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shelter in a foreign land; and notwithstanding all the love they had shown for him, the Athenians went so far in enmity, as to order all his goods to be sold. Megacles, who procured his disgrace, offered to restore him on condition of his marrying his daughter. This was agreed to, and Pisistratus again was king: but his treatment of this wife not being satisfactory to the father, discontents were again fomented, and Pisistratus banished himself a second time. To resume once more the sovereignty, he had recourse to arms; and procuring assistance from the neighbouring states, took possession of Athens and the government by force: probably the citizens had no great care to prevent him. The better to secure himself in this third usurpation, Pisistratus obliged the citizens to give themselves to agriculture, that they might have less opportunity to assemble in the market-places, and cabal against him. This was of great benefit to the Athenian territories, and caused the planting of olive grounds, and the better cultivation of the corn lands. As prince, he received a tenth part of the profits of every man's rents ; which, though applied to the service of the state, was considered a great grievance. It happened once, that Pisistratus being in the country, saw an old man very busy in creeping over the rocks and gathering something. The prince asked him what he was doing in that wild place, and what were the fruits of his labour. « Troubles and a few plants of wild sage," replied the old man, “and of these Pisistratus must have a tenth.” It is added that the king thenceforth remitted to him the tribute.

Pisistratus was always averse to severity, and tried much, though not successfully, to mitigate the fierceness of the Athenian character. The city of Athens was much improved and adorned by his taste and muniti

He laid the foundation of the famous temple of Jupiter Olympus. He was the first who built a library for publick use; and directed that the poems of Homer should be digested into regular order as we at present


have them. In every way he encouraged learning, and was in familiar intercourse with Crotrosuates, the Epic poet, who at this time wrote the history of the Argonauts. In war he was not undistinguished, having assisted at the taking of Salamis, and in other victories. Nothing seems wanting to his character as a sovereign. Athens owed him much, and could charge him with no wrong, but having seized a government to which he had no claim. Her laws, as he found them, he not only sustained, but himself submitted to them. It is told, that

, being accused in the Areopagus of murder, taking no advantage of his station, he came as a private man and submitted himself to judgment. Another anecdote is told, that having offended some Athenians of consequence, they retired in disgust to the castle of Phylæ. Pisistratus went after them the next day, with a cloakbag on his back; being asked what he meant, he said, “ Either to persuade you to go back with me, or myself to remain with you therefore I came provided.From the time of bis first assuming the sovereignty, there appears to have been about thirty-three years to his death. In this time he was twice exiled; the first time for about five years, the second time for eleven years. The descendants of this prince, by the name of the Pisistratidæ, had much to do in Athenian affairs. He left at his death two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, and some other children. B.C. 527.

The brothers, Hippias and Hipparchus, divided between them the supreme authority; but it does not quite appear whether both, or Hipparchus only, assumed the name of king. It was under the rule of the Pisis tratidæ, that Athens rose to such rapid and high distinction, in literature, science, and taste. Hipparchus is represented to have been a man of great learning, and in every way to have encouraged it. He directed that the Rhapsodists, as they were called, a sort of professional bards, should sing at the great feasts called Panathenus, all the poems of Homer, that the Athenians

might be generally instructed in them. He kept the poet Simonides always near him, and sent a galley to fetch the famous Anacreon. Farther to cultivate the minds of the people, Hipparchus caused statues of Mercury to be erected, and wise counsels in elegiac verse to be written on both sides of them. It is curious to remark these efforts to inform and cultivate the populace, while the means of writing were so difficult

and rare.

Athens was never so well governed, and probably never so happy, as under the usurpation of the Pisistratidæ. They seemed to be quietly settled in the sovereignty; but fell victims to the private resentment of two individuals, Harmodius and Aristogeton, who formed a conspiracy to murder both the princes at a festival. With Hipparchus they succeeded, and he died under a multitude of wounds. The people took no part with the conspirators, but allowed Harmodius to be killed on the spot by the king's guards, and themselves seized Aristogeton, and delivered him to justice. Yet after their death, with the caprice that ever characterized this brilliant, but unstable people, they exalted them to the character of patriots dying for their country's freedom. They caused their praises to be sung at the great festivals; forbad any citizen to call his slave by their names; and' erected brazen statues for them in the forum: these statues Xerxes carried into Asia; and we have already mentioned that they were brought back by Alexander, or one of his generals.

Hippias remained in sole possession of the kingdom; but governing with cruelty and oppression, the sovereignty, which nothing but the excellence of the government had preserved, came to an end about a twelvemonth after, and the democracy was restored. This was effected by the devices of the Alcmæonidæ, the family of Megacles, who had remained in exile ever since the second restoration of Pisistratus, and collected about them all who left Athens in discontent. This


family had contracted with the Amphietyons, the statesgeneral of Greece, to rebuild the temple of Delphi. Being very rich, they did it much more magnificently than they had engaged for, fronting it with Parian marble instead of common stone. Having thus bribed the favour of the Pythia, they persuaded her to give out oracles to all the Lacedæmonians who resorted thither, that they must take arms, and free Athens from the tyranny of the Pisistratidæ. The Lacedæmonians, after repeated admonitions from this propounder of the will of the gods, began to believe in the necessity of fulfilling it; and though the Pisistratidæ were their friends and allies, sent an army to Athens to displace them. The first attempt was unsuccessful, and the army was destroyed. The second expedition, under Cleomenes, as we have seen in the history of Sparta, succeeded; though it seemed rather by accident than power. The children of the Pisistratidæ being sent out of Athens for greater safety, fell into the hands of the Spartans. To recover them, Hippias and the rest of his family consented to leave the Athenian territories in five days. This they did ; and from that time the Athenians, mindful of their usurpation, but forgetful of their benefits, pursued the family with perpetual hatred: and lest popularity should induce others to a similar usurpation, we shall find them through all their subsequent history, driving into banishment their best and most distinguished citizens, the moment they become objects of popular esteem.

To the expulsion of the Pisistratidæ, succeeded, instead of harmony and freedom, all the miseries of civil distraction. Factions headed by two men of distinguished talents divided the state. Clysthenes, the most eminent of the Alcmæonidæ, who, by corrupting the Pythia, had caused the expulsion of Hippias, courted popularity by attempting to enlarge the privileges of the people, to the subversion of the laws of Solon: the number of tribes he augmented from four to ten, and of

claim war.

the senators from four hundred to five. Isagoras, a

. man of eminence among the nobility of Athens, endeavoured to maintain the laws; and finding that Clysthenes gained on him by his popularity, called on the Lacedæmonians again to interfere. As they had before expelled the kings, they now sent a herald to insist on the expulsion of Clysthenes, or in case of refusal to pro

The Athenians, fearing the Spartans more than they valued Clysthenes, readily consented; notwithstanding which, Cleomenes and his army appeared in their territories. Arrived in Athens, he sent into banishment seven hundred families, in addition to those who had been banished with Clysthenes. He was thence proceeding to subvert the government altogether, when the Athenians, finding they must resist or be enslaved, took arms, and drove the Spartans from the city with much loss. The better to support the war that must ensue, Clysthenes' party were recalled. Cleomenes raised forces throughout Peloponnesus, and Athens trembled for her fate: but when the allies perceived the object and the injustice of the war, they receded, and Cleomenes was forced to retire. Some success of the Athenian arms, in attacking the states that had thus unjustly engaged against them, confirmed the freedom of the democracy.

Wars ensued with the Ægæans and Boeotians, small states bordering on Athens; and it was now that the Athenians sent assistance in ships to the Ionians, who were waging war with Persia, and helped to burn Sardis. This was the source of those wars between the Persians and Greeks, so destructive to both. The Asiatic monarch, having prevailed in Ionia, sent to demand earth and water of the Greeks, in token of submission. Athens and Sparta resisted it; and when the news arrived that Darius intended an invasion of Greece, all differences among the states were pended, that they might unitedly resist the common foe, Hippias was at this time at the Persian court, intriguing


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