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ancient domestics upon my friend's arrival at his countryseat. Some of them could not refrain from tears 2 at the sight of their old master; every one of them pressed forward to do something for him, and seemed discouraged 4 if they were not employed. At the same time the good old knight, with a mixture of the father and the master of the family, tempered the inquiries after his own affairs with several kind questions relating to themselves. This

6 humanity and good-nature 7 engages everybody to him ; so that when he is pleasant upon any of them, all his family are in good humour, and none so much as the person whom he diverts himself with : on the contrary, if he coughs, or betrays 11 any infirmity of old age, it is easy for a stander-by to observe a secret concern in the looks of all his servants. 12 My worthy friend has put me under the particular

i3 of his butler, who is a very prudent man, and, as well as the rest of his fellow-servants, wonderfully desirous of pleasing me, 14 because they have often heard their master talk of me as of his particular friend.(Addison, Spectator.) id.

mediately, the verb, and also the 2 Quelques-uns d'entre ne adjective or participle, must be in pouvaient retenir leurs larmes. the singular.

3 s'empressait autour de lui afin quand il plaisante (or, badine) de se rendre utile (or, de s'utiliser). l'un ou l'autre de ses gens, il les met 4 mortifié.

tous de. 5 lorsque, par moments, il ne se 10 mais principalement celui sur trouvait rien à faire.

le compte duquel (or, de qui—but 6 leur adressait, tout en s'enqué- not dont; see page 134, note 13) il rant de ses propres affaires.

se divertit. See page note 12. 7 These two nouns, being nearly ou s'il laissé voir. synonymous, had better follow each

12 il est facile à qui se trouve other without a conjunction, but présent de deviner a leur air qu'ils with the pronoun repeated.— 'good- lui portent tous un vif intérêt. nature ;' see page 139, note 12. 13 m'a confié tout particulièrement

8 captive (or, lui gagne-lui con- à la garde (or, aux soins). cilie) tous les cours. Whenever two 14 et qui est aux petits soins avec substantives, being nearly synony. moi, comme le sont d'ailleurs les mous, thus follow one another im- autres domestiques.

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COWPER TO MR. J. NEWTON.

(ON SOME PLEASURES IN RURAL LIFE.) MY DEAR FRIEND, FOLLOWING your good example, I lay before me a sheet of my largest paper. It was this moment fair and unblemished, but I have begun to blot 2 it, and baving begun, am not likely to cease till 4 I have spoiled it.5 I have sent you many a sheet that in my judgment of it has been very unworthy of your acceptance, but my conscience was in some measure 7 satisfied by reflecting, that if it were good for nothing, at the same time 10 it cost you nothing, except the trouble of reading it. But the case is altered now. You must pay a solid price for frothy matter ; 12 and though I do not absolutely pick your pocket,18 yet you lose your money, and, as the saying is, are never the wiser. 14

My green-house is never so pleasant as when we are just on the point of being turned out of it. The gentleness of the autumnal suns, and the calmness of this latter season, make it 15 a much more agreeable retreat than we ever find it 16 in the summer; when 17 the winds being

1 Elle était tout à l'heure (or, il 12 il vous faut payer en espèces de n'y a qu'un instant) pure de toute la viande creuse. tache et de toute souillure.

13 pick your pocket; use vous 2 barbouiller, or noircir. voler.- absolutely; dans toute la

3 il n'est pas probable que je, with force du terme. the subjunctive.

14 votre argent ne laisse pas d'être * avant; and see page 7, note?. (or, ne laisse pas que d'être) 5 See page 32, note 12.

déboursé, et vous n'en êtes pas (or, 6 that, &c., bien indigne, à sans que vous en soyez) plus avancé. mon avis, d'être acceptée (page 28, This expression, ne pas laisser de note 4) de vous.

(or, que de), followed by an infini. jusqu'à un certain point; or, tive, denotes a fact accomplished en quelque manière (or, sorteor, notwithstanding what has been degré).

stated previously: 8 Turn, by the reflection.' 15 Les douces chaleurs et le calme 9 d.

de l'automne en font. 10 d'autre part; or, elle ne ... 16 much more,' bien plus, or non plus.

bien autrement ; see p. 30, n. 11 : 11 Mais à l'heure qu'il est, les the rule referred to applies to autre choses sont changées (or, le cas and autrement, as well as to plus n'est plus le même). Put a colon and moins. here.

17 See page 18, note 13.

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generally brisk, we cannot cool it by admitting 2 a sufficient quantity of air, without being at the same time incommoded by it. But now I sit with all the windows and the door wide open,4 and am 5 regaled with 6 the scent of every flower, in a garden as full of flowers as I have known how to make it.? We keep 8 no bees; but if I lived in a hive, I should hardly hear more of their music. All the bees in the 10 neighbourhood resort to a bed 11 of mignonette opposite to the window, and pay me for the honey they get out of it,12 by 13 a hum which, though rather monotonous, is as agreeable to my ear whistling of my linnets. All the sounds that Nature utters 16 are delightful, at least 17 in this country. I should not perhaps find the roaring of lions in Africa, or of bears in Russia, very pleasing ; 18 but I know no beast 19 in England whose voice I do not account musical,20 save and i brisk,' assez forts.

regimen, and the person paid is en laissant entrer.

the indirect regimen. Thus, me 3 Turn, ‘from it (en).'

(dative) payent (or, paient) le miel je reste les fenêtres et la porte (accusative) qu'elles en tirent. toutes grandes ouvertes. Although 13 de; or, avec. tout, before an adjective or a parti- un peu ; or, assez. ciple, when it is an adverb (used 15 m'est aussi agréable d entendre; for tout à fait, 'quite'), is in its or, simpiy, m'est aussi agréable, as nature an invariable word, yet it the word entendre inevitably occurs agrees, for the sake of euphony- just below. in the feminine singular and plural, 16 fait entendre. but never in the masculine plural, 17. See page 126, note 13. —if the adjective or the participle, 18 Je ne trouverais peut-être pas being feminine, begins with a con

très gai. sonant or an aspirate h.

19 je ne sache point de quadru5 et je suis. Notice the repetition pède.Je ne sache is frequently of the pronoun, here also, besides used with pas, point, rien, aucun, the cases we have seen above, p. 31, personne, for je ne sais, or, je ne n. !, and p. 32, n. 1. The present connais, pas, &c. This Gallicism instance is similar to that at p. 23, is only used in the first person, n. 6.

6 de. singular and plural : thus we say, 7 le rendre; and see p. 224, n. 13. likewise, nous ne sachons, &c., for 8 'to keep,' here, avoir. &c. &c. Yet it is only employed in

9 Use habiter (active), and see the sense of 'I am not aware ; for p. 61, n. 12, and p. 142, n. 14. we could not say, e.g., je ne sache

(it should be sais) pas ma leçon. 11 un carré, or une planche. 20 dont je ne tienne la voix mélo

12 'for' is not to be translated. dieuse (or, pour mélodieuse). Notice In French, the reverse of the Eng- here, first, the use of the subjunclish takes place here: it is the tive (tienne) after a verb conjuthing bought which is the direct gated with a negative and followed

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except always the braying of an ass. The notes of all our birds and fowls ? please me, without one exception. I should not indeed think 2 of keeping a goose in a cage, that I might hang him up in the parlour for the sake of 4 his melody; but a goose upon a common, or in a farmyard, is no bad performer ; and as to ? insects, if the black beetle, and beetles indeed of all hues, will keep out of my way, I have no objection to any of the rest ;8 on the contrary, in whatever key they o sing, from the gnat's fine treble to 10 the bass of the humble-bee, I admire them all. Seriously, however, it strikes me as a very observable instance of providential kindness to man, that 11 such an exact accord has been contrived 12 between his ear and the sounds with which, at least in a rural situation, it is almost every moment visited. 13 All the world is sensible of 14 the uncomfortable effect that certain sounds have upon the nerves, and consequently upon the spirits ;15 and if a sinful world 16 had been filled with such as would have curdled 17 the blood, and have made the sense of hearing by a relative pronoun (je ne sache (or, sur mon passage), aucun des point ... dont); secondly, the sup- autres ne me répugne. pression of pas or point (though ne 9 dans quelque clé qu'ils ; with shows the sentence to be negative) the subjunctive. in this latter part of the proposi- 10 from,' depuis ; 'treble,' destion, for the sake of elegance, as sus (masculine); 'to,' jusqu'à. point is already expressed in the 11 je crois découvrir (p. 7, n.?) un former (see, for a similar example, exemple très remarquable de la bonté p. 25, n. 11); and, thirdly, the posi- de la Providence envers l'homme, tion of the thing possessed (voix) dans ce fait, que. Whenever 'to after the verb, because it is here expresses certain relations of bethe object of the verb, whereas if it haviour, &c., and has the sense of were the subject of the verb, it 'towards,'translate it by envers. would precede it in that case in un accord aussi parfait a été French, as it does in either case in ménagé. We must here keep to English.

the passive, as in English, instead 1and fowls ;' y compris ceux de of using on with the active voice, basse-cour.

and this for a very obvious reason. 2 to think,' here, s'aviser. See page 8, note 15. 3 afin de; and see page 7, n.?. 13 with which,' dont ; 'to visit,' par goût pour.

here, frapper. See p. 3, n. 18. 5 dans la campagne.

14 Personne au monde n'ignore. 6 est parfaitement en situation. 15 sur le moral. ? 'as to,' quant aux (p. 2, n. 15). 16 ce monde de pécheurs.

8 si l'escarbot et, de fait, tout le 17 de sons à cailler (or, better, d reste des scarabées, veulent bien faire tournerà tourner-à glacer). éviter de se trouver sur mon chemin 18 et à faire du

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a perpetual inconvenience, I do not know that I we should have a right to complain. But now the fields, the woods, the gardens, have each their concert, and the ear of man is for ever 2 regaled by creatures who seem only to please themselves. Even the ears that are deaf to the Gospel are continually entertained, though without knowing it, by sounds for which they are solely indebted to its author. 4 There is, somewhere in infinite space, a world, that does not roll within the precincts of mercy; and as it is reasonable, and even scriptural, to suppose that there is music in heaven, in those dismal regions perhaps the reverse of it is found ;7 tones so dismal, as to make 8 woe itself more insupportable, and to acuminate eveno despair. But my paper admonishes me in good time to draw 10 the reins, and to check the descent of my fancy into deeps, with which she is but too familiar. 11

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THE COMPARISON OF WATCHES.

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WHEN Griselda thought 12 that her husband had long enough 13 enjoyed his new existence, and that there was danger of his forgetting 14 the taste of sorrow, she changed

i je ne sais si, with the condi- knowing it ;' see page 3, note 18. tional ; or, je ne sache pas que, with conforme à l'Écriture sainte the imperfect subjunctive.

Notice (or, simply, à l'Ecriture). here, that it is more elegant, when que la musique fait partie des conjugating savoir negatively, to joies du Paradis. omit pas or point, and only use 7 Leave out of it.'-'is found :' ne; except in the case of emphasis, see p. 8, n. 15, and p. 32, n. 9. when we should say, for instance, so,' &c., lugubres au point de je ne sais pas, instead of je ne sais, rendre. as above." See besides p. 48, n. 9 et d'aiguiser jusqu'au.

sans cesse; or, constamment. 10 à propos (or, à temps) de serrer.

uniquement se donner à elles- 11 dans des abimes qui ne lui sont mêmes du plaisir.

que (p. 6, n. 6), trop familiers. 4 à son auteur. This use of the 12 See page 1, nute 6. possessive son is another deviation

13 assez longtemps. (see p. 30, n. 19) from the custom 14 il était à craindre qu'il n'oumentioned at p. 18, n. 6; the reason bliât. See p. 21, n. 1, and p. 22, of it here is, that the object pos- n. 9; and notice this use of ne and sessed (auteur) is what the French the subjunctive with craindre: this call the complément of a preposition verb, however, rejects ne when (the prep. d).-' though without conjugated negatively.

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