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for 1 their laziness. An hour's attention to the same object is too laborious for them; they take every thing in the light in which it first presents itself, never consider it in all its different views,4 and, in short, never think it through. The consequence of this is, that when they come to speak upon these 6 subjects before people who have considered them with attention, they only discover their own? ignorance and laziness, and lay themselves open to answers 8 that put them in o confusion.—(CHESTERFIELD, Letters to his Son.)
ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.10
ENGLAND is the southern 11 and Scotland the northern part of the celebrated island called Great Britain. England is greatly larger than Scotland, and the land is 12 much richer, and produces better crops. There are also a great many more men in England, 13 and both the gentlemen and the country people are more wealthy, 15 and they have better food and clothing, than those in Scotland. 16
The towns, also, are 17 much more numerous, and more populous.
Scotland, on the contrary, is full of hills, and huge moors and wildernesses, 18 which bear no corn, and afford 1 afin de justifier.
10 As a rule, in French, the de? Ils envisagent chaque chose du finite article is used before names seul point de vue ou.
of countries.—However, when en 3 See p. 254, n. ; and p. 19, n. 5. ('in,' 'to') precedes the name of a 4 sous ses différents aspects. country, the article is never used;
en un mot, ils ne voient le fond and when de ('from,' 'of') prede rien (or, n'examinent rien à cedes, it is sometimes used and fond-or, n'approfondissent rien). sometimes not.
6 Il s'ensuit naturellement que, 11 la partie méridionale. lorsqu'ils abordent de tels.
12 le sol en est. 7'ils dévoilent leur (see page 8, 13 Les hommes y sont aussi en note ?).
bien plus grand nombre. 8 s'exposent à des réponses. Re- 14 et les gens de la ville, comme member the rule, which requires ceux de la campagne, the partitive article (du, de la, des, y jouissent de plus d'aisance. some,' or 'any') to be always que dans notre Écosse. expressed, in French, before a sub
sont, stantive taken in a partitive sense. 18 wildernesses,' déserts stériles.
i qui les couvrent de.
but little food for flocks of sheep or herds of cattle. But the level ground that lies along? the great rivers is more fertile, and produces good crops. The natives of Scotland 3 are accustomed to live more hardily in general than those of England. The cities and towns are fewer, 4 smaller, and less full of inhabitants 5 than in England. But, as Scotland possesses great quarries of stone, the towns are commonly built of that material, which is 7 more lasting, and has a grander effect to the eye, than the bricks used in England.
Now, as these two nations live in the different ends 10 of the same island, and are 11 separated by large and stormy seas from all other parts of the world,12 it seems natural that they should have been 13 friendly to each other, 14 and that they should have lived 15 as one people under the same government. Accordingly, about two hundred years ago, 16 the king of Scotland becoming king of England, the two nations have ever since been joined in one great 17 kingdom, which is called Great Britain.(WALTER Scott, Tales of a Grandfather.)
1 et ou les bestiaux trouvent à The ellipsis of comme ('as'), quand peine de quoi se nourrir.
('when'), si (“if'), &c., is not al2 les terres basses qui avoisinent. lowed before the subsequent mem3 Les habitants (or, natifs) de ber of the sentence, if a noun or a l'Ecosse ;-natifs is said of all na- pronoun is used with the verb ; tives whatever, and naturels of but, instead of repeating these adthose that do not belong to Euro- verbs and conjunction, we generally pean countries.
use que to supply their place. 4 Les villes y sont moins nom- 12 To avoid ambiguity in French, breuses (or, en moins grand nombre); invert here the order of these two -moins (“less,' and also 'fewer') regimens, thus :— . . . 'from all,' could not be used here thus alone : &c., . by large,' &c. but we could say, 'fewer towns,' 13 il semblait naturel qu'elles moins de villes.
fussent. et d'une population moindre. 14 See p. 10, n. 9.—'to,' de. 6 carrières.
15 vécussent. ? bâties en pierre, cette espèce de
16 il y a environ deux cents ans. matériaux étant. The substantive Cent takes s when multiplied by matériaux has no singular.
another number and not followed et faisant plus d'effet.
by another numeral. 9 dont on se sert.
17 ever since, depuis lors.10 aux deux bouts.—' live;' see have been joined,' &c.; n'ont plus page 142, note 14
formé qu'un seul. et qu'elles sont; or, et sont.—
THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
The British Empire, exclusive of its foreign dependencies, consists of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the smaller islands contiguous and subordinate to them.3 Great Britain, the largest, and by far 4 the most important of the British islands, is divided into 5 the kingdoms of England and Scotland; the former occupying its southern, most fruitful, and extensive, and the latter its 7 northern, more barren, and smaller portion. After the withdrawal of the Romans 8 from Great Britain, these two divisions became separate and independent states, between which the most violent animosities frequently subsisted. In consequence of the marriage of Margaret, daughter of Henry VII. of England, to 'James IV., king of Scotland, in 1502, James VI., king of Scotland, ascended the English throne upon 10 the demise of Queen 11 Elizabeth in 1604. But, notwithstanding this union of the crowns, the two kingdoms had 12 distinct and independent legislatures till 1707, when,1under the auspices of Queen Anne, a legislative union of England and Scotland was completed. 15 In many respects, however, the institutions
non compris ses colonies. also the agreement (in gender and 2 se compose.
number) of the participle past, in 3 iles qui y sont contiguës et en those verbs. dépendent. * de beaucoup
10 monta sur le trône d'Anglecomprend. 6 le premier de ces royaumes en 11 See page 4, note 1. occupe la partie méridionale, qui 12 eurent, not avaient, this fact est la plus fertile et la plus étendue. being only as one point in history, When speaking of things, not of and having happened at a definite persons, the French often use the period. See page 1, note 6. personal pronoun en (of it,' 'of 13 où; or, époque à laquelle. The them') and the definite article, in- French do not use quand for stead of the possessive pronouns when' in the sense of at which son, sa, ses, leur, leurs.
time,' but only in that of at what 7 la; en is no longer to be ex- time?' (interrog.) and at the time pressed here, but must be under that.' You will always have, therestood elliptically, together with fore, in such a case as this, to use the verb.
another turn, which may vary ac8 Après que les Romains se furent cording to the context. retirés (or, s'en furent allés). Ob
14 Use the.' We should say, serve that reflective verbs, in une union entre ...
...et ...; but, French, are conjugated in their l’union de ... avec ... compound tenses with être ; notice 15 s'effectua (page 8, note 15.)
of the two countries still continue peculiar. The common law ? and the judicial establishments of England differ much from those of Scotland; the prevailing religion and the church establishment 3 of the former are also materially different from those of the latter, and the manners and customs 4 of the two countries, though gradually assimilating, still preserve many distinguishing features. (J.R. M'Culloch, Statistical Account of the British Empire.)
DESCRIPTION OF ENGLAND.
Few countries exhibit a greater variety of surface than England, or have been more highly favoured by nature.
Although,” says Dr. Aikin, “its features are moulded on a comparatively minute scale,? they are marked with all the agreeable interchange 8 which constitutes picturesque beauty. In some parts,9 plains clothed in the richest verdure, watered by copious streams, and pasturing innumerable cattle, extend as far as the eye can reach :10 in others, 11 gently rising hills 12 and bending vales, fertile in corn, waving with woods, 13 and interspersed with flowery meadows, offer the most delightful landscapes of rural opulence and beauty.14 Some tracts furnish prospects of the more romantic and impressive kind; lofty mountains,
1 sont, de nos jours encore, pro- 6 See page 2, note 15. pres à chacun d'eux.
? Quoique les points de vue, dit 2 le droit coutumier. 'Law,' in ne s'y montrent relativement the sense of the Latin jus, is, in que dans de petites proportions. French, droit, while loi corresponds par toute cette succession agréto law' in the sense of the Latin able et alternative de sites variés. lex.
9 Ici. 3 l’Eglise (or, l'église établie). 10 jusqu'où la vue peut porter.
4 les moeurs et coutumes ; or, les We also say, tant (or, aussi loin) us ct coutumes.
que la vue peut s'étendre; but this 5 quoique se rapprochant (or, same verb, s'étendre, coming just more strictly according to gram- before, an awkward repetition must mar, but by no means elegantly be avoided. “Farther than the eye here, quoiqu'elles-els-se rappro- can reach,' would be a perte de vue. chent) graduellement. The adverb, in French, usually follows the verb, 12 des coteaux à pente douce. in a simple tense; in a compound
13 couverts de bois ondoyants (or, tense, it usually stands between ondulants). the auxiliary and the participle. 14 Bad.—'Some tracts,'Plus loin.
craggy rocks, deep dells, narrow ravines, and tumbling 1 torrents : nor are there wanting, as a contrast to those scenes in which every variety of nature is a different charm, the vicissitude of black barren 4 moors and wide inanimated heaths.” Such is 5 a vivid description of the general appearance of England. But the beauty and fertility of the country are not the only things to excite 6 admiration. The mildness of the climate, removed alike from the extremes of heat and cold; the multitude of rivers, their depth, and the facility they afford to internal navigation ; the vast beds of coal and other valuable minerals hid under the surface ;7 the abundance and excellence of the fish in the rivers and surrounding seas ; the extent of sea-coast ; the number, capaciousness, and safety of the ports and bays; and the favourable situation of the country for commerce ; give 8 England advantages that are not enjoyed in an equal degree by any other nation.9—(J. R. M'CULLOCH, Statistical Account of the British Empire.)
THE votaries of Mahomet are more assured than himself of his miraculous gifts, and their confidence and credulity increase as they are further removed 10 from the time and place 11 of his spiritual exploits. They believe or affirm that trees went forth to meet him ; 12 that he was saluted by stones; that water gushed from his fingers ; that he fed the hungry and the sick, and raised the dead ; 13 that a beam groaned to 14 him; that a camel complained to him ;15 1 rapides.
8 tout cela donne d. 3‘nor,' &c.; rien n'y manque, pas
9 dont nulle autre nation ne jouit même, comme pour faire contraste au même degré ; see p. 21, n. 6. (p. 29, n. 2) avec.—See p. 15, n. 2. 10 à mesure qu'ils s'éloignent. 3 l'aspect, tour à tour, de.
11 See page 8, note 1. 4 Put the two adjectives, in 12 allèrent à sa rencontre. French, after the substantive, with 13 qu'il procurait des subsistances, the conjunction et between both. guérissait les malades d'une manière o Voilà.
miraculeuse, et ressuscitait les morts. o qui excitent, or, propres à ex- poussa des gémissements deciter. que
le sol recèle dans son sein. 15 lui adressa plaintes ; or,