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that a shoulder of mutton informed him of its being 1 poisoned ; and both animate and inanimate nature 2 were equally subject to this apostle of God. His dream of a nocturnal journey is seriously described as a real and corporeal transaction. A mysterious animal, the Borak, conveyed him from the temple of Mecca 4 to that of Jerusalem ; with his companion Gabriel, he successively ascended the seven heavens, and received and repaid the salutations of the patriarchs, the prophets, and the angels, in their respective mansions. Beyond the seventh heaven, Mahomet alone was permitted to proceed ; 6 he passed the veil of unity, approached within two bow-shots 7 of the throne, and felt a cold that pierced him to the heart, 8 when his shoulder was touched by the hand of God. After a familiar, though important conversation, he again descended 9 to Jerusalem, remounted the Borak, returned to Mecca, and performed in the tenth part of a night the journey of many thousand years. 10—(GIBBON, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.) se plaignit à lui. I shall explain 5 demeures. - the patriarchs,' this latter construction farther on &c.; see page 8, note 1. (p. 260, n. 1; and p. 131, n. 17). 6 'Il eut seul la permission (or,

1 qu'elle était. This turn, viz., Il fut permis à M— seul) de s'avan'my, 'thy,' “his,' 'its,' &c., fol- cer au delà, &c. As permettre, like lowed by a present participle, is some other verbs, when active, does not French; see p. 14, n. 16. not admit, in French, of a noun of

2 Both, followed by 'and,' is person forits object (or accusative), usually rendered, in French, the it does not, for an obvious reason, same as in Latin, by et repeated ; admit of it either, when it is pasbut here, we should thus have et sive, for its subject (or nominative), occurring three times, and we and therefore we must use another must, therefore, leave 'both' out, turn. Ex.: 'you are allowed,' &c., and change a little the construc- on vous permet, &c.; or, il vous est tion accordingly,

permis, &c. (as in Latin, tibi percomme un événement réel,comme mitto, tibi permittitur). un acte corporel.

7 il se trouva à deux portées de 4 la Mecque. The definite article trait (or, d'arc). is used, exceptionally, before the jusqu'au coeur. names of some towns; as, le Havre, 9 il redescendit. le Mans (in France), le Caire (Cairo, 10 plusieurs milliers d'années in Egypt), &c.

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COLUMBUS AT BARCELONA.

THE letter of Columbus to the Spanish monarchs, announcing his discovery, had produced the greatest sensation at court. The event it communicated was considered the most extraordinary of their prosperous reign. The sovereigns themselves were 2 for a time dazzled and bewildered 3 by this sudden and easy acquisition of a new empire, of indefinite extent and apparently boundless wealth ; and their first idea was to secure it beyond the reach of question or competition. Shortly after his arrival in Seville, Columbus received a letter from them, expressing their great delight, and requesting him to repair immediately to court, to concert plans for a second and more extensive expedition. As the summer was already advancing, the time favourable for a voyage, they desired him? to make any arrangements at Seville, or elsewhere, that might hasten the expedition, and to inform them by the return of the courier what was necessary to be done on their part. This letter was addressed to him by the title of “Don 10 Christopher Columbus, our Admiral of the Ocean Sea, and Viceroy and Governor of the Islands discovered in the Indies ;" at the same time he

1 à la cour la plus vive sensation. 7 ils le priaient. The imperfect When a verb has two objects (ré- of the indicative is here used, ingimes) of equal length, or nearly stead of the preterite (see p. 1, n. 6), so, the direct is placed before the because reference is made more diindirect object; but.when the two rectly to the contents of the letter, objects are not of the same length, as read by the recipient, than to as is the case here, the shorter the act of writing it on the part comes first, unless there is am- of the genders. biguity to be feared.

8 de prendre... les arrangements See page 1, note 6.

nécessaires pour hâter (p. 3, n. 18). 3 transportés.

9 de ce qu'ils avaient à faire cor, 4 de s'en assurer la possession de de ce qu'il fallait qu'ils fissent) de telle manière qu'ils n'eussent à leur côté. Falloir governs the craindre aucune contestation ni subjunctive ; and fissent is in the aucune rivalité.

imperfect of the subjunctive, as pour y concerter le plan d'une corresponding to the imperfect of seconde expédition, plus considé- the indicative fallait. rable que la première.

10 L'adresse de la lettre portait:6 See p. 3, n. 18.—' advancing,'

"A don. assez avancé.

sur la mer océane.

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was promised still further rewards. Columbus lost no time in a complying with the commands of the sovereigns. He sent a memorandum 3 of the ships, men, and munitions 4 that would be requisite, and having made such dispositions at Seville as circumstances permitted, set out on his journey 6 for Barcelona, taking with him the six Indians, and the various curiosities and productions he had brought from the New World.?

The fame of his discovery had resounded throughout the nation, and as his route lay through 8 several of the finest and most populous provinces of Spain, his journey appeared like the progress 10 of a sovereign.

Wherever he passed, 11 the surrounding country poured forth its inhabitants,12 who lined the road and thronged the villages. In the large towns, the streets, windows, and balconies were filled with eager spectators, who rent the air with 13 acclamations. His journey was continually impeded by the multitude pressing to gain sight of him and of the Indians, 15 who were regarded with as much admiration as

1 still further ;' encore de nou- mener, 'to bring back'). velles. he was promised ;' see 8 et comme il devait traverser,

pour. pour se rendre à Barcelonne. un état détaillé.

9 See p. 16, n. 10. The article 4 See page 8, note ?

is to be used here, but merely on 5 à Séville toutes les dispositions account of the superlative, which que permettaient les circonstances, i. somewhat alters, in French, the See p. 3, n. 18; also p. 10, n. 3, grammatical connexion of the and

words, in this case ; for, otherwise, 6 il partit. As the verb set out' we say, province d'Espagne, de is rather far from having made' France, &c., without the article. and 'he sent,' it is better to repeat, 10 ressembla à la marche triomin French, the pronoun il before phale. partit.

11 The imperfect of the indica7 emmenant avec lui les six In- tive is preferable here to the prediens qui l'avaient suivi en Espagne, terite, though the latter would not et prenant aussi les curiosités et pro- be incorrect. The imperfect makes ductions diverses qu'il avait rap- the mind dwell more upon the portées du Nouveau-Monde. We length and incidents of the journey, must obviously use here a different as described. See p. 1. n. 6. turn from the English; for, 'to 19 il voyait se presser autour de take' (to take with oneself, to take lui la population tout entière des away) is emporter, if the person, environs. animal, or object, is carried, whereas qui faisaient retentir l'air de it is emmener, if not; and the same bruyantes. distinction is made between ap- 11 Il était arrêté à chaque instant. porter and amener, 'to bring' (as 15 qui se pressait sur son passage well as between rapporter and ra- pour tâcher de l'apercevoir, ainsi

2

page 21, note 6

p. 3, n. 3.

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4

6

if they had been natives of another planet. It was impossible to satisfy the craving curiosity which assailed himself and his attendants, at every stage, with ? innumerable questions ; popular rumour, as usual, had exaggerated the truth, and had filled the newly-found country with all kinds of wonders.

It was about the middle of April that Columbus arrived at Barcelona, where every preparation had been made to give him a solemn and magnificent reception. The beauty and serenity of the weather, in that genial season and favoured climate, contributed to give splendour to? this memorable ceremony.

As he drew near the place, many of the more youthful courtiers and hidalgos of gallant bearing ? came forth to meet and welcome him.10 His entrance into this noble city has been compared to one of those triumphs which the Romans were accustomed 11 to decree to conquerors.12 First, were paraded the Indians, painted according to their savage fashion, 13 and decorated with tropical feathers, and with their national ornaments of gold ; 14 after these were borne various que les Indiens-or, l'apercevoir, 4 et avait peuplé de merveilles (p. tui et les Indiens (but not literally, 22, n.), and p. 3, n. 18) le monde l'apercevoir et les Indiens, which nouvellement découvert. would be incorrect). The disjunc- 5 ou tout avait été préparé pour tive pronoup lui, in the latter ren

lui faire. dering, serves to re-establish the o La sérénité de l'atmosphère dans connexion broken by the interven- cette belle saison.—'and,' &c.; see ing verb apercevoir, as the con- page 8, note. junctive pronoun le must neces- Translate, contributed to the sarily be placed before the verb splendour of.' which governs it.

8 Comme il approchait de la que s'ils fussent tombés de quel- ville. que. This second form of the con- au port élégant. ditional (in avoir and être, j'eusse 10 vinrent à sa rencontre (or, auand je fusse, used as well as j'aurais devant de luiau-devant de ; Latin, and je serais, but only together obviam) pour lui faire accueil. See with a past participle) is also fre- page 1, note 6. quently employed as a second form il avaient coutume. of the imperfect of the indicative 12 à leurs généraux vainqueurs. after si.

13 Les Indiens

la 2 ‘himself; translate, ‘him.'— marche ; ils étaient peints de di'with,' de.

verses couleurs, suivant la mode de 3 Comme d'ordinaire, la rumeur leur pays. publique. Put a full stop after

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9

ouvraient

de leur nation. See questions; and, in general, make above, note 3. your sentences short, in French.

14 et des ..

kinds of live parrots, together with 1 stuffed birds and animals 2 of unknown species, and rare plants, supposed to be of precious qualities : while great care was taken to make a conspicuous display of 4 Indian coronets, bracelets, and other decorations 5 of gold, which might 6 give an idea of the wealth of the newly-discovered regions. After these followed Columbus, on horseback,? surrounded by a brilliant cavalcade of Spanish chivalry.8 The streets were almost impassable, from the countless multitude ; 9 the windows and balconies were crowded with the fair ; 10 the very roofs were 11 covered with spectators. It seemed as if the public eye could not be sated with gazing on these trophies of an unknown world, or on the remarkable man by whom it had been discovered. There was a sublimity in this event that mingled a solemn feeling with 13 the public joy. It was looked upon as a vast and signal dispensation of Providence in reward for 14 the piety of the monarchs ; and the majestic and venerable appearance of the discoverer, 15 so different from the youth and buoyancy that are generally expected from roving enterprise, 16 seemed in harmony with the grandeur and dignity of his achieve

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ment.17

3

1 Simply, avec.

pouvait se rassasier de contempler. 2 des oiseaux et autres animaux After sembler, conjugated imperempaillés.—'species ;' plural, in sonally, the indicative is used, French, here.

when the subordinate propositior qu'on supposait avoir (page 7, states a certain, a positive fact, and n. 2); or, auxquelles on supposait

. the idea admits of no doubt what4' while,' &c.; on étolait aussi ever; whereas the subjunctive is avec grand soin aux regards du used when there is some doubt, public.

some uncertainty, in the idea, or 5 ornements.

when the verb of the subordinate 6 Use the imperfect indicative proposition expresses an impossible of pouvoir.

and extraordinary fact. Colonıb arrivait ensuite, monté 13 Cet événement avait quelque sur un cheval, et.

chose de si imposant en lui-même, 8 de jeunes Espagnols.

qu'un sentiment solennel de recon9. La foule était si grande qu'il naissance venait se mêler d. était presque impossible de se faire jour dans les rues.

15 l'heureux navigateur; or, sim10 remplis de dames.

Colomb.-' appearance,' aspect. il les toits mêmes étaient; or, il qui souvent font entreprendre n'était-il n'y avait-pas jusqu'aux une expédition audacieuse. toits qui ne fussent.

17 et l'importance de sa décou12 Il semblait que le public ne verte.

14 de.

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