work

son, and the clothes of the workman, and the sur. men employed in printing, brushing, and glaz- rounding objects are covered with traces of this kind ing the paper are subject to a kind of arsenical of paint. The plants thus prepared are hung on a poisoning, which causes an oedema of the line, and there allowed to dry for thirty-four or fortyscrotum, preceded by swelling of the face and eight hours. At the end of that, all the stalks are a papulose or pustulous eruption on the skin. gathered and formed into bundles, which are used Similar symptoms have been noticed from finally for bouquets. Often enough, to satisfy some

freak of fashion, they are sprinkled with powdered the use of an arsenical paste in the manufac

arsenite of copper. This is the powdering. The ture of jewellery.

bouquet-work constitutes one of the principal dan. These observations have been questioned by gers; for the colouring-matter not having been fixed MM. Guérard and Chevallier. They conclude by any mordant, detaches itself in the form of a that the manufacturers are not agreed upon the

fine dust, which penetrates the skin of the hands,

and which the workman breathes constantly. This influence of Schweinfurt green on the work

danger is still more increased when he handles the men, that some have observed the symptoms, bouquets covered with arsenical powder. At other and others have only heard of them; that ac

times, however, in the manufacture of the plants, the cording to some, the injurious consequences are Schweinfurt green is diluted with a sufficient quanto be attributed faulty manufacture of the tity of turpentine. In this way the colour takes a green; according to others, to differences in the smooth appearance, not altered by contact with constitution of the workmen, and that the water, and does not escape immediately in the form effects of the green have been exaggerated.

of powder by gentle handling; but when it is These objections have, however, now been dis- thoroughly dry it falls to the ground in little flakes,

and may again rise in the air with ordinary dust. proved by a number of independent observers

Thus the danger is modified, a little retarded, but who corroborate Dr. Blandet, e.g., MM. always exists. There are then in this specialty of Beaugraud, Vernois, and Pietra-Santa, more the florist the operations of steeping, drying, pow. especially in the case of artificial flower- dering, and arranging the flowers for bouquets

, workers.

which, in their detail, place the workman or the In France, all manufacturers who, even in- purchaser under the more or less direct, and more or

less active, influence of arsenical salt. This partivoluntarily, are the cause of such accidents,

cular industry is exercised under conditions which are severely corrected by the law. Why it is render it still more injurious ; for it is freely pracconsidered of so much importance in France tised by a number of poor workpeople, by housemay be readily understood, if the number of holds living in one or two rooms, ill-ventilated, illworkpeople employed at Paris in the manu. lighted, and which they never sweep, and of which the facture of artificial flowers be considered : floor, like the furniture, and like the clothing of the they amount to more than 15,000, a quarter and covered with arsenical dust. The preparers of

workpeople, is continually impregnated by pigment, at least of whom are employed in fabrics in

the cloth destined for the manufacture of the artifi. which Schweinfurt green is used, and a great cial leaves by the aid of arsenical greens, comprehend number of them work in small, ill-furnished the portion of the work most exposed to deleterious and ill-ventilated rooms.

action. They use arsenite of copper alone, mixed prin.

cipally with starch, and in rare instances associated strument. Repeated blows of this instrument dewith acetate of copper in variable proportions. Some tach the paste in scales, and cover with dust the ose enblée, a mixture of picric acid and of greenish fingers and person of the workman, A series of indigo, in which they steep their stuffs. Other small packets are taken from the stamping-press, manufacturers use fabrics prepared with hot solu- which contain, strongly pressed together, from twelve tions by ordinary dyers. According to the hue which to twenty-four leaves. They are passed on to another the Schweinfurt dyer wish to obtain, the workman workman who is charged with the folding. This commences by giving the stuff a yellow shade, by operation is performed by holding the little bundle planging it into a solution of picric acid and pure of leaves between the thumb and index-finger of the alcohol. He squeezes it between his fingers, in left hand. The thumb of the right hand presses the order to completely impregnate it, and dries it. It edges quickly and sharply so as to separate leaves is this preliminary operation which stains the work- one from another, as you separate the leaves of a man's fingers Fellow. Frequently the latter mixes book recently bound. During this process still more the picric acid by grinding it with the Schweinfurt dust escapes. Then comes the figuring, which, by green, and applies this paste immediately to the reason of successive blows applied to each leaf, fabric. The paste is prepared by kneading the covers the body of the operator with the same pulSchweinfurt green, already treated with water, with verulent material. Fixing a wire to the leaves at a solution of starch, thick enough, yet sufficiently their lowest part by the aid of gum follows that operliquid to be easily spread on the cloth. During this ation, Then the leaves are arranged together in Forking up the paste, the fingers, arms, and hands dozens, and passed to the bouquet manufacturers, of the workman are covered with arsenical solution. who mount them. From thence they go to the This being ready, the workman lays out his stuff, milliners, who adapt them to different articles of distributes the paste over it, then beats it between dress, and sell them to the public. Through all this his hands, in order to make the colouring-matter series of transformations there is the same maniputhoroughly penetrate the cloth. The longer it is lations, the same production of dust, the same action beaten, the better is the quality of the article. Dur. on the skin and mucous membranes, only in a ing this operation the skin of the hands and arms is decreasing degree, from the first preparer to the completely impregnated with the solution. Some- milliner. There is, however, a process of preparing times the cloth, having been touched here and there the cloth which diminishes notably the severity and with arsenical paste, is attached to a hook in the frequency of the evils of the Schweinfurt green. It Fall, and twisted different ways-wrung, as it were. is that which immediately after the drying of the In this way a very uniform colouring is obtained. stuffs submits them at once to the “Calendrage." This process is as bad to the workman as the former, This operation causes the arsenical paste to penetrate Lastly, a process, which is generally practised, consists mechanically into the fibres of the stuff, and gives in placing the fabric, stained or not with picric acid, it a smooth and glazed aspect which only permits on a wooden table, and distributing on both sides the imperfectly the production of the arsenical dust. arsenical preparation with a brush, and then beating This process renders the successive workings of this the stuff with a thick rubber. In this way the hands cloth less injurious, but it would be an error to conapdarms of the workman are much less exposed to the sider it as inoffensive. During the action of the faste than in the preceding processes. After the press, and especially during the separating and brushing and beating of the fabric, comes the figuring of the flowers, a notable quantity of the drying, and this is the operation to which I wish toxic dust is still produced. However well prepared to call attention, Once impregnated with the green the fabric may be, you have only to tear it to detach colour by whatever process, the pieces, in squares of the coating under the form of a palpable powder, about 1 metre 50 cent., are hung on wooden frames It is only necessary to add that the waxing of the furnished with teeth, on which the borders of the leaves, after they have been separated and figured, cloth are transfixed. During this simple operation, and before putting them into bouquets, constitutes the workmen stain themselves much. When the a protecting envelope against the effects of the stuffs are detached from the squares, they are folded; powdered coating for workmen who then handle and from every crease falls a fine dust, which may them, as well as for women who wear them; but then be carried into the mucous membranes. These this film of wax is only applied, comparatively vorkmen, then, are liable to all the accidents of the speaking, to a small number of leaves, for it alters manufacturers of flowers, especially in the operations the green and vivacity of its colour. of kneading the paste, or during the beating, brush

The poisonous symptoms of arsenic proing, drying, and folding of the cloths. From the

duced by these different trades, &c., are hands of the fabricator the fabrics are very often immediately consigned to the manufacturers of

loss of appetite, pain in the præcordia, disartificial flowers, who press them, figure them (that turbance of the bowels, constant headache, is to say, make the nerves), and arm them with a and a distressing oppression. The muscular Fire, and mount them with flowers. It may be at force, especially of the extremities, is much once understood how much all the manipulations weakened. This is a very constant and I have just mentioned are liable to develop the characteristic sign. Actual paralysis may arsenical dust. The paste has not been fixed on the indeed occur, and persist long after the indistuffs by any mordant; the starch with which it is mixed has given it a very brittle consistence, and

vidual has ceased to be exposed to the arsenihas predisposed it to be easily detached from the cal poisoning. The eyelids are red and cloth. The stamping is effected by putting a certain irritable, and vesicular and pustular erupnumber of folded pieces one above the other, and tions appear in several parts of the body. It submitting them to the pressure of a stamping in is especially on the face, forehead, scrotum,

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