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the secretary of state. The secretary presently sent down a special messenger, who brought up the traitor to court, and provided him, at the king's expense, with proper accommodations on the road.? As soon as he appeared, he was known to be the celebrated Rabelais, and his powder, upon 4 examination, being 5 found very innocent, the jest was only laughed at;6 for which a less eminent droll would have been sent to the galleys.—(BUDGELL, Spectator.)





THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE. A HARE jeered at a tortoise for the slowness of his pace. But he laughed and said that he would run against her and beat her any day she should name. 8 “Come on, said the bare, you shall soon see what my feet are made

So it was agreed that they should start at once. The tortoise went off jogging along, without a moment's stopping, at his usual steady pace.11 The hare, treating the whole matter very lightly, said she would first take little nap, and that she should soon overtake the tortoise. Meanwhile the tortoise plodded on,18 and the hare, oversleeping herself, arrived at the goal only to see 14 that the tortoise had got in before her. Slow and steady wins the race.15

(JAMES's Fables of sop.) I sent down ;' envoya sur les ?, 10 ce que peuvent (page 44, note 4) lieux, or, simply, envoya.

mes jambes. See page 3, note 3. 2 en lui faisant fournir sur la il n'attendit pas un instant, et se route, aux frais du roi, le logement mit en route tout doucement, de son et les vivres nécessaires.

pas ordinaire et régulier. on reconnut en lui; or, on le 12 commencerait par faire. reconnut pour. See page 1, note 2, 13 continua de s'évertuer (p. 184, and page 8, note 15.

note 12). When translating such après, followed by no article. strongly elliptical expressions as 5 Translate,'having been.' the present, formed with a verb and 6 l'on ne fit que rire du tour. a preposition, we are compelled to Notice this use of ne before a verb, render in full the idea only partly and que after it.

expressed by the words used. Thus, 7 raillait une tortue sur (or, de). 'kick him out,' faites-le sortir d

8 qu'elle le vaincrait à la course coups de pied; to refine people quand il voudrait.-A la course, out of their veracity,' (HERVEY,) running ;' in the same way we polir les gens au point de leur faire say, passer une rivière à la nage perdre leur véracité, &c. (“swimming'); tuer un oiseau au 14 See above, note 6. vol ('flying '), &c.

9 Allons. 15 Hatez-vous lentenient. This pro



WHEN Don Sebastian, king of Portugal, invaded the territories of Muly Moluc, emperor of Morocco, in order to dethrone him, and set his crown upon the head of his nephew, Moluc was wearing away withi a distemper which he himself knew was 2 incurable. However, he prepared for the reception of so formidable an enemy. He


indeed, so far spent with 4 bis sickness that he did not expect to live out the whole day;5 but, knowing the fatal consequences that would happen to 6 his children and his people, in case he should die before he put an end to that war, he commanded his principal officers, that, if he died during the engagement, they should conceal his death from o his army, and that they should ride up to 10 the litter in which his corpse was 11 carried, under pretence of receiving orders as usual.12 Before the battle 13 began, he was carried through all the ranks of his army in an open litter, as they stood drawn up in array, 14 encouraging them 15 to fight valiantly in 16 defence of their religion and verbial expression, which has been 5 à passer la journée. used by Regnard, Boileau, and La

6 résulteraient pour. Fontaine, is nothing more than the 7 avant d'avoir mis fin. Contrary old Greek proverb, oncūde Bpadéws,' to the case mentioned above (n. 2), which the Latins took from the this turn is the only one allowed, in Greeks, and translated by festina most instances, in French, when lente, and which the English often the two verbs, thus following each render by 'most haste, worst speed.' other, have the same subject, or se mourait de.

nominative, 2 he himself;' see p. 86, n. 1.- 8 officiers, s'il expirait . . de knew was,' savait être. This turn cacher. is French (in the case where, as 9 d. here, the nominatives, or subjects, 10 et de s'approcher de. of the two verbs are different), only son corps serait. after a relative pronoun. Thus we 12 usual; à l'ordinaire. cannot say, je le sais être savant 13 l'action; to avoid an awkward ('I know him to be learned'); it repetition of bataille, occurring inshould be, je sais qu'il est savant. evitably just below. See p. 1, n. 2.-Sometimes the fol- 14 il parcourut (to avoid repeatlowing elegant turn, which comes ing porté), dans une litière décounearer to the English construction verte, tous les rangs de l'armée, above, is used : je le crois savant, formée (we also say rangée) en on le dit habile, &c.

bataille. 3 à recevoir.

15 et encouragea les siens. 4 tellement épuisé par.




pour la.

country. Finding 2 afterwards the battle to go 3 against him, though he was very near his last agonies, 4 he threw himself out of his litter, rallied his army, and led them 5 on to the charge, which afterwards ended in a complete victory on the side of the Moors.

He had no sooner brought his men' to the engagement, but8 finding himself utterly spent, he was again replaced in his litter, where, laying his finger on his mouth, to enjoin secrecy to his officers who stood about him, he died a few moments after in that posture.—(Spectator.)



WHEN Alexandria was taken by the Mahomedans, Amrus, their commander, found there Philoponus, 10 whose conversation highly pleased him, as Amrus was a lover of letters, 11 and Philoponus was a learned man.12 On a certain day 13 Philoponus said to him : “You have visited all the repositories or public warehouses in Alexandria, and

you have sealed up 14 things of every sort that are found there. 15

1 Translate,‘of their religion and ses troupes, or son monde. of their country.' Remember this que. rule, which enjoins, in French, the 9 Alexandria was taken by the repetition of the pronoun, article, Saracens in 640. Its great library &c., as well as of the preposition had been created about the year in certain cases, before each of the 287 B. C., and contained upwards substantives, whatever their num- of 700,000 volumes. ber may be. See page 49, note 8. 10 John Philoponus, a philoso2 Use voir.

3 tourner. pher and grammarian. very

&c.; simply, il était un ami des lettres; or, à l'agonie. 5 See p. 41, n.

aimait les lettres. 12 un savant. ce qui. Whenever 'which' does 13 Simply, Un jour. not relate to a word in particular, 14 vous avez mis le scellé sur. as its antecedent, in the first part 15 qui s'y trouvent. The English of the sentence, but rather to the (as the Latin) passive is to be transwhole of that first part, or to a fact lated into French, wherever there mentioned in it; in short, whenever is a certain vagueness about the it can be turned by a thing which,' person or persons that could serve or ' a fact which,'—the French for as a nominative to the verb, if conit is ce qui, instead of qui (nomina- jugated actively, by the active voice tive), and ce que, instead of que (ac- with on, or, sometimes also, by the cusative). It corresponds to the reflective form, as here. Ex.: diLatin id quod, similarly used. citur, (Latin ;) 'it is said,' (EngLikewise, in such a case, the geni- lish ;) on dit (French). . That is tive would be ce instead of done ry day,' cela se fait tous les dont (' of which').

jours. The reflective form is also



» 3


As to those things that may be useful to you, I presume to say nothing;? but as to things of no service to you,2 some of them perhaps may be more suitable to me. Amrus said to him : “And what is it you want?”4_“The philosophical books,” replied he,“ preserved 5 in the royal libraries." This,” said Amrus, “ is a request upon which I cannot decide. You desire a thing where 6 I can issue no orders, till I have leave from Omar, the commander of the faithful.” Letters were accordingly written' to Omar, informing him of what Philoponus had said; and an answer was returned by Omar to the following purport :8 “ As to the books of which you have made mention, if there be contained in them what 9 accords with the book of God (meaning 10 the Koran), there is without them, 11 in the book of God, all that is sufficient. But, if there be any thing in them repugnant12 to that book, we in no respect want them.13 Order them therefore to be all destroyed.” 14 Amrus upon this ordered them to be dispersed through the baths of Alexandria, and to be there burnt in making the baths warm. After 17 this manner, in the space of used where the name of a thing is 8 et Omar répondit en ces termes. the nominative, to express the mo- 9 si ce qu'ils contiennent. tions of or changes in it, or its ap

10 c'est-à-dire. pearance; as, la porte se referma on trouve autre part qu'en eux. d'elle-même (closed of itself), l'eau 12 s'il s'y trouve quelque chose de se congèle (congeals), le château se contraire. Notice this use of the dessinait sur un ciel bleu (the out- preposition de after quelque chose, line of the castle came out on the as also after rien, and quoi. See blue sky). 1 je prétends n'en rien dire.

nous n'avons nullement besoin ? qui ne vous sont d'aucun usage (or, nous n'avons que faire) de ces (or, d'aucune utilité).

ouvrages.-Nous n'en avons nulleconviendraient peut-être ment besoin might be considered davantage. When 'more' is taken ambiguous, en meaning of it,' as absolutely, davantage is used in- well as of them.' stead of plus.

14 Faites-les donc détruire tous. * 'you want ; vous voudriez. To order, to cause a thing to be 5 déposés.

done-to have, to get it done,' is pour (or, sur) laquelle. The elegantly expressed, in French, by relative pronoun lequel is always the verb faire, followed by an inused instead of qui, with a prepo- finitive. sition, when speaking of a thing, 15 ordonna qu'on les distribuat not of a person.

(or, les fit distribuer) dans. 7 On écrivit en conséquence (or, 16 'in making'. . . &c. ; pour donc). See page note 15; and uffer les bains. page 6, renderings at notes 3 and 6.



page 49, note 2




17 De.

six months they were all consumed. Thus ended this noble library; and thus began, if it did not begin sooner, the age of barbarity and ignorance.-(HARRIS.)

VALENTINE AND UNNION. At the siege of Namur by the allies, there was in the ranks of the company commanded by Captain 1 Pincent, in Colonel i Frederic Hamilton's regiment, one Unnion, a corporal, and one Valentine, a private sentinel : 2 there happened between these two men a dispute about an affair of love, which,; upon some aggravations, grew to 4 an irreconcilable hatred. Unnion, being the officer of Valentine, took all opportunities even to strike his rival, and profess the spite and revenge which moved him to it. The sentinel bore it without resistance; but frequently said he would die to be revenged ? of that tyrant. They had spent whole months in this manner, the one injuring, the other complaining; when, in the midst of this rage against each other, they were commanded upon 10 the attack of the castle, where the corporal received a shot in 11 the thigh, and fell. The French pressing on,12 and Unnion expecting to be trampled to death,13 he called out 14 to his enemy : Ah, Valentine ! can you leave me here?” Valentine immediately ran back, 15 and, in the midst of a thick fire16 of the French, took the corporal upon his back, and brought him through all the danger as far as the Abbey of Saltine, 1 See page 4, note 1.

geance qui l'y portaient. un caporal, nommé U-, et un 6 Le soldat. simple soldat, nommé V

7 il disait souvent qu'il (see p.1, 3 The French grammar requires n. 8) mourrait volontiers pour se a relative pronoun to be always venger. placed as near as possible to its 8 commettant des outrages. antecedent. Construct, therefore, 9 The preposition, in French, the French sentence as if the Eng- always stands between luri' and lish were, There happened be. 'l'autre,' instead of before, as in tween &c., about ... &c., a English.

pour. dispute which,

un coup de feu d. * en raison de quelques provoca

12 les serrant de près, tions, dégénéra en.

13 écrasé sous les pieds. 5 et de iémoigner son esprit de 15 revint immédiatement sur ses rancune et de vengeance; or, more pas. literally, ... la rancune et la ven- 16 feu roulant.



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