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To receive him with suitable pomp and distinction, the sovereigns had ordered their throne to be placed in public,3 under a rich canopy of brocade of gold, in a vast and splendid saloon. Here 4 the king and queen awaited his arrival, seated in state, with the prince Juan beside them, and 6 attended by the dignitaries of their court and the principal nobility of Castile, Valencia, Catalonia, and Aragon ;? all impatient to behold the man who had conferred so incalculable a benefit upon the nation. At length Columbus entered the hall, surrounded by a brilliant crowd of cavaliers, among whom, says Las Casas,' he was conspicuous for 10 his stately and commanding person, which, with 11 his countenance rendered venerable by his grey hairs, 12 gave him the august appearance of a senator of Rome. 13 A modest smile lighted up his features, showing that he enjoyed the state and glory in which he came; 14 and certainly nothing could be more deeply moving to a mind inflamed by 15 noble ambition, and conscious of having greatly deserved, 16 than these testimonials of the 1 Pour; or, Afin de.

finite article ; but this article is avec plus de pompe et de dis- used, as a rule, before names of tinction; or, avec une pompe et une provinces, or other subdivisions of distinction convenables. The article a State, and we should say, in other is used, in the latter construction, cases, la Catalogne, la Castille, because the substantives 'pomp' l'Aragon, as well as le Calvados, le and distinction’are particularised Finistère (both, departments of by the epithet suitable ; else none France), &c. would be used, in French, any more 8 procuré a la nation (p. 22, n. 1) than in English.

d'incalculables avantages. 3 avaient ordonné que leur trône 9 Bishop of Chiapa, in Mexico; fat placé (or as directed at page 9, born 1474, died 1566. notes 14 and 15) dans un endroit ac- 10 il se faisait remarquer (or, il se cessible au public.

distinguait) par. See p. 1, n. 6 4 C'était que.

translate, joined 5 seated in state ;' leave this with (d).' out in the translation, as being suf- par les cheveux gris qui omficiently implied by what precedes brageaient son front. and what follows.

13 sénateur romain. 'appear6 A semicolon before 'with ;' and ance'; see p. 25, n. 15. turn, the prince Juan (Jean) was 14 the state, &c., d'un triomphe (page 1, note 6) placed near them, si légitime. and they were.'

15 n'était plus propre à électriser 7 de Castille, de (p.8, n. 1) Valence, un homme animé d'une (see above, de Catalogne, et d' Aragon. Here, note 2). after the preposition de, we may 16 et sachant avoir beaucoup mérité dispense with the use of the de- (p. 19, n. 5, and p. 7, n. 7).

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admiration and gratitude of a nation, or rather of a world. As? Columbus approached, the sovereigns rose, as if receiving 2 a person of the highest rank. Bending his knees, 3 he requested to kiss their hands ; 4 but there was some hesitation on the part of their majesties to mit 5 this act of vassalage. Raising him in the most gracious manner, they ordered him to seat himself in their presencem a rare honour 8 in this proud and punctilious 9 court.

At the request of their majesties, Columbus now gave an account 10 of the most striking events of his voyage, and a description of the islands which he had discovered. He displayed the specimens he had brought of unknown birds and other animals, of rare plants of il medicinal and aromatic virtue; of native gold in dust,12 in crude masses, 13 or laboured into barbaric ornaments; and, above all, the natives of these countries, who were objects 14 of intense and inexhaustible interest; since there is nothing so curious as the varieties of his own species. All these he pronounced mere harbingers of great discoveries he had yet to make,16 which would add realms of incalculable 1 Au moment . —' approached' tive used to qualify another, or to

&c. ; the student qualify a fact stated just before. must now use the preterite, not 9. punctilious,' in this sense, si the imperfect of the indicative. rigide pour tout ce qui tenait à

2 Translate, 'as if they had re- l'étiquette. ceived ;' see page 24, note 1.

10. now,' &c., fit le récit. 3 Mettant un genou en terre ; or, 11 of,' ayant des.-'virtue;' use Fléchissant les (not ses) genoux. the plural. When the context clearly indicates 12* l'or du pays en poudre (pourwho the possessor is, the French sière is generally said of the dust consider it superfluous, in most of the earth, or that of earthy cases, to use a possessive pronoun, substances). and they only use the definite en masses brutes. article, when speaking of the qua

14 who were

.(i.e. all that lities of the mind, the parts of the while'); imperfect indicat. here : body, or the most familiar articles see again p. 1, n. 6.—' the objects ;'

the singular, here, is preferable, in 4 See page 11, note 1.

French. 5 Turn, but it (ce) was not with. 15 Invert into the natural order out some hesitation that their ma- of ideas (see p. 3, n. 18, and also jesties permitted him (lui).' p. 9, n. 12). 6 de.

16 Après avoir fait admirer toutes 7 elles (viz., Leurs

Majestés ; ma- ces merveilles, Colomb dit que ce jesté is feminine in French). n'était que le prélude de plus

8 Leave out 'a:' no article is grandes découvertes, used, in French, before a substan

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wealth to the dominions of their majesties, and 1 whole nations of proselytes to the true faith.2

The words 3 of Columbus were listened to 4 with profound emotion by the sovereigns. When he had finished,5 they sank on their knees, and, raising their clasped hands to heaven, their eyes filled with tears of joy and gratitude, they poured forth thanks and praises to God' for so great a providence ;8 all present 9 followed their example ; a deep and solemn enthusiasm pervaded that splendid assembly, and prevented all common acclamations of triumph. The anthem of Te Deum Laudamus, chanted by the choir of the royal chapel, with the melodious accompaniments of the instruments, rose up from the midst in a full body of sacred harmony, bearing up, as it were,10 the feelings and thoughts of the auditors to heaven;

so that,” says the venerable Las Casas, “it seemed as if in that hour they communicated with celestial delights.” 11 the solemn and pious manner in which 12 the brilliant court of Spain celebrated this sublime event, offering 1 et qui rangeraient.

of the sentence, as one seems to 2 of proselytes,' &c., sous l’éten- lose sight of the possessor, in a dard de la foi.

complicated phrase, where the 3 Les paroles. The word parole thing possessed is at once subject implies word of mouth, and mot ge- (of clasped, elliptical for being nerally a word written or printed; clasped') and object ( of raising'). mot is the mere sign, whilst parole For, without this circumstance, we refers to the utterance.

should in two separate phrases, furent écoutées. A past parti- élevant (or, levant) les mains, 'raisciple joined with être, 'to be,' in ing their hands, and, les mains passive and in some neuter verbs, jointes, &c., “their hands clasped' agrees with the nominative (with understood ' being.'. paroles, here).

pour un bienfait si éclatant. 5 Lorsqu'il eut cessé de parler. 9 A full stop here (see p. 24, n. 3). This form (eut cessé), the compound Tous les assistants. of the preterite, is used to indicate 10 • and prevented,' &c., et au that a past fact has taken place lieu de cris de joie profane, d'acclaimmediately before another, like- mations vulgaires, le Te Deum fut wise completely past.

entonné par les musiciens de la cha6 tombèrent à genoux.

pelle royale: une harmonie sacrée 7 et, les yeux (p. 27, n. 3) remplis et mélodieuse répondait à chaque de larmes de joie et de gratitude, ils verset, portant, pour ainsi dire. élevèrent leurs mains jointes vers le so that,' &c.; Il sembla, dit ciel, et adressèrent à Dieu (p. 22, ..., qu'ils eussent (p. 25, n. 12) en ce n. 1) les plus ferventes actions de moment un avant-goût des délices du grâces. We must use leurs instead paradis.of les (p. 27, n. 3), in the latter part

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up a grateful tribute of melody and praise, and giving glory to God for 2 the discovery of another world. — (WASHINGTON IRVING.)

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COWPER TO MR. SAMUEL ROSE.

(ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF TIME.) DEAR SIR, Though it be long since I received your last,I have not yet forgotten the impression it made upon me, nor how sensibly I felt myself obliged by 4 your unreserved and friendly communications. I will not apologise for 6 my silence in the interim, because, apprised as you are of my present occupation, the excuse that I might allege will present itself to you of course, and to dilate upon it would, therefore, be waste of paper.

You are in possession of the best security imaginable for the due improvement' of your time, which is a just sense of its value. 10

Had I been,11 wben at your age,12 1. 'up;' au ciel, here.—' grato- ment. Notice, here, se présentera d ful.'

vous, instead of se vous présentera ; 2 rendant gloire d Dieu (or, rap- I shall say more about this by portant à Dieu la gloire) de. No and by (page 260, note ?). article is used, in French, when- 9 de l'emploi convenable. ever the verb and the noun form a 10 laquelle consiste à en bien sentir phrase which can generally be ex- le prix" (see p. 18, n. 6). The propressed in French, or translated nouns qui, que, dont, are replaced into other languages, by one word, by lequel, duquel, to avoid ambias here, rendant gloire, that is, guity : these always relate to the glorifiant, 'glorifying.'

former noun (with which they must 3. Quoiqu'il y ait longtemps que agree in gender and number), while j'ai reçu votre dernière lettre. qui, que, dont, relate to the latter.

ni le bien vif plaisir que m'ont This, of course, where the conaussi procuré (page 3, note 3). struction cannot be altered ; or else 5 entretiens.

follow the rule given at p. 10, n. 3. 6 Je ne chercherai point à m'ex- 11 Si j'avais été; or, Si j'eusse cuser de.

été ; or, Eussé-je été. See page 24, parce que vous n'ignorez pas n. 1. In eussé-je, an acute accent quelles sont.--'occupation ;' use the is put over the last e for euphony's plural.

sake. 8 et qu'ainsi (p. 17, n. 11) ce serait 12 quand j'étais à votre âge; or, brouiller (or, barbouiller-gåter- better, not to repeat être so nearly, gâcher) du papier (or, ce serait mal quand j'avais votre age; or, simply, employer mon papier) que (see page à votre âge: this English ellipsis, 138, n. 7) de m'étendre sur une excuse at any rate, after when(quand), qui se présentera à vous naturelle- is not permitted in French.

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much affected by that important consideration as I am ? at present, I should not have devoted, as I did, all the earliest parts 4 of my life to amusement only. I am now in the predicament into which the thoughtlessness of youth betrays nine-tenths 5 of mankind, who never discover that the health and good spirits 6 which generally accompany it, are in reality blessings only according to the use we make of them, till advanced years 8 begin to threaten them with the loss of both. How much wiser would thousands have been 10 than now they ever will be, 1)

a puny constitution, or some occasional infirmity, 13 constrained them to devote those hours to study and reflection, which,14 for want of some such check,15 they have given entirely to dissipation! I, therefore, 16 account you happy, who,17 young as you are, need not be informed that you cannot always be so,18 and who already know that the materials upon which age can alone build its comfort, 19 should he brought together at an earlier period.20 You have, indeed, in losing a father, lost a friend, but you have not lost his instructions. His example was not buried 21 1 aussi pénétré de.

16 C'est pourquoi je (p. 254,.n. 1). 2. See page 5, note 14

17 vous qui. A personal pronoun, 8 Turn, as I have done.' in the objective case, which is the 4 premières années.

antecedent of a relative pronoun, 5 fait tomber (p. 6, n. 12)-or, en- must be used twice in this way, traine-les neuf dixièmes.

first in its conjunctive form, imme6 et la gaieté (or, gaité),

diately before the verb which go7 cet age, to avoid ambiguity. verns it, and then in its disjunctive

que lorsque les ans (or, les form, immediately before the relaannées ; or, la vieillesse; or, l'âge tive: here it so happens that both avancé; or, simply, l'âge). forms are vous ; in the first person 9 de.

singular they are me and moi; in 10 Combien des milliers d'entre the second, tu and toi ; &c. See nous eussent été (p. 24, note 1) plus any grammar. sages.

18 See page 5, note 14. 911 The particle ne is used before 19 établir son bien-être. This use the verb which follows plus or of the possessive son is a deviation moins, unless the preceding verb, from the custom mentioned at p. which accompanies plus or moins, 18, n. 6; the reason of it is, that is conjugated with a negative. See, the possessor figures as subject (or besides, p. 5, n. 14, and p. 19, n. 5. nominative) in the same proposi12 Turn, 'if a puny:

... or some tion wherein the thing possessed had constrained, &c.

is the object (or accusative).13 infirmité intermittente. sbould,' doivent. 14 See page 10, note 3.

20 recueillis de bonne heure. 15 faute d'un frein de ce genre.

21 n'a pas été enseveli.

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