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wealth to the dominions of their majesties, and 1 whole nations of proselytes to the true faith.2

The words 3 of Columbus were listened to 4 with profound emotion by the sovereigns. When he had finished, they sank on their knees, and, raising their clasped hands to heaven, their eyes filled with tears of joy and gratitude, they poured forth thanks and praises to God' for so great a providence ; 8 all present 9 followed their example; a deep and solemn enthusiasm pervaded that splendid assembly, and prevented all common acclamations of triumph. The anthem of Te Deum Laudamus, chanted by the choir of the royal chapel, with the melodious accompaniments of the instruments, rose up from the midst in a full body of sacred harmony, bearing up, as it were, 10 the feelings and thoughts of the auditors to heaven; so that,” says the venerable Las Casas, “it seemed as if in that hour they communicated with celestial delights.” 11

Such was the solemn and pious manner in which 12 the brilliant court of Spain celebrated this sublime event, offering 1 et qui rangeraient.

of the sentence, as one seems to 2 of proselytes,' &c., sous l'éten- lose sight of the possessor, in a dard de la foi.

complicated phrase, where the 3 Les paroles. The word parole thing possessed is at once subject implies word of mouth, and mot ge- (of clasped, elliptical for ' being nerally a word written or printed; clasped') and object (of raising '). mot is the mere sign, whilst parole For, without this circumstance, we refers to the utterance.

should say, in two separate phrases, 4 furent écoutées. A past parti- élevant (or, levant) les mains, “raisciple joined with être, "to be, in ing their hands, and, les mains passive and in some neuter verbs, jointes, &c., their hands clasped' agrees with the nominative (with —understood being.' paroles, here).

pour un bienfait si éclatant. 5 Lorsqu'il eut cessé de parler. 9 À full stop here (see p. 24, n. 3). This form (eut cessé), the compound Tous les assistants. of the preterite, is used to indicate 10 « and prevented, &c., et au that a past fact has taken place lieu de cris de joie profane, d'acclaimmediately before another, like- mations vulgaires, le Te Deum fut wise completely past.

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entonné par les musiciens de la cha6 tombèrent à genoux.

pelle royale: une harmonie sacrée 7 et, les yeux (p. 27, n. 3) remplis et mélodieuse répondait à chaque de larmes de joie et de gratitude, ils verset, portant, pour ainsi dire. élevèrent leurs mains jointes vers le 11 go that,' &c.; I sembla, dit ciel, et adressèrent à Dieu (p. 22, qu'ils eussent (p. 25, n. 12) en ce n. 1) les plus ferventes actions de moment un avant-goût des délices du grâces. We must use leurs instead paradis.of les (p. 27, n. 3), in the latter part

12 dont.


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up a grateful tribute of melody and praise, and giving glory to God for 2 the discovery of another world. — (WASHINGTON IRVING.)







(ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF TIME.) DEAR SIR, Though it be long since I received your last, 3 I have not yet forgotten the impression it made upon me, nor how sensibly I felt myself obliged by 4 your unreserved and friendly communications. I will not apologise for 6 my silence in the interim, because, apprised as you are of my present occupation, the excuse that I might allege will present itself to you of course, and to dilate upon it would, therefore, be waste of paper. 8

You are in possession of the best security imaginable for the due improvement of your time, which is a just sense of its value.1 Had I been,11 when at your age,

1. 'up; au ciel, here.—' gratc- ment. Notice, here, se présentera d ful.'

vous, instead of se vous présentera ; 2 rendant gloire à Dieu (or, rap. I shall say more about this by portant à Dieu la gloire) de. No and by (page 260, note 1). article is used, in French, when- 9 de l'emploi convenable. ever the verb and the noun form a 10 laquelle consiste à en bien sentir phrase which can generally be ex- le prix" (see p. 18, n. 6). The propressed in French, or translated nouns qui, que, dont, are replaced into other languages, by one word, by lequel, duquel, to avoid ambias here, rendant gloire, that is, guity: these always relate to the glorifiant, 'glorifying.'

former noun (with which they must 3. Quoiqu'il y ait longtemps que agree in gender and number), while j'ai reçu votre dernière lettre. qui, que, dont, relate to the latter.

4 ni le bien vif plaisir que m'ont This, of course, where the conaussi procuré (page 3, note 3). struction cannot be altered ; or else 5 entretiens.

follow the rule given at p. 10, n. 3. 6 Je ne chercherai point à m'ex- 11 Si j'avais été ; or, Si j'eusse cuser de.

été; or, Eussé-je été. See page 24, parce que vous n'ignorez pas n. 1. In eussé-je, an acute accent quelles sont.-—'occupation;' use the is put over the last e for euphony's plural.

sake. 8 et qu'ainsi (p. 17, n. 11) ce serait 12 quand j'étais à votre age; or, brouiller (or, barbouiller-gater- better, not to repeat être so nearly, gâcher) du papier (or, ce serait mal quand j'avais votre âge; or, simply, employer mon papier) que (see page à votre age: this English ellipsis, 138, n. 7) de m'étendre sur une excuse at any rate, after when' (quand), qui se présentera à vous naturelle- is not permitted in French.





much affected by that important consideration as I am ? at present, I should not have devoted, as I did, all the earliest parts 4 of my life to amusement only. I am now in the predicament into which the thoughtlessness of youth betrays nine-tenths 6 of mankind, who never discover that the health and good spirits which generally accompany it, are in reality blessings only according to the use we make of them, till advanced years begin to threaten them with the loss of both. How much wiser would thousands have been,10 than now they ever will be,11 had 12 a puny constitution, or some occasional infirmity, 13 constrained them to devote those hours to study and reflection, which,14 for want of some such check, they have given entirely to dissipation! I, therefore, 16 account you happy, who,17 young as you are, need not be informed that you cannot always be so, 18 and who already know that the materials upon which age can alone build its comfort, 19 should be brought together at an earlier period. 20 You have, indeed, in losing a father, lost a friend, but you have not lost his instructions. His example was not buried 21 1 aussi pénétré de.

16 C'est pourquoi je (p. 254,.n. 1). 2 See page 5, note 14.

17 vous qui. A personal pronoun, 8 Turn, as Í have done.' in the objective case, which is the premières années.

antecedent of a relative pronoun, 5 fait tomber (p. 6, n. 12)or, en

must be used twice in this way, traine-les neuf dixièmes.

first in its conjunctive form, imme6 et la gaieté (or, gaîté):

diately before the verb which go7 cet age, to avoid ambiguity. verns it, and then in its disjunctive

que lorsque les ans (or, les form, immediately before the relaannées; or, la vieillesse; or, låge tive: here it so happens that both avancé; or, simply, l'âge).

forms are vous ; in the first person

singular they are me and moi; in 10 Combien des milliers d'entre the second, tu and toi ; &c. See nous eussent été (p. 24, note 1) plus any grammar. sages.

18 See page 5, note 14. 'll The particle ne is used before 19 établir son bien-être. This use the verb which follows plus or of the possessive son is a deviation moins, unless the preceding verb, from the custom mentioned at p. which accompanies plus or moins, 18, n. 6; the reason of it is, that is conjugated with a negative. See, the possessor figures as subject (or besides, p. 5, n. ", and p. 19, n. 5. nominative) in the same proposi12 Turn, 'if a puny:

tion wherein the thing possessed had constrained, &c.

is the object (or accusative).13 infirmité intermittente. should,' doivent. 14 See page 10, note 3

20 recueillis de bonne heure. 15 faute d'un frein de ce genre.

21 n'a pas été enseveli.



9 de.

or some

with him, but happily for you (happily because you are desirous of availing yourself of it) still lives in your remembrance, and is cherished in your best affections.?




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Having often received an invitation from my friend Sir Roger de Coverley 3 to pass away a month with him in the country, I last week accompanied him thither, and am settled 4 with him for some time at his country-house, where I intend to form several of my ensuing speculations.5 Sir Roger, who is very well acquainted with my humour,

6 lets me rise and go to bed when I please,? dine at his own table or in my chamber, as I think fit,& sit still and say nothing without bidding me be merry.9 When the gentlemen of the country 10 come to see him, he shows me 11 at a distance. As I have been walking 12 in his fields, I have observed them stealing a sight of me over a hedge, and

Til vit encore. Notice the use of the dative. the pronoun, before vit; the pro- 8 selon que je le juge à propos ; noun is necessary, the two verbs or, comme bon me semble. être enseveli, and vivre, being in et aussi rester silencieux et trandifferent tenses.

quille sans m’inviter à la gaité. et est un des objets les plus chers 10 Quand les notables des environs à votre coeur; or, et a part à vos (or, des alentours); or, Quand les plus vives affections.

gens les plus considérables de l'en3 See page 3, note 18 ; an invi- droit. tation,' &c., l'invitation de, &c. 11 Translate, 'he shows me to

* je ly accompagnai la semaine them,' il me montre à eux—not me dernière, et je me suis fixé. The leur montre, this construction being pronoun je is repeated for the rea- used with the first pronoun in the son stated above, note 1.

accusative, only when that pronoun 5 de rédiger plusieurs des articles is in the third person, as, le (la, qui doivent suivre (or, simply, de or les) leur montre; but we should mes prochains articles—Contribu- say, me le (la, or les) montre, the tions to the 'Spectator').

first pronoun being in the dative qui connait très bien.

-though yet even here, vous mon7 quand il me plaît (p. 135, n. 4). tre à moi, not me vous montre. The verb plaire does not govern 12 See page 52, note 4. the objective case, in French, but j'ai aperçu plusieurs de ces requires an indirect regimen with messieurs qui m'observaient en cathe preposition d (dative case), ex- chette (or, furtivement-or, à la pressed or implied : me is here in dérobée). See p. 6, n. 13.









have 1 heard the knight desiriny them ? not to let me see them, for that I hated to be stared at.4

I am the more at ease in Sir Roger's family, because it consists 5 of sober, staid persons; for as the knight is the best master in the 6 world, he seldom changes his servants; and as he is beloved by all about him, his servants never care for leaving him : 8 by this means his domestics are all in years, and grown old with 9 their master. You would take his valet-de-chambre for his brother; his butler is grey-headed,10 his groom is one of the gravest men that I have 11 ever seen, 12 and his coachman has the looks 13 of a privy councillor. You see the goodness of the master

14 in his old house-dog, and in a grey pad that is kept 15 in the stable with great care and tenderness, out of regard to 16 his past services, though he has been useless for 17 several years.

I could not but observe with a great deal 18 of pleasure the joy that appeared in 19 the countenances of these

1 et j'ai. When the verbs have 9 aussi tous ses gens sont-ils (or, each å separate object, although sont) âgés, ayant vieilli au service they are in the same tense, the de. The interrogative form (sontpronoun is usually repeated. ils, here) is elegantly used after

2 les prier; or, qui les priait ; aussi (in the sense of therefore '), but not les priant.

peut-être, encore (yet), toujours 3 de ne pas se laisser voir de moi. (still), en vain, du moins, au moins,

par la raison que je déteste les à peine, ainsi, &c. regards des curieux.

les cheveux gris (p. 27, n. 3.) 5 Je suis d'autant plus à mon aise 11 See page 13, note 12. (or Je me trouve d'autant mieux) au 12 Whenever a past participle is milieu de la maison de Sir Roger, joined with the auxiliary avoir, it qu'elle se compose. The word fa- agrees, in gender and number, with mille, in the sense of household,' the régime direct (accusative) of from the Latin familia, is no longer the verb, but only if that direct French. We find it so used in La regimen precedes the verb. Fontaine (p. 66 of my edition of the 13 a tout l'air. Fables), among other old writers. jusque. We now use maison, gens (plural), 15 qu'on garde ; or, que l'on condomestiques (plur.), domestique serve. The l here is merely eupho(sing.), monde.

nic. 6 du; we use the preposition de en considération de. (genitive case), after a superlative. 17 bien qu'il (or, quoiqu'il) ne 7 See p. 19, n. 5, and p. 2, n. 6. serve plus à rien depuis. See page

8 de tout ce qui l'entoure (more 38, note 7. emphatic than tous ceux qui l'en- 18 Je ne pus qu'observer (page 6, tourent ; see La Fontaine's Fables, note 6) avec beaucoup; or, Il

me fut p. 105, n. 5), quand on le sert on n'a impossible d'observer sans beaucoup. aucune envie de le quitter.

peignit sur.







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